lemÌc. Lemizh grammar and dictionary

Complete English / Lemizh dictionary with 610 lemmata

a, an

article: usually not translated;
(a single, one) rÌ.

preposition: twice a day dwyà dayilRÌoR. (see Distributive numerals)

about

preposition: (with regard to, on the subject of) see unit 14, ‘about

above

adverb, preposition: (at a place above) Ìfar. (something nom);
(to a place above) — Ìfir. (something nom)

abstain

verb: –anà [laxtnÌa]. (negation of the thing abstained from, if necessary plus ‘which [they] didn’t want to’)

Achilles

proper noun: (hero of the Troyan War) axileÌs.

acid

noun: Ìtx.

act

verb, noun: (do; deed, activity) là.

action, deed

noun: là. (someone’s nom)

after

subordinating conjunction: prÌaR —. (temporal clause with ‘front’ as predicate; see unit 15, Clauses with other conjunctions)

adverb, preposition: — prÌaR. (something nom)

again

adverb: mlìR. (verb as an acc object; see unit 8, Ordinal numerals), e.g. I danced again. mlìR dràwy.;
also with definite numerals, i.e. for the second/third time etc.

against

preposition: (in opposition to) negated qualitative (see unit 11, ‘despite’ and ‘against’)

agree

verb: (intellectually or spiritually) xwàx. (dat: with someone nom on something acc)

aim, purpose

noun: lÙl.

aimless

adjective: (without a purpose) nÌUl.;
(without a temporal aim) — nÌUR.;
(without a spatial aim) — nÌUr. (all usually modifying gerund-like abstract nouns, i.e. those with inner fact);
if a bracket is necessary, typically for inner non-factives:
liveè nÌUl. ‘(one) living an aimless life’ etc.

alive

adjective: Règhg.;
I’m alive Ràjg vèe.

all, every, (the) whole

adjective: jnÌ. (usually with partitive bracket; see unit 8, Cardinal numerals);
(all, the whole amount/substance, as opposed to ‘every’) jny.;
(every individual, as opposed to ‘the whole’) jnynmlÌ.

almost, nearly

adverb: –anà prÌta. (negated verb plus ‘barely’: ‘to barely not do something’)

adjectival, phrase, almost/early every(thing): xpÌj. (usually with partitive bracket; see unit 8, Cardinal numerals)

adverbial, nearly always, nearly everywhere etc.: xpÌj. with outer non-plot case

also, as well, too

adverb: pronoun referring to the model word, plus a qualitative object (see unit 11, Circumventing identity of action for an example)

(al)though

subordinating conjunction: negated qualitative (analogous to ‘despite’, see unit 11, ‘despite’ and ‘against’)

always

adverb: jnÌaR.

amble, stroll

verb: fràw. (self-transporting)

ampere

noun: (unit of electric current or magnetomotive force [‘magnetic voltage’]) 22.87 × potmÌs. (see appendix, Units of measurement)

and

conjunction: bracket or coordination, often inner partitives are necessary (see unit 4, ‘and’, and unit 5, Coordinations and brackets within brackets)

andwards

(used in C. S. Lewis: The Dark Tower)

adverb: rÌcaR. (of something nom)

adjective: mìl — rÌcaR. with the qualified noun in the acc (depictive, absorption possible) or dat (resultative) (see unit 12, Adjectivals);
same construction with inner acc/dat for the predicate, or inverted (see Attributes)

annoy

verb: (colloquial, get on someone’s nerves) cmàbv. (someone dat)

apple

noun: xalÌ.

apple tree

noun: xalè.

Aquila

noun: (constellation) ftnÌk.

as

subordinating conjunction: causative (el), persuasive (Ol) or temporal clause (aR);
factive (a), consecutive clause (il) or the like, often in a bracket, with inner plot case (see unit 16, Attributive and adverbial clauses)

comparing adverb: qualitative coordination (see unit 11, Positive)

ascend, ascent

verb, noun: (to a higher place) jàx Ìfir. jirxàf., (from a lower place) jerxilfkà. (self-transporting: stairs etc. nom object of spatial verb; also with other verbs of movement; also with the corresponding agent-centered spatial cases)

at

preposition: (at a place) scenic object (or); locative object (ar) mostly for abstract locations (‘at the front’);
(at a time) temporal object (aR); episodic object (oR);
(towards) allative object (Ur)

aunt

noun: (related by blood) frÌz., fryz. (of someone nom)

Aunts are great partners for playing, especially disc games.

avoid

verb: –anà [RaksnÌa]., –anà [allowanÌa]., –anà [expectanÌa]. (negation of the avoided thing, if necessary plus ‘which shouldn’t have been done’, ‘which wasn’t allowed’, ‘which was unexpected’, or similar)

away

adverb: (spatial) tÌer.

axe

noun: wnùd. (with outer partitive)

axis, axle

noun: xùxs. (with outer partitive)

back

adverbial, at the back: prilkÌar. (of something nom)

adjectival, at the back: mìl — prilkÌar. with the qualified noun in the acc (depictive, absorption possible) or dat (resultative) (see unit 12, Adjectivals);
same construction with inner acc/dat for the predicate, or inverted (see Attributes)

barely, just

adverb: prÌta.

phrase, to barely/just do pràt. (something acc);
to barely/just happen pràt. (acc)

be

full verb: (be there, exist) phrase the existing thing as the main predicate, typically with topicalisation of the consecutive (il) (see unit 10, Stative verbs)

copular verb: (He is a lace-maker. She is beautiful.) see unit 10, Predicative;
for temporal and spatial constructions (He
is old. The crane is in the dock.) see unit 12, Adjectivals

auxiliary verb: for expressing the passive see unit 3, Reception

beat

verb, noun: the heart is beating, heartbeat kràd.;
beat one’s wings, wing beat qàxk.

because

subordinating conjunction: causative (el) or persuasive clause (Ol)

preposition, because of: causative or persuasive object

become

verb: mà. (dat: something acc)

before

subordinating conjunction: prilkÌaR —. (temporal clause with negated ‘front’ as predicate; see unit 15, Clauses with other conjunctions)

adverb, preposition: — prilkÌaR. (something nom)

befriend

verb: zvrèR. (someone dat)

begin

verb: topicalisation of the ingressive (eR)

below

adverb, preposition: (at a place below) ilfkÌar. (something nom);
(to a place below) — ilfkÌir. (something nom)

bend

verb: làjg. (dat; something dat)

beneficiary

noun: lÙ.

between

adverb, preposition: nÌjar. (objects, places nom), — nÌjaR. (times nom) (see unit 12, Adjectivals and Attributes for special constructions)

bicycle

noun: telmÌx.

big, large

adjective: mìl — dmÌyr., (tall) mìl — Ìnfyr., (extensive) mìl — fÌwyr. with the qualified noun in the acc (depictive, absorption possible) or dat (resultative) (see unit 12, Adjectivals);
same construction with inner acc/dat for the predicate, or inverted (see Attributes)

bile

noun: jÌxw.

bird

noun: nÌzd.

bitter

adjective: drÌph.

black

adjective: (‘active’ black, as in black fur or varnish) wÌcg.; (non-white, ‘passive’ black, as in ‘blackened by age, dark/black night’) lilbvnÌ.

noun: (black colour, blackness) wìlcg.; lilbvnìl.

blacken

verb: (make an ‘active’ black, as in black fur or varnish) wàcg.; (make non-white, a ‘passive’ black, as in ‘blackened by age, dark/black night’) lilbvnà. (dat; something dat)

blow

phrase: the wind blows xnàt. (acc, poetically self-transporting)

blue

adjective: flÌc.

noun: (blue colour, blueness) flìlc.

verb: flàc. (dat; something dat)

blue-collar worker

noun: nexwaklè.

blue hour

noun: flàRc.

braid, plait

verb: ràzg. (something dat)

breadth, width

noun: mìl rÌncyr. (often better translated with the adjectives ‘broad, wide’)

break

verb: (by any means) skràp.;
(specifically break by bending) làjg.;
(specifically break by torsion) tràd. (all: dat; something dat into something [e.g. in two] acc)

To distinguish the ‘breaking’ meaning of the specific verbs from their ‘deformation’ meaning, either use an acc ‘in two, into parts’ etc., or compound: lajg-skràp. etc.

breeze

noun: xnÌt.

broad, fat, wide

adjective: mìl — rÌncyr. with the qualified noun in the acc (depictive, absorption possible) or dat (resultative) (see unit 12, Adjectivals);
same construction with inner acc/dat for the predicate, or inverted (see Attributes)

brother-in-law

noun: (sibling’s husband) xnrÌ., xnryÌx. (of someone nom)

brown

adjective: wrÌ.

noun: (brown colour, brownness) wrìl.

verb: wrà. (dat; something dat)

build

verb: mà. (something acc from something dat)

burn

intransitive verb: vnà.

transitive verb: vnà., (burn down as opposed to ‘set fire to’) vnÙl. (both agentive caus: something nom)

burst

verb: nàwb. (dat; something dat into something [e.g. dust] acc)

but

conjunction: tmè. (typically in a bracket or compound with the ‘unexpected’ object, the one that gives rise to the perceived contrast),
(ditto for adjectives) — tmèil.

camel

noun: kamlÌ.; (one-humped camel, dromedary) kamlÌc.; (two-humped or Bactrian camel) kamlÌj.

candela

noun: (unit of luminous intensity) 0.5205 × natlUeyeÌ. (see appendix, Units of measurement)

Canis Major

noun: (constellation) RÌw.

Carina and Vela

nouns: (constellations) roughly corresponding to kamlÌc., the Dromedary

cat

noun: kÌt.

catch

verb: krÙlt. (something dat)

noun: (something caught) lì krÙlta.

cause

verb: (cause someone do something) agentive caus
(cause something) agentive caus with ‘something’ as the main predicate (or, if not possible, as a pseudo-desorption)

noun: (direct cause) lèl.

causeless

adjective: nÌel. (usually modifying abstract nouns, i.e. those with inner fact)

cerulean

adjective: (blue-green, between blue and cyan/turquoise) yphilkÌ.

noun: (cerulean colour) yphilkìl.

chase

verb, noun: kràt. ([for] someone/something acc)

noun: wild-goose chase kratylàs.

citrus

noun: (fruit) drÌj.
(tree, shrub) drèj.

cloud

noun: (rain cloud) wzrèf.
(snow cloud) snèw.

come, arrive

verb: (arrive, regarding only the arrival) jìrx., (travel here, regarding the whole journey) jàx. (both self-transporting; the first translation is perferred as the second typically needs an ill object for clarification; also with other verbs of movement)

company

noun: lÒ.

complete

adjective: jnÌ.

component

noun: mlÌ.

consequence, effect

noun: (direct consequence/effect) lìl.

content

noun: (of an action) lÌ.

continue

verb: negated topicalisation of the egressive (–iRnà.)

cope

verb: klàj. (not agentive: with something/someone dat)

coulomb

noun: (unit of electric charge or flux) 17.35 × oÌs. (see appendix, Units of measurement)

crush

verb: yzàj. (dat; something dat into something [e.g. dust] acc)

curl

noun: (maths) xàxs. (of a vector field acc; curl F = ∇[mFn] ≡ ∇m Fn − ∇n Fm)

cut

verb: (cut with a knife) gwrà.;
(cut with scissors) pslà. (both: something dat into something [e.g. pieces, in two] acc)

cyan

adjective: (blue-green) riljdkÌ.

noun: (cyan colour) riljdkìl.

dance

verb, noun: dràw. (with someone dat. In couple dances, the man is usually in the nom and the lady in the dat; in group dances, we use the nom, or possibly the acc if seen as self-transporting, with a partitive ‘and’)

dance floor

noun: dròrw.

dance partner

noun: (man) drèw.; (lady) drìw.

dead

adjective: (not living) Rajgnè.;
(having died) lè RìRjga.

deal

verb: klàj. (agentive: with something/someone dat)

death

noun: (the dying) RìRjg.;
(the state of being dead, of not living) Rajgnàl.

deep

adjective: (extending horizontally, as a wardrobe) mìl — prÌnyr., (extending downwards, as a pond) mìl — Ìnfyr., with the qualified noun in the acc (depictive, absorption possible) or dat (resultative) (see unit 12, Adjectivals);
same construction with inner acc/dat for the predicate, or inverted (see Attributes)

deform

verb: znàg. (something dat into something acc)

degree

noun: (unit of angle) 2.13̅ × selÌ.
degree Celsius (unit of temperature) 0.879 × qàc. − 273.15 (see appendix, Units of measurement)

depth

noun: (extending horizontally, as a wardrobe) mìl prÌnyr., (extending downwards, as a pond) mìl Ìnfyr. (often better translated with the adjective ‘deep’)

descend, descent

verb, noun: (from a higher place) jàx Ìfer. jerxàf., (to a lower place) jirxilfkà. (self-transporting: stairs etc. nom object of spatial verb; also with other verbs of movement; also with the corresponding agent-centered spatial cases)

despite

preposition: negated qualitative (see unit 11, ‘despite’ and ‘against’)

die

verb: RìRjg. (nom)

divide

verb: (split) skràp. (something dat into something [e.g. in two] acc);
(mathematics) dividend-ilRà. (by something partacc; see unit 7, Fractions)

do

verb: là. (something fact)

dog

noun: wÌgw.; (hunting dog, hound) RÌw.

double, binary

adjective: (twofold) dwÌ.;
(to highlight the composite aspect, i.e. two parts forming a whole as opposed to one thing in two parts) ensembleidwì. (see unit 8, Composite numerals)

down

adverb, preposition: (from a place above) Ìfer., (to a place below) — ilfkÌir. (down something nom; see unit 12, Adjectivals and Attributes for special constructions)

drift

verb: (drift/float quickly) nenà. (acc: somewhere dat etc. in water etc. nom [or agentive caus])

drive, steer

verb: ràt. (something, especially a vehicle acc, or someone; acc for the thing moved or dat for the thing manoeuvred, also metaphorically)

dromedary

noun: kamlÌc.

due

preposition, due to: causative object

duration

noun: lÌR.

during

preposition: temporal object (aR);
to specify that an event occurs while another is in progress: gmilkÌaR. (something nom) (or fragmenting partitive), or episodic object (oR) (analogously to ‘while’ in unit 15, Clauses with other conjunctions)

each

adjective: RÌ.

eagle

noun: ftnÌk.

Earth

noun: (land, inhabited/habitable world as opposed to the sky or mythological/religious places) djnÌ.;
(when explicitly referred to as a planet among the others) djingmesrÌ.

east

noun: pre-djnÌ. (‘the front in Earth’s coordinate system’, as east is the direction in which Earth interacts with the sun[rise], and – equivalently – the direction in which its surface is moving)

adverb: (we went east) — predjnÌUr. (allative object)

Just use prÌ. if the context is clear.

eat

verb: àv., (daintily) àqsk. (self-receiving: something acc)

eckwards

(used in C. S. Lewis: The Dark Tower)

adverb: rilckÌaR. (of something nom)

adjective: mìl — rilckÌaR. with the qualified noun in the acc (depictive, absorption possible) or dat (resultative) (see unit 12, Adjectivals);
same construction with inner acc/dat for the predicate, or inverted (see Attributes)

eight

adjective, noun: xtÌ.;
(in counting) xtà.

eighth

noun: one eighth rilRÌ xtÌyn. (see unit 7, Fractions)

adjective: xtìR/r. (head noun as an acc object; see unit 8, Ordinal numerals)

elephant

noun: elefÌ.

eleven

adjective, noun: omÌj.;
(in counting) omàj.

eleventh

noun: one eleventh rilRÌ omÌjyn. (see unit 7, Fractions)

adjective: omìR/rj. (head noun as an acc object; see unit 8, Ordinal numerals)

empty

adjective: dmiljnÌ.

verb: dmiljnà. (something dat of something acc; something acc out of something dat)

end, stop

verb: topicalisation of the egressive (iR)

endless

adjective: (in time) nÌiR.;
(in space, a road) — nÌir.

enough

adjective, adverb: (mostly partitive) bracket with various modal verbs (see unit 13, ‘enough’ and ‘too’)

ensemble

noun: krÌj. (see unit 7, Grouping numerals)

entity, thing

noun: mÌ.

Epicurus

proper noun: (Ancient Greek philosopher) epikurÌs.

episode

noun: (in the generic sense) lòR.

err

verb: vàsk. (in something dat [the thing made wrong] or acc [the wrong thing])

error, mistake

noun: (the act of erring) vàsk.
(the thing made/going wrong) vìsk., (the wrong thing) vÌsk.

Ethiyn

proper noun: (the federation of Ethiyn) eqinàr.

Ethiynic

proper noun, adjective: (person from Ethiyn, pertaining to Ethiyn) eqinÌ.

even

adverb: tmè. (typically in a bracket with the ‘unexpected’ object, which has an inner partitive),
(ditto for adjectives) — tmèil.

event

noun: là.

everywhere

adverb: jnÌar.

exist

verb: phrase the existing thing as the main predicate, typically with topicalisation of the consecutive (il) (see unit 10, Stative verbs)

extensive

adjective: (temporal) mìl — fÌwyR., (spatial) mìl — fÌwyr., with the qualified noun in the acc (depictive, absorption possible) or dat (resultative) (see unit 12, Adjectivals);
same construction with inner acc/dat for the predicate, or inverted (see Attributes)

fact

noun: làl.

fall

verb: (to a lower place) jàx ilfkÌir. jirxilfkà., (from a higher place) jerxàf. (acc, occasionally self-transporting; also with the corresponding agent-centered spatial cases)

far (away)

adverb: (at a time far away) fÌwaR. (from some time nom);
(at a place far away) — fÌwar. (from something nom);
(from a place far away) — fÌwer. (from something nom);
(to a place far away) — fÌwir. (from something nom);
(distant in degree) cÌwb. or other weighting numerals (from something: bracket or compound)

adjective: mìl — fÌwar. (or other outer spatial/temporal cases) with the qualified noun in the acc (depictive, absorption possible) or dat (resultative) (see unit 12, Adjectivals);
same construction with inner acc/dat for the predicate, or inverted (see Attributes)

farad

noun: (unit of electric capacitance) 1.116 × telmÌ. (see appendix, Units of measurement)

feed

verb: àv., (daintily) àqsk. (someone dat with something acc; self-receiving: on something acc)

fell

verb: (to a lower place, such as a person) jàx ilfkÌir. jirxilfkà., (from a higher place, such as a tree) jerxàf. (something acc; also with the corresponding agent-centered spatial cases)

female

adjective: bÌ.

few, little, a bit

adjective: crÌ. (usually with partitive bracket; see unit 8, Cardinal numerals);
(a small amount, little substance, as opposed to ‘few’) cry.;
(few individuals, as opposed to ‘a small amount’) crynmlÌ.

fifteen

adjective, noun: gcÌ.;
(in counting) gcà.

fifteenth

noun: one fifteenth rilRÌ gcÌyn. (see unit 7, Fractions)

adjective: gcìR/r. (head noun as an acc object; see unit 8, Ordinal numerals)

fifth

noun: one fifth rilRÌ pnÌyn. (see unit 7, Fractions)

adjective: pnìR/r. (head noun as an acc object; see unit 8, Ordinal numerals)

fill

verb: màc. ([something dat] with something acc; something acc into something dat)

find

verb: (locate something searched for) xÙlsk. (something dat),
(learn, discover by investigation) gwàt. (dat: something acc)

noun: (something found that was being searched for) lì xÙlska.

fire

noun: vnÌ.

first

adjective: rìR/r. (head noun as an acc object; see unit 8, Ordinal numerals)

five

adjective, noun: pnÌ.;
(in counting) pnà.

flight

noun: (act of flying) qàxk.

fly

verb: qàxk. (self-transporting: somewhere dat etc.)

float, afloat

verb: (be afloat) zdìls. (acc: in water etc. nom [or agentive caus]), compounded zdesxìlf.;
(float quickly) nenà. (acc: somewhere dat etc. in water etc. nom [or agentive caus])

follow

verb: (I am running after you.) nenà viÙr [prilkÌer nenáe cìy]. (self-transporting; or with other verbs of movement; see unit 12, Orientation)

(agree intellectually or spiritually) xwàx. (dat: [with] someone nom in/on something acc)

food

noun: Ìv.; Ìqsk.

for

preposition: (for the benefit of the witch) benefactive object (U);
(because of, She was the worse for drink.) causative (el) or persuasive object (Ol);
(with the purpose of, for Turkish Delight) final object (Ul);
(over a period of time, for three weeks) durative object (yR);
(throughout an extent of space, for miles) extensive object (yr);
(in the direction of, aiming at, to run for the trees) allative object (Ur);
(by the standards of, beautiful for a racer) partitive coordination (see Predicate adjective)

forever

adverb: nÌiR.

four

adjective, noun: gwÌq.;
(in counting) gwàq.

fourteen

adjective, noun: Ìb.;
(in counting) àb.

fourteenth

noun: one fourteenth rilRÌ Ìbyn. (see unit 7, Fractions)

adjective: ìR/rb. (head noun as an acc object; see unit 8, Ordinal numerals)

fourth

noun: one fourth rilRÌ gwÌqyn. (see unit 7, Fractions)

adjective: gwìR/rq. (head noun as an acc object; see unit 8, Ordinal numerals)

four thousand ninety-six (4096)

adjective, noun: jÌs.;
(in counting) jàs.

four thousand ninety-sixth

noun: one four thousand ninety-sixth (1⁄4096) rilRÌ jÌsyn. (see unit 7, Fractions)

adjective: 4096th jìR/rs. (head noun as an acc object; see unit 8, Ordinal numerals)

fragment, piece, scrap

noun: skrÌp.

friend

noun: zvrè.

friendship

noun: zvrà.

front

adverbial, in front, at the front: prÌar. (of something nom)

adjectival, in front, at the front: mìl — prÌar. with the qualified noun in the acc (depictive, absorption possible) or dat (resultative) (see unit 12, Adjectivals);
same construction with inner acc/dat for the predicate, or inverted (see Attributes)

full

adjective: mìc.

get

verb: (receive) dà. (dat, not agentive: something acc from someone nom)

give

verb: dà. (something acc to someone dat)

go

verb: jàx., (walk) dnà. (both self-transporting: somewhere dat etc.);
(leave, depart) see leave

goose

noun: RÌj.

grapefruit

noun: (the fruit) dryj-glÌst., white grapefruit dryjlÌbv.;
(grapefruit tree) dryjglèst., dryjlèbv.

gravel, pebble

noun: hrÌk.

green

adjective: lÌxw.

noun: (green colour, greenness) lìlxw.

verb: làxw. (dat; something dat)

greet

verb: gcrà., (informally) gà. (both: someone dat)

greeting, hello, welcome; farewell, goodbye

noun: gcrà., (informal) gà.

verb, phrase, (say) hello, say farewell etc.: gcrà., gà.

greeting phrases and interjections: How do you do? Good morning/afternoon/evening/night! Goodbye!: gcrà.;
Hello! Hi! Bye!: gà.

grey

adjective: ksrÌ.

noun: (grey colour, greyness) ksrìl.

verb: ksrà. (dat; something dat)

grow

verb: dmÌyr., (in height) Ìnfyr., (in extent) fÌwyr. (all: acc);
(prosper, thrive) Ràdj. (nom);
(become) mà. (acc)

half

noun: one half rilRÌ dwÌyn. (see unit 7, Fractions)

handle

verb: (deal, cope with) klàj. (something/someone dat);
(work with) là. (a tool, a machine ins)

happen

verb: là. (fact)

hardly

adverb: cÌwba.

adjectival, phrase, hardly any(thing): cÌwb. (usually with partitive bracket; see unit 8, Cardinal numerals)

adverbial, hardly ever, hardly anywhere etc.: cÌwb. with outer non-plot case

have

full verb: (have got) dìl. (dat: something acc); or as a genitive: Lucy has (got) a horse Ìhw lusÌU.

auxiliary verb: see unit 10, Perfect;
(have to) mustà. (do something acc; see unit 13, Overview of the modals)

he, him

personal pronoun: definite or relative pronoun or Ìx. (see unit 6, Demonstrative pronouns)

heart

noun: krèd.

heartbeat

noun: kràd.

height

noun: mìl Ìnfyr. (often better translated with the adjective ‘high’)

henry

noun: (unit of inductance) 0.5154 × ytÌs. (see appendix, Units of measurement)

her

personal pronoun: (I see her.) definite or relative pronoun or bÌ. (see unit 6, Demonstrative pronouns)

possessive adjective: (her tortoise) definite or relative pronoun or bÌ. as a genitive attribute, i.e. mostly with benefactive (U)
For an example see unit 6, Relative pronouns.

here

adverb: tÌar. (see unit 6, Demonstrative pronouns);
(as opposed to ‘there’) filw-crÌar. (or with other weighting numerals; see unit 12, Temporal and spatial verbs)

hers

possessive pronoun: definite or relative pronoun or bÌ. as a genitive, i.e. mostly with benefactive (U)
For examples see unit 10, Stative verbs, and unit 11, Inner qualitative.

herself

reflexive pronoun: see unit 6, Relative pronouns and Reflexivity vs. reciprocity

hertz, becquerel

noun: (unit of frequency or radioactivity, respectively) 1.318 × rilRÌ kardÌyn. (see appendix, Units of measurement)

hide

verb: (move into concealment) esfàs. (something acc, or self-transporting: somewhere dat etc.);
(conceal oneself) xàsk. (agentive acc: from someone nom)

(be hidden, be in concealment) esfìls., xìlsk.

high, tall

adjective: mìl — Ìnfyr. with the qualified noun in the acc (depictive, absorption possible) or dat (resultative) (see unit 12, Adjectivals);
same construction with inner acc/dat for the predicate, or inverted (see Attributes)

himself

reflexive pronoun: see unit 6, Relative pronouns and Reflexivity vs. reciprocity

his

possessive adjective: (his tortoise) definite or relative pronoun or Ìx. as a genitive attribute, i.e. mostly with benefactive (U)
For an example see unit 6, Relative pronouns.

possessive pronoun: (The tortoise is his.) definite or relative pronoun or Ìx. as a genitive
For examples see unit 10, Stative verbs, and unit 11, Inner qualitative.

hobble, limp, totter

verb: stnàg. (self-transporting: nom for the hobbling action, acc for walking in a hobbling fashion)

noun: stnàg., stnàlg.
He has a limp. stná(l)g tÌe.

horse

noun: Ìhw.

hound

noun: RÌw.

house

noun: lÌj.

hundred

adjective, noun: 64hex gwynqè swilh-rÌnje.

hundredth

noun: one hundredth (1⁄64hex) rilRÌ gwynqÌn swilh-rÌnjyn. (see unit 7, Fractions)

adjective: mìR/r gwynqÌ swilhrÌnjy. (head noun as an acc object; see unit 8, Ordinal numerals)

hunt

verb, noun: kràt. ([for] someone/something acc)

hurt

verb: cmàbv. (someone dat)

I, me

personal pronoun: relative pronoun with inner nominative (see unit 6, Relative pronouns)

identity

noun: Ìd. (see unit 16, wh-questions)

if

subordinating conjunction: weak linking of a causative clause (see unit 15, Conditional clauses); among other possibilities (see Alternative translations)

in

preposition: scenic object (or);
locative object (ar) only if the location is either continuous or filled completely;
gmilkÌar –e. (‘inside’ in the locative case, plus a reference object in the nominative; see unit 12, Adjectivals and ‘inside’ constructions);
locative object with a fragmenting partitive

inside

adverb, preposition: gmilkÌar. (something nom)

adjective: mìl — gmilkÌar. with the qualified noun in the acc (depictive, absorption possible) or dat (resultative) (see unit 12, Adjectivals);
same construction with inner acc/dat for the predicate, or inverted (see Attributes)

intend

verb: topicalisation of the tentive (o)

intention

noun: lò.

into

preposition: allative object (Ur) only if reaching the destination does not need to be implied;
illative object (ir) only if the location is either continuous or filled completely;
gmilkÌir –e. (‘inside’ in the illative case, plus a reference object in the nominative; see unit 12, Adjectivals and ‘inside’ constructions);
illative object with a fragmenting partitive

it

personal pronoun: definite or relative pronoun (see unit 6, Demonstrative pronouns)

its

possessive adjective: (its [the house’s] roof) definite or relative pronoun as a genitive attribute, i.e. mostly with benefactive (U)
For an example see unit 6, Relative pronouns.

possessive pronoun: (The roof is its [the house’s].) definite or relative pronoun as a genitive
For examples see unit 10, Stative verbs, and unit 11, Inner qualitative.

itself

reflexive pronoun: see unit 6, Relative pronouns and Reflexivity vs. reciprocity

joule

noun: (unit of energy) 269.7 × iotÌ. (see appendix, Units of measurement)

Jupiter, Zeus

proper noun: (planet, god) djeipysrÌd.

justly

phrase, justly claim: claimÌa. (inversion of ‘claim something’, making the claimed fact the predicate; or with other verbs of communication, especially verbs of certainty, ‘accuse, blame’)

kelvin

noun: (unit of temperature) 0.879 × qàc. (see appendix, Units of measurement)

kill

verb: Rajgnà. (agentive caus: someone nom); là RìRjga. (someone nom of Ràjg.)

noun: là RìRjga.

kilogram

noun: (unit of mass) 1.314 × lÌq. (see appendix, Units of measurement)

knife

noun: gwrù. (with outer partitive)

know

verb: gwìlt. (dat: about something acc [with inner non-fact, e.g. aff for actions]; dat: how to do something acc [with inner fact])
or with other verbs of communication, e.g.
mustìl. (dat: about having to do something / that one must do something acc);
seeìl., hearìl. (both dat: about something nom [with inner non-fact]; dat: something [concrete] nom);
see also unit 14, ‘about’, and unit 10, Stative verbs

land, world

noun: (inhabited/habitable world as opposed to the sky or mythological/religious places) djnÌ.

lapdog

noun: (jocular) RywnÌ. (lit. ‘not-hound’)

lay

verb: (position horizontally) àf prÌi –e. ‘make the area in front of an object into an area upwards’, or with other spatial verbs depending on the orientation of the object’s coordinate system (see unit 12, Orientation);
(put to rest) làgc. (agentive caus or nom: someone dat)

lay (two) eggs: eggà (dwÌy).

learn

verb: gwàt. (dat: about something acc [with inner non-fact, e.g. aff for actions]; dat: doing something acc [with inner fact])

leave, depart

verb: (depart, regarding only the departure) jèrx., (go away, regarding the whole journey) jàx. (both self-transporting; the first translation is perferred as the second typically needs an ela object for clarification; also with other verbs of movement)

left

adverbial, at the left: rilckÌar. (of something nom)

adjective: mìl — rilckÌar. with the qualified noun in the acc (depictive, absorption possible) or dat (resultative) (see unit 12, Adjectivals);
same construction with inner acc/dat for the predicate, or inverted (see Attributes)

leg

noun: dnù. (with outer partitive)

Lemaria

proper noun: (home country of the Lemizh) lemàrc.

Lemizh

proper noun, adjective: (person from Lemaria, pertaining to Lemaria) lemÌc.

lemon

noun: (the fruit) dryj-dÌv.;
(lemon tree) dryjdèv.

length

noun: (temporal) mìl prÌyR., mìl dmÌyR., (spatial) mìl prÌnyr. (often better translated with the adjective ‘long’)

Leo

noun: (constellation) lÌw.

lest

subordinating conjunction: negated final clause (Ul) (see unit 15, Clauses with other conjunctions)

lie

verb: (be positioned horizontally) ìlf prÌi –e. ‘having made the area in front of an object into an area upwards’, or with other spatial verbs depending on the orientation of the object’s coordinate system (see unit 12, Orientation);
(go to rest) làgc., (rest, be resting) lìlgc. (self-receiving, mainly dat)

lift, hoist, raise

verb: (to a higher place) jàx Ìfir. jirxàf., (from a lower place) jerxilfkà. (something acc; also with the corresponding agent-centered spatial cases)

light …, pale …

adjective: light/pale blue flilc-lÌbv. lìlbv flìlcil. ‘the blueness / blue colour = the light colour’, compare unit 5, Coordinations and brackets within brackets;
light/pale green etc. analogously

noun: light/pale blue (colour) flilclìlbv. etc.

lime

adjective: (lime green, yellow-green) glilstkÌ.

noun: (the fruit) dryj-lÌxw.;
(lime tree) dryjlèxw.;
(lime green colour) glilstkìl.

lion

noun: lÌw.

live, life

verb, noun: Ràjg.

liver

noun: jèxw.

long

adjective: (temporal) mìl — prÌyR., mìl — dmÌyR., (spatial) mìl — prÌnyr., with the qualified noun in the acc (depictive, absorption possible) or dat (resultative) (see unit 12, Adjectivals);
same construction with inner acc/dat for the predicate, or inverted (see Attributes)

look

verb: look for xàsk. (something acc)

low

adjective: mìl — ilf-crÌnyr. with the qualified noun in the acc (depictive, absorption possible) or dat (resultative) (see unit 12, Adjectivals);
same construction with inner acc/dat for the predicate, or inverted (see Attributes)

lumen

noun: (unit of luminous flux) 0.5205 × melUseyeÌ. (see appendix, Units of measurement)

lux

noun: (unit of illuminance) 4.408 × 10−3 × gomUseyeÌ. (see appendix, Units of measurement)

magenta

adjective: lilxwkÌ.

noun: (magenta colour) lilxwkìl.

make

verb: mà. (something acc from something dat);
make someone do something: agentive caus

male

adjective: Ìx.

man

noun: (male) Ìx.

many, much

adjective: dmÌ. (usually with partitive bracket; see unit 8, Cardinal numerals);
(much of an amount/substance, as opposed to ‘many’) dmy.;
(many individuals, as opposed to ‘much’) dmynmlÌ.

means, tool

noun: lù.

medium

phrase, a medium number of things, a medium amount: bvÌ. (usually with partitive bracket; see unit 8, Cardinal numerals);
(a medium amount, as opposed to ‘a medium number’) bvy.;
(a medium number of individuals, as opposed to ‘a medium amount’) bvynmlÌ.

adverbial, in a medium amount of time, space etc.: bvÌ. with outer non-plot case

metre

noun: (unit of length) 10.867 × xrÌ. (see appendix, Units of measurement)

mine

possessive pronoun: relative pronoun with inner nominative as a genitive, i.e. mostly with benefactive (U)
For examples see unit 10, Stative verbs, and unit 11, Inner qualitative.

momentary

adjective: nÌyR. (usually modifying abstract nouns, i.e. those with inner fact)

moon

noun: ihkè.

moonlight, moonshine; moonbeam

noun: ihkÌ.

moonbeam as distinguished from moonlight, moonshine ihky.

more

adverb: tÌcd. (often with qualitative; often compounded; see unit 11, Verbs of comparison and Comparative)

most

adverb: Ìst. (often with partitive; often compounded; see unit 11, Verbs of comparison and Superlative)

motive

noun: lÒl., (motivational context) lùl.

mount

noun: (animal used to ride on) xìc., xÌc.

mouse

noun: (also computer mouse) mÌs.

move

verb: jàx. (something acc somewhere dat etc., also non-sending; a body part acc; over a distance self-transporting)

noun: (literal sense) jàx.

my

possessive adjective: relative pronoun with inner nominative as a genitive attribute, i.e. mostly with benefactive (U)
For an example see unit 6, Relative pronouns.

myself

reflexive pronoun: see unit 6, Relative pronouns and Reflexivity vs. reciprocity

narrow, thin

adjective: mìl — rilc-crÌnyr. with the qualified noun in the acc (depictive, absorption possible) or dat (resultative) (see unit 12, Adjectivals);
same construction with inner acc/dat for the predicate, or inverted (see Attributes)

near(by)

adverb: (at a time nearby) filw-crÌaR. (to some time nom);
(at a place nearby) — filwcrÌar. (to something nom);
(to a place nearby) — filwcrÌir. (to something nom);
(near in degree) xpÌj. (to something: bracket or compound)
(or with other weighting numerals; see unit 12, Temporal and spatial verbs)

adjective: mìl — filwcrÌar. (or other outer spatial/temporal cases) with the qualified noun in the acc (depictive, absorption possible) or dat (resultative) (see unit 12, Adjectivals);
same construction with inner acc/dat for the predicate, or inverted (see Attributes)

neck, throat

noun: wrÌdj.

Neptune, Poseidon

proper noun: (planet, god) niftnÌj.

never

adverb: nÌaR.

New Year’s Eve

noun: corresponds to dayUxmÌj. (‘Neptunian day’; see appendix, Date)

newton

noun: (unit of force) 24.81 × emblÌ. (see appendix, Units of measurement)

nine

adjective, noun: nÌh.;
(in counting) nàh.

ninth

noun: one ninth rilRÌ nÌhyn. (see unit 7, Fractions)

adjective: nìR/rh. (head noun as an acc object; see unit 8, Ordinal numerals)

no

pronoun: (for no reason, we sell no hot dogs etc.) nÌ. in a bracket, or nà. as predicate (see unit 9, Inversion ban)

adverb: (no wiser, bigger etc.) nà. as predicate, plus comparative

particle: (answering a question) nà. (see unit 16, Polar questions)

nobody, none, nothing, nought, zero

adjective, pronoun: nÌ.

north

noun: rilckedjnÌ. (‘the left in Earth’s coordinate system’, as east is the direction in which Earth interacts with the sun[rise], and – equivalently – the direction in which its surface is moving)

adverb: (we went north) — rilckedjnÌUr. (allative object)

Just use rilckÌ. if the context is clear.

nose

noun: nùs. (with outer partitive)

not

adverb: nà. (not to do, do not do something acc; see unit 6, Negators)

now

adverb: — vàaR. (pronoun with outer temporal), –aRwà. (compound with pronoun and epenthetic temporal; see unit 12, Tense);
filwnÌaR. (see unit 12, Temporal and spatial verbs)

nowhere

adverb: nÌar.

of

preposition: genitive attribute, i.e. mostly with benefactive (U)

ohm

noun: (unit of electric resistance) 0.6795 × fragmÌ. (see appendix, Units of measurement)

on

preposition: gmilnÌar –e. (‘at the surface of’ in the locative case, plus a reference object in the nominative; see unit 12, Adjectivals and ‘inside’ constructions)

once

adverb: rÌa. (often a factive bracket; see unit 8, Multiplicative numerals)

one

adjective, noun: rÌ.;
(in counting) rà.

onto

preposition: gmilnÌir –e. (‘at the surface of’ in the illative case, plus a reference object in the nominative; see unit 12, Adjectivals and ‘inside’ constructions)

oolong (tea)

noun: (drink) txi-flÌc., ([dried] leaves) txiflìc.

or

inclusive conjunction: (and/or) coordination with inner and outer partitives (see unit 4, Inclusive ‘or’, or unit 16, Alternative questions)

exclusive conjunction: (either … or) partitive bracket or coordination of ‘one’, ‘some’ or another suitable numeral with an inclusive ‘or’ (see either unit 5, Partitive bracket and coordination, or again unit 16, Alternative questions)

orange

adjective: (yellow-red) yphÌ.

noun: (the fruit) dryjyphÌ.;
(orange tree) dryjyphè.;
(orange colour) yphìl.

orangutan

noun: oranutnÌ.

order

subordinating conjunction, in order that: see that

our

possessive adjective: relative pronoun with inner partitive nominative as a genitive attribute, i.e. mostly with benefactive (U)
For an example see unit 6, Relative pronouns.

ours

possessive pronoun: relative pronoun with inner partitive nominative as a genitive, i.e. mostly with benefactive (U)
For examples see unit 10, Stative verbs, and unit 11, Inner qualitative.

ourselves

reflexive pronoun: see unit 6, Relative pronouns and Reflexivity vs. reciprocity

outside

adverb, preposition: gmÌar. (something nom), niljkÌar. (a group of things nom)

adjective: mìl — gmÌar., mìl — niljkÌar. with the qualified noun in the acc (depictive, absorption possible) or dat (resultative) (see unit 12, Adjectivals);
same construction with inner acc/dat for the predicate, or inverted (see Attributes)

over

preposition: (above) Ìfar.;
(past a point above) — Ìfur. (both: something nom; see unit 12, Adjectivals and Attributes for special constructions)

pale

adjective: lÌbv.

verb: (turn pale/white) làbv. (dat)

part

noun: (of which something consists; component) mlÌ.;
(into which something is divided; fragment, scrap) skrÌp.

pascal

noun: (unit of pressure) 0.2101 × arÌc. (see appendix, Units of measurement)

pear

noun: fisÌ.

pear tree

noun: fisè.

pi (π)

mathematical constant: equals τ⁄2 in Lemizh mathematical terminology

place

verb: jìrx. (something acc somewhere dat etc.)

noun: làr.

pointless

adjective: (without a purpose) nÌUl. (usually modifying gerund-like abstract nouns, i.e. those with inner fact)

poodle

noun: oRwxÌf.

possess

verb: dìl. (dat: something acc); or as a genitive: Lucy possesses a horse Ìhw lusÌU.

press

verb: (exert force) ràwb. (against something dat);
(compress, squeeze) yzàj. (something dat)

noun: yzùj. (with outer partitive)

prosper, thrive

verb: Ràdj.

pull

verb: ràxp. (something acc somewhere dat etc.; at something dat; also non-sending)

punctiform

adjective: mìl — nÌyr. with the qualified noun in the acc (depictive, absorption possible) or dat (resultative) (see unit 12, Adjectivals);
same construction with inner acc/dat for the predicate, or inverted (see Attributes)

purple

adjective: (purple/violet) glÌst.; (purple/magenta) lilxwkÌ.

noun: (purple/violet colour) glìlst.; (purple/magenta colour) lilxwkìl.

push

verb: ràwb. (something acc somewhere dat etc.; against something dat; also non-sending)

put

verb: jìrx. (something acc somewhere dat etc.)

queue

verb: (form a queue) sràq. (dat)
(stand in a queue) srìlq. (dat)

noun: srÌq.

quite

adverb: (quite good, quite interesting etc.) dmÌja.

adjectival, phrase, quite a lot (of): dmÌj. (usually with partitive bracket; see unit 8, Cardinal numerals)

adverbial, quite often, in quite a number of places etc.: dmÌj. with outer non-plot case

radian

noun: (unit of angle) rÌ. (see appendix, Units of measurement)

rain

verb: wzràf.

noun: wzrÌf.

reason

noun: lÒl.

receive

verb: dà. (dat: something acc from someone nom)

recipient

noun: lì., dì.

recommend

verb: Ràks. (someone dat [to do] something acc; see unit 13, Overview of the modals)

recommendation

noun: Ràks.

red

adjective: rÌjd.

noun: (red colour, redness) rìljd.

redden

verb: ràjd. (dat: with embarrassment caus, psu; something dat)

region

noun: làr.

rest

verb: lìlgc. (self-receiving, mainly dat)

noun: làgc.

rice

noun: wÌcz.

ride

verb, noun: xàc. (a horse etc. dat [focusing on the horse being directed] or acc [focusing on the horse moving]);
(be transported) jàx. (a train etc. ins);
ride a bicycle telmàx.

right

adverbial, at the right: rÌcar. (of something nom)

adjective: mìl — rÌcar. with the qualified noun in the acc (depictive, absorption possible) or dat (resultative) (see unit 12, Adjectivals);
same construction with inner acc/dat for the predicate, or inverted (see Attributes)

rise

verb: (to a higher place) jàx Ìfir. jirxàf., (from a lower place) jerxilfkà. (self-transporting; also with the corresponding agent-centered spatial cases)

roll

verb: xàxs. (something acc somewhere dat etc., also non-sending; self-transporting: somewhere ditto)

rotate

verb: xàxs. (self-transporting; something acc)

run

verb, noun: nenà. (self-transporting: somewhere dat etc.)

salt

noun: hlÌ.

verb: (put salt into) jyxhlà.;
(give a salty taste to) àhp. (both: something dat)

salty

adjective: Ìhp.

Saturday

noun: corresponds to dayUdjnÌ. (‘Terrestrial day’; see appendix, Date)

scene

noun: (in the generic sense) lòr.

scissors

noun: pslù. (with outer partitive)

search

verb, noun: xàsk. ([for] something acc)

seat

verb: zdàs. (someone acc somewhere dat etc.)

noun: zdòrs.

second

noun: (unit of time) 0.759 × kardÌ. (see appendix, Time and Units of measurement)

adjective: (2nd) dwìR/r. (head noun as an acc object; see unit 8, Ordinal numerals)

seldom

adverb: crÌaR.

set

verb: set fire vnà. (agentive caus: to something nom)

seven

adjective, noun: qÌf.;
(in counting) qàf.

seventh

noun: one seventh rilRÌ qÌfyn. (see unit 7, Fractions)

adjective: qìR/rf. (head noun as an acc object; see unit 8, Ordinal numerals)

several

adjective, noun: mlà.

Shabar

proper noun: (the capital of Lemaria) habàr.

shall, should

verb: (I should; shall, should we?) Ràks. (do something acc; see unit 13, Overview of the modals and The fuzziness of English modals)

shallow

adjective: (not much extending horizontally, as a wardrobe) mìl — pril-crÌnyr., (not much extending downwards, as a pond) mìl — ilfcrÌnyr. with the qualified noun in the acc (depictive, absorption possible) or dat (resultative) (see unit 12, Adjectivals);
same construction with inner acc/dat for the predicate, or inverted (see Attributes)

shatter, smash

verb: (by hitting it) dwnàt. (dat; something dat into something [e.g. shards] acc);
(dreams) nà. (dat)

she

personal pronoun: definite or relative pronoun or bÌ. (see unit 6, Demonstrative pronouns)

shh!

interjection: hh:

shine

phrase: the sun shines sxnàz.;
the moon shines ihkà.

short

adjective: (temporal) mìl — crÌyR., (spatial) mìl — prilcrÌnyr. (or with other weighting numerals), with the qualified noun in the acc (depictive, absorption possible) or dat (resultative) (see unit 12, Adjectivals);
same construction with inner acc/dat for the predicate, or inverted (see Attributes)

Shrek

noun: (legendary, ogre-like creature) hrèk. (lit.‘gravel-maker’)

sibling-in-law

noun: (sibling’s spouse) xnrÌ. (of someone nom)

siemens

noun: (unit of electrical conductance) 1.472 × rilRÌ fragmÌyn. (see appendix, Units of measurement)

simple

adjective: (uncompounded) ensembleirÌ. (see unit 8, Composite numerals)

since

preposition: ingressive object (eR)

subordinating conjunction: causative (el), persuasive (Ol) or ingressive clause

single

adjective: (one [individual]) rÌ.;
(uncompounded) ensembleirÌ. (see unit 8, Composite numerals)

sink

verb: jàx ilfkÌi/Ur. ji/Urxilfkà. (acc, occasionally self-transporting; something acc)

noun: (of an action) lì.

sister-in-law

noun: (sibling’s wife) xnrÌ., xnry. (of someone nom)

sit

verb: zdìls.; (sit down) zdàs. (both self-transporting: somewhere dat etc.)

six

adjective, noun: swÌh.;
(in counting) swàh.

sixteen

adjective, noun: rÌj.;
(in counting) ràj.

sixteenth

noun: one sixteenth rilRÌ rÌjyn. (see unit 7, Fractions)

adjective: rìR/rj. (head noun as an acc object; see unit 8, Ordinal numerals)

sixth

noun: one sixth rilRÌ swÌhyn. (see unit 7, Fractions)

adjective: swìR/rh. (head noun as an acc object; see unit 8, Ordinal numerals)

sixty-five thousand five hundred thirty-six (65,536)

adjective, noun: mrÌj.;
(in counting) mràj.

sixty-five thousand five hundred thirty-sixth

noun: one sixty-five thousand five hundred thirty-sixth (1⁄65,536) rilRÌ mrÌjyn. (see unit 7, Fractions)

adjective: 65,536th mrìR/rj. (head noun as an acc object; see unit 8, Ordinal numerals)

small

adjective: mìl — crÌyr., (in height) mìl — ilfcrÌnyr., (in extension) mìl — filwcrÌnyr. with the qualified noun in the acc (depictive, absorption possible) or dat (resultative) (see unit 12, Adjectivals);
same construction with inner acc/dat for the predicate, or inverted (see Attributes)

smell

verb: nàs. (dat: something nom; nom: of something acc)

noun: nÌs.

snow

verb: snàw.

noun: snÌw.

some…, any…

indefinite adjective and pronoun, some/any, someone/anyone, somebody/anybody, something/anything: gwÌ. (see unit 6, Demonstrative pronouns);
some (several, more than one): mlÌ.;
some (a fairly small amount): RÌbv. (usually with partitive bracket; see unit 8, Cardinal numerals)

indefinite adverb(ial), some time / any time, somewhere/anywhere, etc.: gwÌ. with outer non-plot case;
sometimes, in some places etc.: RÌbv. with outer non-plot case

indefinite adverb, somewhat: — RÌbva.

phrase, not any more: topicalisation of the egressive (iR)

sour, acidic

adjective: Ìtx.

source, sender

noun: lè.

south

noun: rec-djnÌ. (‘the right in Earth’s coordinate system’, as east is the direction in which Earth interacts with the sun[rise], and – equivalently – the direction in which its surface is moving)

adverb: (we went south) — recdjnÌUr. (allative object)

Just use rÌc. if the context is clear.

sparrow

noun: stnÌt.

spite

preposition, in spite of: negated qualitative (see unit 11, ‘despite’ and ‘against’)

split

verb: (generally divide, break) skràp.;
(specifically split with an axe) wnàd. (both: something dat into something [e.g. in two] acc)

squirrel

noun: ksmÌs.

stand

verb: (place a person upright) pàf. (someone acc somewhere dat etc.);
(of a person: stand upright) pìlf.; (stand up, get up) pàf. (both self-transporting: somewhere ditto)

(place an object upright, position vertically) àf Ìfi –e. ‘make the area upwards of the object into an area upwards [in the default coordinate system]’, or with other spatial verbs depending on the orientation of the object’s coordinate system (see unit 12, Orientation);
(of an object: stand upright, be positioned vertically) ìlf Ìfi –e.

(don’t move, stand still) jaxnà.; (stop moving) jìRx. (both self-transporting: somewhere ditto; or with other verbs of movement)

start

verb: topicalisation of the ingressive (eR)

noun: (of an activity) inner ingressive

steradian

noun: (unit of solid angle) poweredwÌ rÌi. (see appendix, Units of measurement)

still

adjective: (not moving) jaxnÌ.

adverb: (as before) negated topicalisation of the egressive (–iRnà.)

strength

noun: blìl.

strengthen

verb: blà. (dat; something dat)

strong

adjective: blÌ.

sugar

noun: srÌx.

verb: jyxsràx. (something dat)

suggest

verb: Ràks. (someone dat [to do] something acc; see unit 13, Overview of the modals)

suggestion

noun: Ràks.

sun

noun: sxnèz.

sunlight, sunshine; sunbeam, sunray

noun: sxnÌz.

sunbeam, sunray as distinguished from sunlight, sunshine sxnyz.

sweet

adjective: mlÌv.

sweeten

verb: mlàv. (dat; something dat)

sweetener

noun: mlùv. (with outer partitive)

swim

verb, noun: (swim actively, propel through water) cnàk. (self-transporting: somewhere dat etc.);
(swim passively, float) see float

take

verb: dà. (dat: something acc from someone nom)

tan

verb: wrà. (dat; something dat)

noun: wrìl.

tango

verb, noun: tamgà. (with someone dat – the man is usually in the nom and the lady in the dat)

tea

noun: black/green/white tea (from the plant Camellia sinensis), spiced tea (drink) txÌ., ([dried] leaves) txì.

See txà. for different types of tea.

teach

verb: gwàt. (someone dat something acc; something acc to someone dat [the latter could be translated as a progressive aspect])

tear

verb: nàwb. (dat; something dat into something [e.g. in two] acc)

ten

adjective, noun: dÌh.;
(in counting) dàh.

tenth

noun: one tenth rilRÌ dÌhyn. (see unit 7, Fractions)

adjective: dìR/rh. (head noun as an acc object; see unit 8, Ordinal numerals)

Terra, Tellus, Gaia

proper noun: (goddess, also the Earth when explicitly referred to as a planet among the others) djingmesrÌ.

tesla

noun: (unit of magnetic flux density) 0.09983 × UdreÌ. (see appendix, Units of measurement)

than

subordinating conjunction, preposition: qualitative coordination following the predicate moreà. (see unit 11, Verbs of comparison), or a predicate compounded with moreà. (see units 11, Comparative, and 15, Comparison clauses)

that

subordinating conjunction: accusative or sometimes persuasive (Ol) clause (see unit 15, ‘that’-clauses), inversion for judgemental clauses (see Subtleties);
so that consecutive clause (il);
in order that final clause (Ul) (see unit 15, Clauses with other conjunctions)

demonstrative adjective and pronoun: (that one) tÌ. (see unit 6, Demonstrative pronouns);
(that [one] there as opposed to ‘this [one] here’) fÌw. (see unit 12, Temporal and spatial verbs: Pronouns)

restrictive relative pronoun: partitive bracket or coordination with inner plot case (see unit 16, Restrictive relative clauses)

the

article: not translated; use a pronoun to translate the accompanied noun when possible. Using pronouns to refer to things that have already been introduced ensures that we are referring to the same things, not to new ones of the same kind: see these two examples.

If the accompanied noun hasn’t been introduced but is taken to exist (‘He sees the white mice’), use a topicalisation.

adverb, the … the …: positive comparison (see unit 11, Comparative)

their

possessive adjective: definite or relative pronoun or (male) Ìx., (female) bÌ., all as a genitive attribute, i.e. mostly with benefactive (U)
For an example see unit 6, Relative pronouns.

theirs

possessive pronoun: definite or relative pronoun or (male) Ìx., (female) bÌ., all as a genitive, i.e. mostly with benefactive (U)
For examples see unit 10, Stative verbs, and unit 11, Inner qualitative.

themselves

reflexive pronoun: see unit 6, Relative pronouns and Reflexivity vs. reciprocity

then

adverb: relative pronoun with outer temporal, referring to the relevant action;
tÌaR.;
(at a distant time) fÌwaR. (see unit 12, Temporal and spatial verbs)

there

adverb: tÌar. (see unit 6, Demonstrative pronouns);
(as opposed to ‘here’) fÌwar. (see unit 12, Temporal and spatial verbs)

therefore

adverb: tÌel., — tÌOl. (see unit 6, Demonstrative pronouns)

they, them

personal pronoun: definite or relative pronoun or (male) Ìx., (female) bÌ. (see unit 6, Demonstrative pronouns)

third

noun: one third rilRÌ trÌyn. (see unit 7, Fractions)

adjective: trìR/r. (head noun as an acc object; see unit 8, Ordinal numerals)

thirteen

adjective, noun: Ìc.;
(in counting) àc.

thirteenth

noun: one thirteenth rilRÌ Ìcyn. (see unit 7, Fractions)

adjective: ìR/rc. (head noun as an acc object; see unit 8, Ordinal numerals)

this (one)

demonstrative adjective and pronoun: tÌ. (see unit 6, Demonstrative pronouns);
(this [one] here as opposed to ‘that [one] there’) filw-crÌ. (or with other weighting numerals; see unit 12, Temporal and spatial verbs: Pronouns)

thousand

adjective, noun: 3E8hex xtynè ilb-rynjè tril-skmÌne.

thousandth

noun: one thousandth (1⁄3E8hex) rilRÌ xtynÌn ilb-rynjÌn tril-skmÌnyn. (see unit 7, Fractions)

adjective: mìR/r xtynÌ ilbrynjÌ trilskmÌny. (head noun as an acc object; see unit 8, Ordinal numerals)

three

adjective, noun: trÌ.;
(in counting) trà.

thrice

adverb: trÌa. (often a factive bracket; see unit 8, Multiplicative numerals)

Thursday

noun: corresponds to dayUdjÌps. (‘Jovian day’; see appendix, Date)

time

noun: làR.

adverbial, three times etc.: trÌa. etc. (often a factive bracket; see unit 8, Multiplicative numerals)

too

adverb: (more than enough, to an excessive degree) comparative (see unit 13, ‘enough’ and ‘too’);
(also, as well) see also

towards

preposition: allative object (Ur)

triple, ternary

adjective: (threefold) trÌ.;
(to highlight the composite aspect, i.e. three parts forming a whole as opposed to one thing in three parts) ensembleitrì. (see unit 8, Composite numerals)

Troy

proper noun: (home country of the Troyans) droàr.

Troyan

proper noun, adjective: (person from Troy, pertaining to Troy) droÌ.

Turkish Delight

noun: droÌ wrÌdjU. droUwrÌdj. (lit. ‘Troyan thing [beneficient] for the throat’)

turn

verb: (rotate) xàxs. (self-transporting; something acc);
(change orientation) with constructions such as those in Orientation in unit 12, typically with topicalised fact;
(become, change) mà. (something dat into something acc; dat: into something acc)

turquoise

adjective: (blue-green) riljdkÌ.

noun: (turquoise colour) riljdkìl.

twelfth

noun: one twelfth rilRÌ frÌyn. (see unit 7, Fractions)

adjective: frìR/r. (head noun as an acc object; see unit 8, Ordinal numerals)

twelve

adjective, noun: frÌ.;
(in counting) frà.

twice

adverb: dwÌa. (often a factive bracket; see unit 8, Multiplicative numerals)

twist

verb: tràd. (dat; something dat);
(break by torsion) tràd., tradskràp. (something dat into something [e.g. in two] acc)

two

adjective, noun: dwÌ.;
(in counting) dwà.

twofold, threefold etc.

adjective: (double, triple etc.) dwÌ., trÌ. etc.;
(to highlight the integritive aspect, i.e. one thing in two [or more] parts as opposed to two [or more] parts forming a whole) ensembleidwÌ. etc. (see unit 8, Composite numerals)

two hundred fifty-six (256)

adjective, noun: skmÌ.;
(in counting) skmà.

two hundred fifty-sixth

noun: one two hundred fifty-sixth (1⁄256) rilRÌ skmÌyn. (see unit 7, Fractions)

adjective: 256th skmìR/r. (head noun as an acc object; see unit 8, Ordinal numerals)

unaccompanied

adjective: nÌO. (usually modifying gerund-like abstract nouns, i.e. those with inner fact);
if a bracket is necessary, typically for inner non-factives:
dnÌ nÌO. ‘(one) walking unaccompanied’, or with similar verbs

uncle

noun: (related by blood) frÌz., fryzÌx. (of someone nom)

under

preposition: (below) ilfkÌar.;
(to below) — ilfkÌir.;
(past a point below) — ilfkÌur. (all: something nom; see unit 12, Adjectivals and Attributes for special constructions)

undo, annul, destroy

verb: nà. (something dat; also with inner cons for the object, see unit 6, ‘unknot’)

unintentional

adjective: nÌo. (usually modifying gerund-like abstract nouns, i.e. those with inner fact)

unless

subordinating conjunction: weak linking of a negated causative clause (see unit 15, Conditional clauses); among other possibilities (see Alternative translations)

until

preposition: egressive object (iR)

subordinating conjunction: egressive clause (see unit 15, Clauses with other conjunctions)

up

adverb, preposition: (to a place above) Ìfir., (from a place below) — ilfkÌer. (up something nom; see unit 12, Adjectivals and Attributes for special constructions)

use

transitive verb, noun: instrumental object (u) of an appropriate verb (e.g. use a pencil, make use of a pencil: writeà pencilÌnu., drawà pencilÌnu.; all the uses of pencils jnyà pencilÌnu.)

intransitive verb: (I used to do this) habitual past tense (see Aspect)

vain

adjective: ylàs.

vector

noun: (mathematics) dnà.

very

adverb: dmÌa. (or with other weighting numerals)

violet

adjective: (red-blue) glÌst.

noun: (violet colour) glìlst.

volt

noun: (unit of voltage or magnetic current) 15.54 × disfÌk. (see appendix, Units of measurement)

vomit

verb: ilvnà.

walk

verb, noun: dnà. (self-transporting: somewhere dat etc.);
(amble, stroll; walk without a specific aim) fràw. (self-transporting)

want

verb: làxt. (something acc [from someone dat]; [someone dat] to do something acc; see unit 13, Overview of the modals)

water

noun: xÌf.

verb: dyxàf (something dat)

watt

noun: (unit of power) 355.5 × melÌs. (see appendix, Units of measurement)

we, us

personal pronoun: relative pronoun with inner partitive nominative (see unit 6, Relative pronouns)

weak

adjective: blil-crÌ. (or with other weighting numerals)

weaken

verb: blil-crà. (or with other weighting numerals), blakà. (dat; something dat)

weather

noun: djÌps.

weber

noun: (unit of magnetic charge or flux) 11.79 × OÌs. (see appendix, Units of measurement)

west

noun: prilkedjnÌ. (‘the back in Earth’s coordinate system’, as east is the direction in which Earth interacts with the sun[rise], and – equivalently – the direction in which its surface is moving)

adverb: (we went west) — prilkedjnÌUr. (allative object)

Just use prilkÌ. if the context is clear.

what

interrogative pronoun: ydaskà. plus dative object with inner plot case, plus bracket (see unit 16, wh-questions)

whatever

subordinating conjunction: clause in a plot case with gwà. and a partitive bracket (see unit 15, Clauses with other conjunctions)

relative pronoun: gwà., usually with inner plot case and often forming a partitive bracket (see unit 16, Headless relative clauses)

when

subordinating conjunction: temporal clause (aR) (see unit 15, Clauses with other conjunctions)

relative adverb: bracket or coordination with inner temporal; in a restrictive clause, the bracket/coordination is partitive (see unit 16, Relative clauses)

interrogative adverb: [yd]askà. plus dative object with inner temporal (see unit 16, wh-questions)

whenever

subordinating conjunction: temporal clause (aR) with gwà. and a partitive bracket (see unit 15, Clauses with other conjunctions)

relative adverb: gwà., usually with inner plot case and forming a partitive bracket with an object having an inner temporal (see unit 16, Headless relative clauses)

where

subordinating conjunction: locative (ar) or illative clause (ir) (see unit 15, Clauses with other conjunctions)

relative adverb: bracket or coordination with inner locative or illative; in a restrictive clause, the bracket/coordination is partitive (see unit 16, Relative clauses)

interrogative adverb: [yd]askà. plus dative object with inner locative or illative (see unit 16, wh-questions)

wherefore

subordinating conjunction: factive (a), consecutive clause (il) or the like, often in a bracket, with inner causative (el) or persuasive (Ol) (see unit 16, Attributive and adverbial clauses)

wherever

subordinating conjunction: locative (ar) or illative clause (ir) with gwà. and a partitive bracket (see unit 15, Clauses with other conjunctions)

relative adverb: gwà., usually with inner plot case and forming a partitive bracket with an object having an inner locative or illative (see unit 16, Headless relative clauses)

whether

interrogative pronoun: laaskà. plus accusative object, often with inner factive (see unit 16, Polar questions)

which

relative pronoun: bracket or coordination with inner plot case; in a restrictive clause, the bracket/coordination is partitive (see unit 16, Relative clauses)

interrogative pronoun: ydaskà. plus dative object with inner plot case, plus partitive bracket (see unit 16, wh-questions)

subordinating conjunction: factive (a), consecutive clause (il) or the like, often in a bracket, with inner plot case (see unit 16, Attributive and adverbial clauses)

whichever

relative pronoun: gwà., usually with inner plot case and forming a partitive bracket (see unit 16, Headless relative clauses)

while

subordinating conjunction: temporal clause (aR);
to specify that an event occurs while another is in progress: temporal clause with gmilkÌ. (or fragmenting partitive), or episodic clause (oR) (see unit 15, Clauses with other conjunctions)

white

adjective: lÌbv.; (pure white) lilbvjnÌ.

noun: (white colour, whiteness, lightness in colour) lìlbv.; (pure whiteness) lilbvjnìl.

whiten

verb: làbv.; (make pure white) lilbvcnà. (dat; something dat)

who, whom

relative pronoun: bracket or coordination with inner plot case; in a restrictive clause, the bracket/coordination is partitive (see unit 16, Relative clauses)

interrogative pronoun: [yd]askà. plus dative object with inner plot case (see unit 16, wh-questions)

whoever, whomever

subordinating conjunction: clause in a plot case with gwà. and a partitive bracket (see unit 15, Clauses with other conjunctions)

relative pronoun: gwà., usually with inner plot case and forming a partitive bracket (see unit 16, Headless relative clauses)

why

relative adverb: bracket or coordination with inner causative or persuasive; in a restrictive clause, the bracket/coordination is partitive (see unit 16, Relative clauses)

interrogative adverb: [yd]askà. plus dative object with inner causative or persuasive (see unit 16, wh-questions)

wind

noun: xnÌt., (poetic, personifying) xngèt.

wish

verb: làxt. (something acc [from someone dat]; [someone dat] to do something acc; see unit 13, Overview of the modals)

noun: làxt., làlxt.; (the wished thing, as in ‘My greatest wish is to dance.’) lÌxt.

with

preposition: (accompanied by) comitative object (O);
(by means of) instrumental object (u);
(having, as in ‘an animal with feathers’) bracket with inverted genitive, i.e. mostly with inner benefactive

woman

noun: bÌ.

wrong

adjective: vìsk., vÌsk.

yellow

adjective: dÌv.

noun: (yellow colour, yellowness) dìlv.

verb: dàv. (dat; something dat)

yes

particle: Ì. (see unit 16, Polar questions)

you

personal pronoun: relative pronoun with inner dative (see unit 6, Relative pronouns)

your

possessive adjective: relative pronoun with inner dative as a genitive attribute, i.e. mostly with benefactive (U)
For an example see unit 6, Relative pronouns.

yours

possessive pronoun: relative pronoun with inner dative as a genitive, i.e. mostly with benefactive (U)
For examples see unit 10, Stative verbs, and unit 11, Inner qualitative.

yourself, yourselves

reflexive pronoun: see unit 6, Relative pronouns and Reflexivity vs. reciprocity

Zarathustra

proper noun: (ancient philosopher and poet) zaraqÌht.

Last significant change to this page: 26 Aug 2015
Last significant change to the database: 25 May 2017

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