lemÌc. Lemizh grammar and dictionary

Complete English / Lemizh dictionary with 1123 lemmata (920 unique entries)

a, an

article: usually not translated;
(a single, one) rÌ.;
(a certain) tÌ.;
(like, as in ‘He is a Shakespeare’) translated with a qualitative case

preposition: twice a day dwyà dayilRÌoR. (see Distributive numerals)

able

phrase: be able to (know how to) gwìlt. (dat: do something-acc [with inner fact])

about

preposition: (with regard to, on the subject of) see unit 14, ‘about;
(approximately) qual object (see unit 11, Adjectives, attributes and approximations);
(on one’s person) scenic object (or)

above

adverb, preposition: (at a place above) Ìfar. (something-nom);
(to a place above) — Ìfi(r). (something-nom);
(regarding clothing, worn on top of) gmÌar. (something-nom)

abstain

verb: –anà [laxtnÌa]. (negation of the thing abstained from, if necessary plus ‘which [they] didn’t want to’)

achieve, manage, succeed

verb: fnÙl., fnÌ. ([to do] something-acc)

Achilles

proper noun: (hero of the Troyan War) axileÌs.

acid

noun, adjective: Ìtx.

across, beyond

adverb, preposition: (at the far side of) pril-tÌcdar.; (to the far side of) — priltÌcdir. (both: something-qual; see unit 12, Comparison)

act

verb, noun: (do; deed, activity) là.

action; deed, behaviour

noun: là. (someone’s-nom; deed, behaviour often with a factive bracket)

adequate, functional

adjective: srÌwd.

admiral, general

noun: acRèd.

afraid

adjective: xrètx. (of someone or something-acc/causal-transporting, also dat/causal-receiving, see Ambiguous usage)

after

subordinating conjunction: prÌaR —. (temporal clause with ‘front’ as predicate; see unit 15, Clauses with other conjunctions)

adverb: (temporal, subsequently) — prÌaR., (spatial, behind) — prÌar.

preposition: (temporal, subsequently to) — prÌaR., (spatial, behind) — prÌar. (both: something-nom);
(causal, as a result of, because of, as in ‘After these events I’ll move to another house’) persuasive object;
(despite, as in ‘Even after these events I’ll stay in this house’) negated qualitative (see unit 11, ‘despite’ and ‘against’)

again

adverb: mlìR. (verb as an acc object; see unit 8, Ordinal numerals), e.g. I danced again. mlìR dràwy.;
also with definite numerals, i.e. for the second/third time etc.

against

preposition: (in opposition to) negated qualitative (see unit 11, ‘despite’ and ‘against’)

agree

verb: (intellectually or spiritually) xwàx. (dat: with someone-nom on something-acc)

aim, purpose

noun: lÙl.

aimless

adjective: (without a purpose) nÌUl.;
(without a temporal aim) — nÌUR.;
(without a spatial aim) — nÌUr. (all usually modifying gerund-like abstract nouns, i.e. those with inner fact);
if a bracket is necessary, typically for inner non-factives:
liveè nÌUl. ‘(one) living an aimless life’ etc.

air

noun: Ìk.;
in the air (above) Ìfar.;
into the air (upwards) — Ìfir.

alive

adjective: Règhg.;
I’m alive. Ràjg vèe.

all, every, (the) whole

adjective: jnÌ. (usually with partitive bracket; see unit 8, Cardinal numerals);
(all, the whole amount/substance, as opposed to ‘every’) jny.;
(every individual, as opposed to ‘the whole’) jnynmlÌ.

allow, permit

verb: kmà. (someone-dat to do something-acc; see unit 13, Overview of the modals)

almost, nearly

adverb: –anà prÌta. (negated verb plus ‘barely’: ‘to barely not do something’)

adjectival, phrase, almost/early every(thing): xpÌj. (usually with partitive bracket; see unit 8, Cardinal numerals)

adverbial, nearly always, nearly everywhere etc.: xpÌj. with outer non-plot case

alone

adjective: (unaccompanied) mìl — nÌO. with the qualified noun in the acc (depictive, absorption possible) or dat (resultative) (see unit 12, Adjectivals, for analogous spatial and temporal examples);
(only, exclusive) nÌn. in ‘and’-coordination with the qualified word (which therefore also has an inner partitive)

adverb: (unaccompanied) — nÌO.;
(only, exclusively) nÌn. in ‘and’-coordination with the qualified object

also, as well, too

adverb: pronoun referring to the model word, plus a qualitative object (see unit 11, Circumventing identity of action for an example)

(al)though

subordinating conjunction: negated qualitative (analogous to ‘despite’, see unit 11, ‘despite’ and ‘against’)

always

adverb: jnÌaR.

amble, stroll

verb: fràw. (self-transporting)

amount

noun: rÌw.

ampere

noun: (unit of electric current or magnetomotive force [‘magnetic voltage’]) 22.87 × potmÌs. (see appendix, Units of measurement)

and

conjunction: bracket or coordination; often inner partitives are necessary (see unit 4, ‘and’, and unit 5, Coordinations and brackets within brackets);
in the sense of
and therefore, and consequently: consecutive clause (il)

When joining sentences with a shared constituent, consider using a relative clause instead:
I forgot to hide the cake, and the children consumed it. = I forgot to hide the cake, which the children consumed.
She went to the yoga class and found it very calming. = She went to the yoga class, which she found very calming.

‘subordinating’ conjunction: typically accusative clause (y): Try and eat it! = Try to eat it! fna-dàxt àvy:

andwards

(used in: C. S. Lewis. The Dark Tower)

adverb: rÌcaR. (of something-nom)

adjective: mìl — rÌcaR. with the qualified noun in the acc (depictive, absorption possible) or dat (resultative) (see unit 12, Adjectivals);
inversion may be necessary for attributive use (see Attributes)

anger

verb: pqàb. (agentive caus, causal-reflexive: someone-nom)

noun: pqàb. (with someone-dat/causal-receiving, about something-acc/causal-transporting)

angry

adjective: pqèb. (with someone-dat/causal-receiving, about something-acc/causal-transporting)

annoy

verb: (colloquial, get on someone’s nerves) cmàbv. (someone-dat)

answer

verb: pÙla. (something-acc to someone-dat)

apple

noun: xalÌ.

apple tree

noun: xalè.

approach

verb, noun: jÙrx. (self-transporting; also with other verbs of movement)

approve

verb: bilà. (of something-acc/dat)

approximately

adverb: qual object (see unit 11, Adjectives, attributes and approximations)

Aquila

noun: (constellation) ftnÌk. (see appendix, Constellations)

art

noun: tàx.

artichoke

noun: (the vegetable) qkrÌdj.;
(the plant) qkrèdj.

artwork

noun: tÌx.

as

subordinating conjunction: causative (el), persuasive (Ol) or temporal clause (aR);
factive (a), consecutive clause (il) or the like, often in a bracket, with inner plot case (see unit 16, Attributive and adverbial clauses)

comparing adverb: qualitative coordination (see unit 11, Positive)

ascend, ascent

verb, noun: (to a higher place) jàx Ìfir. jirxàf., (from a lower place) jerxilfkà. (self-transporting: stairs etc. nom object of spatial verb; also with other verbs of movement; also with the corresponding agent-centered spatial cases)

ask

verb: pà. (someone-dat about something-acc; see unit 16, Questions, imperative and exclamations)

asleep

adjective: mìt.;
be asleep màt. (self-receiving)

astatine

noun: wycg-nÌs.

astonish

verb: fràx. (agentive caus, causal-reflexive: someone-nom)

astonishment

noun: fràx. (about something-acc/causal-transporting, also dat/causal-receiving, see Ambiguous usage)

at

preposition: (at a time) temporal object (aR); episodic object (oR);
(at a place) scenic object (or); locative object (ar) mostly for abstract locations (‘at the front’);
(towards) allative object (Ur)

Attersee

proper noun: (a glacial lake in Danubia) antaràx.

aubergine, eggplant

noun: (vegetable) zmyw-fisÌ.
(plant) zmywfisè.

aunt

noun: (related by blood) frÌs., frys. (of someone-nom)

Aunts are great partners for playing, especially disc games.

Auriga

noun: (constellation) rèt. (see appendix, Constellations)

avoid

verb: –anà [RaksnÌa]., –anà [kmanÌa]. (negation of the avoided thing, if necessary plus ‘which shouldn’t have been done’, ‘which wasn’t allowed’, or similar)

aware

adjective: smìj. (of something-acc);
be aware smàj. (dat: something-acc)

away

adverb: (spatial) tÌer.

axe

noun: wnùd. (with outer partitive)

axis, axle

noun: xùxs. (with outer partitive)

baby, infant

noun: xmÌs. (of a parent-nom)

back

adverbial, at the back: prilkÌar.; to the back prilkÌi(r). (both: of something-nom)

adjectival, at the back: mìl — prilkÌar. with the qualified noun in the acc (depictive, absorption possible) or dat (resultative) (see unit 12, Adjectivals);
inversion may be necessary for attributive use (see Attributes)

bad

adjective: (incompetent, acting harmfully or unethically, as in ‘bad [=incompetent or unethical] people’) gajdnè.;
(with agent nouns, as in ‘a bad speaker’) gajdnÌ. with outer fact (see unit 5, Attributes and adverbs that are not brackets);
(of low quality, harmful, ethically unsound, as in ‘a bad product, bad weather, a bad deed’) giljdnÌ.;

(inadaequate, dysfunctional, as in ‘the food is bad, the batteries are bad’) srilwdnÌ.;
(aesthetically repulsive to the senses) priljnÌ.;
(unlikable, unpleasant) rahnì.

bald

adjective: cahwnè., cahwcèwb.

barely, just

adverb: prÌta.

phrase, to barely/just do pràt. (something-acc);
to barely/just happen pràt. (acc)

be

full verb: (be there, exist) phrase the existing thing as the main predicate, typically with topicalisation of the consecutive (il) (see unit 10, Stative verbs)

copular verb: (He is a lace-maker. She is beautiful.) see unit 10, Predicative;
for temporal and spatial constructions (He
is old. The crane is in the dock.) see unit 12, Adjectivals

auxiliary verb: for expressing the passive see unit 3, Reception

beak

noun: fùsk. (with outer partitive)

bear

verb: (give birth) mesà. (a child-acc)

beat

verb, noun: the heart is beating, heartbeat kràd.;
beat one’s wings, wing beat qàxk.

beautiful

adjective: prÌj.

beautify

verb: pràj. (something-dat)

beauty

noun: prìlj.

beaver

noun: trÌxk.

because

subordinating conjunction: causative (el) or persuasive clause (Ol)

preposition, because of: causative or persuasive object

become

verb: mà. (dat: something-acc)

beer

noun: jÌsk.

before

subordinating conjunction: prilkÌaR —. (temporal clause with negated ‘front’ as predicate; see unit 15, Clauses with other conjunctions)

adverb, preposition: — prilkÌaR. (something-nom)

befriend

verb: zvrèR. (someone-dat)

begin

verb: topicalisation of the ingressive (eR)

beginning

noun: topicalisation of the ingressive (eR) or elative (er)

behave

verb: (act) là. (in some way-fact; like someone-qualnom);
(conduct oneself well) rÌha.

behind

adverb, preposition: (at the back of) prilkÌar.; (to the back of) — prilkÌir. (both: something-nom);
(across, beyond) (at the far side of) — priltÌcdar.; (to the far side of) — priltÌcdir. (both: something-qual; see unit 12, Comparison)

below

adverb, preposition: (at a place below) ilfkÌar. (something-nom);
(to a place below) — ilfkÌi(r). (something-nom)

bend

verb: làjg. (dat; something-dat into some shape-acc [e.g. into a z])

To distinguish from the meaning ‘break by bending’, use an acc object or – often simpler – a nominal verb expressing a shape.

beneficiary

noun: lÙ.

between

adverb, preposition: nÌjar. (objects, places-nom), — nÌjaR. (times-nom) (see unit 12, Adjectivals and Attributes for special constructions)

drink

noun: nÌgw.

bicycle

noun: telmÌx.

big, large

adjective: mìl — dmÌyr., (specifically tall) mìl — Ìnfyr., (specifically extensive) mìl — fÌwyr. with the qualified noun in the acc (depictive, absorption possible) or dat (resultative) (see unit 12, Adjectivals);
inversion may be necessary for attributive use (see Attributes)

bile

noun: jsrÌ.

bird

noun: nÌzd.

birth

noun: mesà. (of a child-acc)

phrase: give birth mesà. (to a child-acc)

bitter

adjective: drÌph.

bittersweet nightshade

noun: zmyw-rèjd.

black

adjective: (‘active’ black, as in black fur or varnish) wÌcg.; (non-white, ‘passive’ black, as in ‘blackened by age, dark/black night’) lilbvnÌ.

noun: (black colour, blackness) wìlcg.; lilbvnìl.

blacken

verb: (make an ‘active’ black, as in black fur or varnish) wàcg.; (make non-white, a ‘passive’ black, as in ‘blackened by age, dark/black night’) lilbvnà. (dat; something-dat)

black nightshade

noun: zmyw-wècg.

blow

phrase: the wind blows xnàt. (acc, poetically self-transporting)

blue

adjective: flÌc.

noun: (blue colour, blueness) flìlc.

verb: flàc. (dat; something-dat)

blue-collar worker

noun: nexwaklè.

blue hour

noun: flàRc.

blunt

adjective: (not very pointy) xilk-crÙ. (or with other weighting numerals)

book

noun: wÌtx.

boss, chief

noun: nèd.

bottle

noun: dwÌw.

verb: jixdwàw. (something-acc)

box

noun: (small, cuboid container) strÌg.

boy

noun: (male before puberty) cnÌ., cnyÌx.

braid, plait

verb: ràzg. (something-dat)

breadth, width

noun: mìl rÌncyr. (often better translated with the adjectives ‘broad, wide’)

break

verb: (by any means) skràp.;
(specifically break by bending) làjg.;
(specifically break by torsion) tràd. (all: dat; something-dat into something-acc [e.g. into parts, in two])

To distinguish the specific verbs from their ‘deforming’ meanings, use an acc object or – often simpler – a nominal verb such as skràp. ‘split, turn into parts’ or dwà. ‘turn into two [parts]’.

breakfast

noun: (action) àv djèRtaR.; (food) Ìv djèRtaR.

breastfeed, nurse, suckle

verb: xmlàg. (someone-dat)

breeze

noun: xnÌt.

brew

phrase: to brew beer jàsk.;
to brew coffee bunà.;
to brew tea txà.

bride, wife

noun: dwìc.;
(In gay marriages, explicit marking for gender may be useful.) dwic., dwecbè.

bridegroom, husband

noun: dwèc.;
(In gay marriages, explicit marking for gender may be useful.) dwecèx., dwicìx.

broad, fat, wide

adjective: mìl — rÌncyr. with the qualified noun in the acc (depictive, absorption possible) or dat (resultative) (see unit 12, Adjectivals);
inversion may be necessary for attributive use (see Attributes)

broaden, fatten, widen

verb: mà — rilc-tÌncdyr. (dat; something-dat; compare unit 12, Adjectivals)

bromine

noun: wry-nÌs.

brother

noun: (younger brother) htrè., htreèx. (of someone-acc);
(older brother) htrÌ., htryÌx. (of someone-nom)

brother-in-law

noun: (sibling’s husband) xnrè., xnreèx. (of someone-acc);
(spouse’s brother) xnrÌ., xnryÌx. (of someone-nom)

brotherly

adjective: (like a younger brother) htrè., (like an older brother) htrÌ., both as a qualitative object

brown

adjective: wrÌ.

noun: (brown colour, brownness) wrìl.

verb: wrà. (dat; something-dat)

build

verb: mà. (something-acc from something-dat)

bull

noun: strÌ., stryÌx.

burn

verb: vnà. (nom [of fire]; dat [of a burning object]; agentive caus: something-dat to something-acc [e.g. ashes])
(burn down as opposed to ‘set fire to’) vnajnà. (ditto)

burst

verb: nàwb. (dat; something-dat into something-acc [e.g. parts, dust])

To distinguish from the meaning ‘inflate’, use an acc object or – often simpler – a nominal verb such as skràp. ‘split, turn into parts’ or dustà. ‘turn into dust’.

but

conjunction: tmÌ. (typically in a bracket or compound with the ‘unexpected’ object, the one that gives rise to the perceived contrast)

caesium

noun: flic-vnè.

calf

noun: (young cow or bull) stry-cnÌ.

call

verb: (name) jàt. (someone-dat something-acc after someone-psu)

camel

noun: kamlÌ.; (one-humped camel, dromedary) kamlÌc.; (two-humped or Bactrian camel) kamlÌj.

Camelopardalis

noun: (constellation) roughly corresponding to stnÌt. and mermaidÌ. (see appendix, Constellations)

can

verb: (be able to, know how to) gwìlt. (dat: do something-acc [with inner fact]);
(have the opportunity to) màqk. (dat: do something-acc)
(see unit 13, Overview of the modals)

candela

noun: (unit of luminous intensity) 0.5205 × natlU-dmÌt. (see appendix, Units of measurement)

canine

adjective: (a dog’s) wÌgw., (a hound’s) RÌw. as a genitive attribute;
(like a dog, a hound) wÌgw., RÌw. as a qualitative object

Canis Major

noun: (constellation) RÌw. (see appendix, Constellations)

captain

verb: tnàdw. (a ship or crew-dat)

noun: tnèdw.

Carina and Vela

nouns: (constellations) roughly corresponding to kamlÌc., the Dromedary

Cassiopeia

noun: (constellation) dwec-Rìc. (see appendix, Constellations)

castle

noun: kroblÌj.

cat

noun: kÌt.

catch

verb: krÙlt. (something-dat)

noun: (something caught) lì krÙlta.

cattle

noun: strÌ.

cause

verb: (cause someone do something) agentive caus
(cause something) agentive caus with ‘something’ as the main predicate (or, if not possible, as a pseudo-desorption)

noun: (direct cause) lèl.

causeless

adjective: nÌel. (usually modifying abstract nouns, i.e. those with inner fact)

centre, middle

noun, adjective: (between left and right) rilcnÌ., (between top and bottom) ilfnÌ., (between back and front) prilnÌ.; (in the middle between several objects) nilj-jnÌ. (all: of something-nom)

Cepheus

noun: (constellation) roughly corresponding to Rèc. (see appendix, Constellations)

cerulean

adjective: (blue-green, between blue and cyan/turquoise) yphilkÌ.

noun: (cerulean colour) yphilkìl.

chance

noun: (opportunity) màqk., màlqk.; mÌqk.;
(luck) tUxà., tUxàl.

phrase: by chance — tUxàa.

chase

verb, noun: kràt. ([for] someone/something-acc)

see also wild-goose chase

cheap

adjective: dypq-crÙl.

chew

verb: vnàt. (something-dat into something-acc [e.g. mush])

chick

noun: (young bird) nyzd-cnÌ.

child

noun: (son or daughter of someone) psrÌb. (of a father-nom and a mother-dat); mesÌ. (of a mother-nom);
(human or other living being before puberty) cnÌ. (of a parent-nom)

chin

noun: wrÌdj.

chlorine

noun: dyv-nÌs.

circle

noun: dÌsk.

citrus

noun: (fruit) drÌj.
(tree, shrub) drèj.

city, town

noun: tÌj.

close

verb: (prevent access) niltnà. (acc, occasionally self-transporting; something-acc, also non-sending; also metaphorically, as for opportunities);
(of arms, wings) mà — tilcdnÌyr. (dat; something-dat; compare unit 12, Adjectivals)

cloud

noun: (rain cloud) wzrèf.
(snow cloud) snèw.

clumsy

adjective: (someone clumsy) krilxt-crè.; (a clumsy action) krilxtcrÌ. (or with other weighting numerals)

coffee

noun: (beverage) bunÌ.;
(coffee beans, ground coffee) bunì.; (specifically ground coffee) bunì trìdi.

colour

verb: Ràcj. (something-dat)

noun: Rìlcj.

come, arrive

verb: (arrive, regarding only the arrival) jìrx., (travel here, regarding the whole journey) jàx. (self-transporting; the first translation is perferred as the second typically needs an ill object for clarification; also with other verbs of movement)

command

verb: dàxt. (someone-dat to do something-acc; see unit 13, Overview of the modals)

noun: (action of commanding) dàxt., (what is commanded) dÌxt. (both: to someone-dat)

company

noun: lÒ.

compass

noun: (tool for determining the cardinal directions) xisk-rùc. (with outer partitive) (lit. ‘means for searching south’);
(tool for drawing circles) dùsk. (with outer partitive)

competent

adjective: gèjd.

complete

adjective: jnÌ.

component

noun: krìj.

compress, squeeze

verb: yzàj. (something-dat into some shape-acc [e.g. flat])

To distinguish from the meaning ‘crush’, use an acc object or – often simpler – a nominal verb expressing a shape.

conceive

verb: (become pregnant) psràb. (dat: a child-acc)

consequence, effect

noun: (direct consequence/effect) lìl.

content

noun: (of an action) lÌ.

continue

verb: negated topicalisation of the egressive (–iRnà.)

contract

verb: yzàj. (dat: into some shape-acc [e.g. flat])

To distinguish from the meaning ‘crush’, use an acc object or – often simpler – a nominal verb expressing a shape.

cope

verb: klàj. (not agentive: with something/someone-dat)

correct

verb: pàt. (something-dat)

adjective: pÌt.

cost

verb: (be intended to be sold for an amount) dòpq.
(have been sold for an amount) dìlpq.
(neutral) dÌpq. (all fin: an amount/price-acc)

noun: dÌpq. (of something-fin)

coulomb

noun: (unit of electric charge or flux) 17.35 × oÌs. (see appendix, Units of measurement)

courtyard

noun: nÌj. (of a castle etc.-nom), nejkroblÌj.

cow

noun: strÌ., stry.

crab

noun: krÌb.

crane; lift, elevator

noun: rirxp-ùf. (with outer partitive)

Crimea

proper noun: (peninsula) stràrz.

Crimean

proper noun, adjective: (person from Crimea, pertaining to Crimea) strÌz.

crush

verb: yzàj. (dat; something-dat to something-acc [e.g. parts, dust])

To distinguish from the meaning ‘(com)press, squeeze’, use an acc object or – often simpler – a nominal verb such as skràp. ‘split, turn into parts’ or dustà. ‘turn into dust’.

cup

noun: gwlÌp.

curl

noun: (maths) xàxs. (of a vector field-acc; curl F = ∇[mFn] ≡ ∇m Fn − ∇n Fm)

cut

verb: (cut with a knife) gwrà.;
(cut with scissors) pslà. (both: something-dat into something-acc [e.g. pieces, in two])

cyan

adjective: (blue-green) riljdkÌ.

noun: (cyan colour) riljdkìl.

cyclist

noun: telmèx.

dad(dy)

noun: pèp.

dam

noun: wemÌ.

dance

verb, noun: dràw. (with someone-dat. In couple dances, the man is usually in the nom and the lady in the dat; in group dances, we use the nom, or possibly the acc if seen as self-transporting, with a partitive ‘and’)

dance floor

noun: dròrw.

dance partner

noun: (man) drèw.; (lady) drìw.

Danube

proper noun: dnujrÌ.

daughter

noun: psrÌb., psryb. (of a father-nom and a mother-dat); mesÌ., mesybÌ. (of a mother-nom)

day

noun: (a 24-hour period) kril-mrÌj.;
(daytime) djÌt.

dead

adjective: (not living) Rajgnè.;
(having died) lè RìRjga.

deal

verb: klàj. (agentive: with something/someone-dat)

death

noun: (the dying) RìRjg.;
(the state of being dead, of not living) Rajgnàl.

deep

adjective: (extending horizontally, as a wardrobe) mìl — prÌnyr., (extending downwards, as a pond) mìl — Ìnfyr., with the qualified noun in the acc (depictive, absorption possible) or dat (resultative) (see unit 12, Adjectivals);
inversion may be necessary for attributive use (see Attributes)

deepen

verb: (horizontally, as a wardrobe) mà — pril-tÌncdyr., (downwards, as a pond) mà — ilftÌcdyr. (both: something-dat; compare unit 12, Adjectivals)

deform

verb: znàg. (something-dat into some shape-acc [e.g. flat, into a z])

degree

noun: (unit of angle) 2.13̅ × selÌ.
degree Celsius (unit of temperature) 0.879 × qàc. − 273.15 (see appendix, Units of measurement)

depth

noun: (extending horizontally, as a wardrobe) mìl prÌnyr., (extending downwards, as a pond) mìl Ìnfyr. (often better translated with the adjective ‘deep’)

descend, descent

verb, noun: (from a higher place) jàx Ìfer. jerxàf., (to a lower place) jirxilfkà. (self-transporting: stairs etc.-nom object of spatial verb; also with other verbs of movement; also with the corresponding agent-centered spatial cases)

despite, in spite of

preposition: negated qualitative (see unit 11, ‘despite’ and ‘against’)

die

verb: RìRjg. (nom)

different, (an)other

adjective: (not the same) negated pronoun (e.g. ‘I live in Stratford’ – ‘I live in another town’ with a negated relative pronoun referring to Stratford);

(not the like) negated pronoun with inner qual (see unit 11, Circumventing identity of action)

dinner

noun: (action) àv djìRtaR.; (food) Ìv djìRtaR.

discover

verb: (by investigation) gwàt. (dat: something-acc);
(accidentally) ràdj. (dat: something-acc)

divide

verb: (split) skràp. (something-dat into something-acc [e.g. in two]);
(mathematics) dividend-ilRà. (by something-partacc; see unit 7, Fractions)

Dniester

proper noun: grUrÌ.

do

verb: là. (something-fact)

dog

noun: wÌgw.; (hunting dog, hound) RÌw.

don’t mention it; you’re welcome

phrase: (answer to ‘thank you’) fÒly. Olnìl.

double, binary

adjective: (twofold) dwÌ.;
(to highlight the composite aspect, i.e. two parts forming a whole as opposed to one thing in two parts) krijdwì. (see unit 8, Composite numerals)

down

adverb, preposition: (from a place above) Ìfer., (to a place below) — ilfkÌir. (down something-nom; see unit 12, Adjectivals and Attributes for special constructions)

Draco

noun: (constellation) part of fxÌc. (see appendix, Constellations)

dragon

noun: fxÌc.

dream

verb: Ràst. (self-receiving: [of] something-acc)

noun: (act of dreaming) Ràst., (content of dreaming) RÌst. (of something-acc)

drift

verb: (drift/float quickly) nenà. (acc: somewhere-dat etc. in water etc.-nom [or agentive caus])

drink

verb: nàgw. (self-receiving: something-acc)

noun: nÌgw.

drive

verb: (go on wheels) kàk. (self-transporting: somewhere-dat etc.);
(steer) see steer

dromedary

noun: kamlÌc.

due

preposition, due to: causative object

duration

noun: lÌR.

during

preposition: temporal object (aR);
to specify that an event occurs while another is in progress: gmilkÌaR. (something-nom) (or fragmenting partitive), or episodic object (oR) (analogously to ‘while’ in unit 15, Clauses with other conjunctions)

dwarf

noun: brÌk.

each

adjective: RÌ.

eagle

noun: ftnÌk.

ear

noun: xOùj. (with outer partitive)

earthly

adjective: xnÌ.

east

noun: pre-xnÌ. (‘the front in Earth’s coordinate system’, as east is the direction in which Earth interacts with the sun[rise], and – equivalently – the direction in which its surface is moving; symbol: p)

adverb: (we went east) — prexnÌUr. (allative object)

Just use prÌ. if the context is clear.

easygoing, nonconformist

noun, adjective: khwè.

eat

verb: àv., (eat daintily) àqsk. (self-receiving: something-acc)

eckwards

(used in: C. S. Lewis. The Dark Tower)

adverb: rilckÌaR. (of something-nom)

adjective: mìl — rilckÌaR. with the qualified noun in the acc (depictive, absorption possible) or dat (resultative) (see unit 12, Adjectivals);
inversion may be necessary for attributive use (see Attributes)

edible

adjective: av-gwÌt.

eight

adjective, noun: xtÌ.;
(in counting) xtà.

eighth

noun: one eighth rilRÌ xtÌyn. (see unit 7, Fractions)

adjective: xtìR/r. (head noun as an acc object; see unit 8, Ordinal numerals)

elect

verb: mu-jbàt. (someone-dat for some office-acc)

election

noun: mu-jbàt. (of someone-dat for some office-acc)

elephant

noun: elefÌ.

eleven

adjective, noun: omÌj.;
(in counting) omàj.

eleventh

noun: one eleventh rilRÌ omÌjyn. (see unit 7, Fractions)

adjective: omìR/rj. (head noun as an acc object; see unit 8, Ordinal numerals)

empty

adjective: dmiljnÌ.

verb: dmiljnà. (something-dat of something-acc; something-acc out of something-dat)

end, stop

verb: topicalisation of the egressive (iR)

noun: topicalisation of the egressive or illative (ir)

endless

adjective: (in time) nÌiR.;
(in space, a road) — nÌir.

enjoy

verb: àsw. something-acc/dat

enlarge

verb: mà — tÌcdyr., (specifically make taller) mà — ilftÌncdyr., (specifically extend) mà — filwtÌcdyr. (all: something-dat; compare unit 12, Adjectivals)

enough

adjective, adverb: (mostly partitive) bracket with various modal verbs (see unit 13, ‘enough’ and ‘too’)

ensemble

noun: krÌj. (of things-dat; see unit 7, Grouping numerals)

entity, thing; stuff

noun: mÌ.;
(entity, thing as opposed to ‘stuff’) rÌ. or other definite or indefinite numerals (see unit 7, Numbers in grammar)

Epicurus

proper noun: (Ancient Greek philosopher) epikurÌs.

episode

noun: (in the generic sense) lòR.

err

verb: vàsk. (in something-dat [the thing made wrong] or -acc [the wrong thing])

error, mistake

noun: (the act of erring) vàsk.
(the thing made/going wrong) vìsk., (the wrong thing) vÌsk.

Ethiyn

proper noun: (the federation of Ethiyn) eqinàr.

Ethiynic

proper noun, adjective: (person from Ethiyn, pertaining to Ethiyn) eqinÌ.

even

adverb: (marking an extreme/unexpected example) tmÌ. (typically in a bracket with the ‘unexpected’ object, which has an inner partitive)

evening

noun: djìRt.

event

noun: là.

everywhere

adverb: jnÌar.

exist

verb: phrase the existing thing as the main predicate, typically with topicalisation of the consecutive (il) (see unit 10, Stative verbs)

expensive

adjective: dypq-dmÙl.

extend, spread (out)

verb: (temporal) mà — tÌcdyR., (extend far into the past and/or future) mà — filwtÌcdyR.;
(spatial) mà — tÌcdyr., (extend to regions far away) mà — filwtÌcdyr. (all: dat; something-dat; compare unit 12, Adjectivals)

extensive

adjective: (temporal) mìl — dmÌyR., (extending far into the past and/or future) mìl — fÌwyR.;
(spatial) mìl — dmÌyr., (extending to regions far away) mìl — fÌwyr., all with the qualified noun in the acc (depictive, absorption possible) or dat (resultative) (see unit 12, Adjectivals);
inversion may be necessary for attributive use (see Attributes)

eye

noun: dmùt. (with outer partitive)

fact

noun: làl.

fall

verb: (to a lower place) jàx ilfkÌir. jirxilfkà., (from a higher place) jerxàf. (acc, occasionally self-transporting; also with the corresponding agent-centered spatial cases)

family

noun: (also the biological rank) krij-fnÌwb. (of someone-dat with inner partitive)

far (away)

adverb: (at a time far away) fÌwaR. (from some time-nom);
(at a place far away) — fÌwar. (from something-nom);
(from a place far away) — fÌwer. (from something-nom);
(to a place far away) — fÌwir. (from something-nom);
(distant in degree) cÌwb. or other weighting numerals (from something: bracket or compound)

adjective: mìl — fÌwar. (or other outer spatial/temporal cases) with the qualified noun in the acc (depictive, absorption possible) or dat (resultative) (see unit 12, Adjectivals);
inversion may be necessary for attributive use (see Attributes)

farad

noun: (unit of electric capacitance) 1.116 × telmÌ. (see appendix, Units of measurement)

fast

adjective: (someone fast) fèt.; (a fast action) fÌt.

fate

noun: hnàxt., hnàlxt.

father

verb: psràb. (a child-acc)

noun: psrèb. (of someone-acc)

fatherly

adjective: (like a father) psrèb. as a qualitative object

faun

noun: pnÌb.

Faunus, Pan

noun: pnèb.

fear

verb: xràtx. (someone or something-acc/causal-transporting, also dat/causal-receiving, see Ambiguous usage)

noun: xràtx. (of someone or something ditto)

feather

noun: cnÌzd.

feed

verb: àv., (daintily) àqsk. (someone-dat with something-acc; self-receiving: on something-acc)

feline

adjective: (a cat’s) kÌt. as a genitive attribute;
(like a cat) kÌt. as a qualitative object

female, woman

noun, adjective: bÌ. (symbol: ⊕)

few, little, a bit

adjective: crÌ. (usually with partitive bracket; see unit 8, Cardinal numerals);
(a small amount, little substance, as opposed to ‘few’) cry.;
(few individuals, as opposed to ‘a small amount’) crynmlÌ.

see also small

fifteen

adjective, noun: gcÌ.;
(in counting) gcà.

fifteenth

noun: one fifteenth rilRÌ gcÌyn. (see unit 7, Fractions)

adjective: gcìR/r. (head noun as an acc object; see unit 8, Ordinal numerals)

fifth

noun: one fifth rilRÌ pnÌyn. (see unit 7, Fractions)

adjective: pnìR/r. (head noun as an acc object; see unit 8, Ordinal numerals)

fill

verb: màc. ([something-dat] with something-acc; something-acc into something-dat)

find

verb: (locate something searched for) xÙlsk. (something-dat),
(learn, discover by investigation) gwàt. (dat: something-acc)

noun: (something found that was being searched for) lì xÙlska.

fire

noun: vnè.

fireplace, hearth

noun: vnòr.

first

adjective: rìR/r. (head noun as an acc object; see unit 8, Ordinal numerals)

five

adjective, noun: pnÌ.;
(in counting) pnà.

fix

verb: pàt. (something-dat)

flerovium

noun: htenÌ.

flight

noun: (act of flying) qàxk.

float, afloat

verb: (be afloat) zdìls., (be capable of floating, will float) zdasgwìlt. (acc: in water etc.-nom [or agentive caus]), compounded zdesxìlf. etc.;
(float quickly) nenà. (acc: somewhere-dat etc. in water etc.-nom [or agentive caus])

flowering plant, fruiting plant

noun: frèxk.

fluorine

noun: lybv-nÌs.

fly

verb: qàxk. (self-transporting: somewhere-dat etc.)

foam

verb: psràxk.

noun: psrÌxk.

follow

verb: (I am running after you.) nenà viÙr [prilkÌer nenáe cìy]. (self-transporting; or with other verbs of movement; see unit 12, Orientation)

(agree intellectually or spiritually) xwàx. (dat: [with] someone-nom in/on something-acc)

food

noun: Ìv.; Ìqsk.

fool; foolish

noun, adjective: (a fool, someone foolish) milv-crè.; (a wise deed, saying, thought) milvcrÌ. (or with other weighting numerals)

for

preposition: (for the benefit of the witch) benefactive object (U);
(because of, She was the worse for drink.) causative (el) or persuasive object (Ol);
(with the purpose of, for Turkish Delight) final object (Ul);
(over a period of time, for three weeks) durative object (yR);
(throughout an extent of space, for miles) extensive object (yr);
(in the direction of, aiming at, to run for the trees) allative object (Ur);
(by the standards of, beautiful for a racer) partitive coordination (see Predicate adjective)

forefather, foremother

noun: krij-fnèwb. (of a family-acc, of someone-dat with inner partitive)

forever

adverb: nÌiR.

forget

verb: (don’t remember to do, unintentionally not do) smajnà. (dat: [to do] something-acc [with inner fact]);
(cease remembering) smìRj. (dat: something-acc [with inner non-fact, e.g. aff for actions]);

(forget completely, cease knowing) lìR gwìlta. (dat: about something-acc [with inner non-fact]; dat: how to do something-acc [with inner fact]), or with other translations of ‘know

four

adjective, noun: gwÌq.;
(in counting) gwàq.

fourteen

adjective, noun: Ìb.;
(in counting) àb.

fourteenth

noun: one fourteenth rilRÌ Ìbyn. (see unit 7, Fractions)

adjective: ìR/rb. (head noun as an acc object; see unit 8, Ordinal numerals)

fourth

noun: one fourth rilRÌ gwÌqyn. (see unit 7, Fractions)

adjective: gwìR/rq. (head noun as an acc object; see unit 8, Ordinal numerals)

four thousand ninety-six (4096)

adjective, noun: jÌs.;
(in counting) jàs.

four thousand ninety-sixth

noun: one four thousand ninety-sixth (1⁄4096) rilRÌ jÌsyn. (see unit 7, Fractions)

adjective: 4096th jìR/rs. (head noun as an acc object; see unit 8, Ordinal numerals)

fragment, piece, scrap

noun: skrÌp.

fraternal

adjective: (younger brother’s) htrè., (older brother’s) htrÌ., both as a genitive attribute;
(like a brother) htrè., htrÌ. as a qualitative object

Friday

noun: corresponds to djUt-xsrÌ. (‘Venerian day’; see appendix, Date)

friend

noun: zvrè.

friendship

noun: zvrà.

frighten

verb: xràtx. (agentive caus, causal-reflexive: someone-nom)

from

preposition: (take/get something from a person etc.) nominative object (e);

(from a time) ingressive object (eR) only if the time is continuous (such as ‘daytime’ or ‘nighttime’);
gmilkÌeR –e. (‘inside’ in the ingressive case, plus a reference object in the nominative; see unit 12, Adjectivals and ‘inside’ constructions);
ingressive object with a fragmenting partitive;

(from a place) analogous, with the elative (er)

front

adverbial, in front, at the front: prÌar.; to the front prÌi(r). (both: of something-nom)

adjectival, in front, at the front: mìl — prÌar. with the qualified noun in the acc (depictive, absorption possible) or dat (resultative) (see unit 12, Adjectivals);
inversion may be necessary for attributive use (see Attributes)

froth

verb: psràxk. (something-dat)

noun: psrÌxk.

fruit

verb: (produce fruit) fràxk.

noun: frÌxk.

full

adjective: mìc.

Lemizh full stop (.)

noun: xyk-dwÌ.

fur

noun: cÌhw., krijcnÌzd.

furthermore, moreover

adverb: (sentence-initial, announcing additional information) fà. plus accusative clause with inner partitive;
(announcing an additional reason etc.) Òl. plus persuasive clause (Ol) etc. with inner partitive

futile, vain

adjective: ylÌs.

get

verb: (receive) dà. (dat, not agentive: something-acc from someone-nom)

get lost

verb: vàsk jìrxi. jirxvìrsk. (self-transporting: somewhere-dat etc.)

girl

noun: (female before puberty) cnÌ., cny.

give

verb: dà. (something-acc to someone-dat)

go

verb: jàx., (walk) dnà., (on wheels) kàk. (all self-transporting: somewhere-dat etc.);
(leave, depart) see leave

goat

noun: ysrÌ.

gold

noun: (metal) Ìpq.;
(colour) RymcjÌpq.

good, fine

adjective: (competent, acting beneficially or ethically, as in ‘good [=competent or ethical] people’) gèjd.,
(with agent nouns, as in ‘a good speaker’) gÌjd. with outer fact (see unit 5, Attributes and adverbs that are not brackets);
(of high quality, beneficial, ethically sound, as in ‘a good product, good weather, a good deed’) gÌjd.;

(adaequate, functional, okay, as in ‘the food is good, the batteries are good’) srÌwd.;
(aesthetically pleasing to the senses) prÌj.;
(likable, enjoyable, pleasant) rìh.;
(large, as in ‘a good number of things, a good part of the day’) dmÌ. (or with other weighting numerals)

goose

noun: RÌj.

grapefruit

noun: (the fruit) dryj-glÌst., white grapefruit dryjlÌbv.;
(grapefruit tree) dryjglèst., dryjlèbv.

gravel, pebble

noun: hrÌk.

Greece

proper noun: jloàr.

Greek

proper noun, adjective: (person from Greece, pertaining to Greece) jloÌ.

green

adjective: lÌxw.

noun: (green colour, greenness) lìlxw.

verb: làxw. (dat; something-dat)

greet

verb: gcrà., (informally) gà. (someone-dat)

greeting, hello, welcome; farewell, goodbye

noun: gcrà., (informal) gà.

verb, phrase: (say) hello, (say) farewell etc. gcrà., gà.

greeting phrases and interjections: How do you do? Good morning/afternoon/evening/night! Goodbye! gcrà.;
welcome gcrà. (to someplace-sce);
Hello! Hi! Bye! gà. (gesture: 🖖 for the letter g)

see also you’re welcome

grey

adjective: ksrÌ.

noun: (grey colour, greyness) ksrìl.

verb: ksrà. (dat; something-dat)

ground

noun: rÌsk.

group

verb: qmà. (something-dat into something-acc)

noun: qmÌ. (of some things-dat)

grow

verb: dmÌyr., (in height) Ìnfyr., (in extent) fÌwyr. (all: acc);
(prosper, thrive) Ràdj. (nom);
(become) mà. (acc)

hair

noun: cÌhw.

half

noun: one half rilRÌ dwÌyn. (see unit 7, Fractions)

halogen

noun: Rycj-nÌs.

handle

verb: (deal, cope with) klàj. (something/someone-dat);
(work with) là. (a tool, a machine-ins)

happen

verb: là. (fact)

happiness

noun: spàz. (about something-acc/causal-transporting, also dat/causal-receiving, see Ambiguous usage)

happy

adjective: spèz. (about something-acc/causal-transporting, also dat/causal-receiving, see Ambiguous usage)

hardly

adverb: cÌwba.

adjectival, phrase, hardly any(thing): cÌwb. (usually with partitive bracket; see unit 8, Cardinal numerals)

adverbial, hardly ever, hardly anywhere etc.: cÌwb. with outer non-plot case

have

full verb: (have got) dìl. (dat: something-acc); or as a genitive: Lucy has (got) a horse Ìhw lusÌU.

auxiliary verb: see unit 10, Perfect;
(have to) dàxt. (dat: do something-acc; see unit 13, Overview of the modals)

he, him

personal pronoun: definite or relative pronoun or Ìx. (see unit 6, Demonstrative pronouns)

hear

verb: xOàj. (dat: something-nom, the sound of something-acc)

heart

noun: krèd.

heartbeat

noun: kràd.

heavy

adjective: lÌt.

height

noun: mìl Ìnfyr. (often better translated with the adjective ‘high’)

henry

noun: (unit of inductance) 0.5154 × ytÌs. (see appendix, Units of measurement)

her

personal pronoun: (I see her.) definite or relative pronoun or bÌ. (see unit 6, Demonstrative pronouns)

possessive adjective: (her tortoise) definite or relative pronoun or bÌ. as a genitive attribute, i.e. mostly with benefactive (U)
For an example see unit 6, Relative pronouns.

here

adverb: tÌar. (see unit 6, Demonstrative pronouns);
(as opposed to ‘there’) filw-crÌar. (or with other weighting numerals; see unit 12, Temporal and spatial verbs)

hero

noun: bèst.

heroic

adjective: (like a hero) bèst. as a qualitative object

hers

possessive pronoun: definite or relative pronoun or bÌ. as a genitive, i.e. mostly with benefactive (U)
For examples see unit 10, Stative verbs, and unit 11, Inner qualitative.

herself

reflexive pronoun: see unit 6, Relative pronouns and Reflexivity vs. reciprocity

hertz, becquerel

noun: (unit of frequency or radioactivity, respectively) 1.318 × rilRÌ krÌyn. (see appendix, Units of measurement)

hide

verb: (move into concealment) esfàs. (something-acc, or self-transporting: somewhere-dat etc.);
(conceal oneself) xàsk. (agentive acc: from someone-nom)

(be hidden, be in concealment) esfìls., xìlsk.

high, tall

adjective: mìl — Ìnfyr. with the qualified noun in the acc (depictive, absorption possible) or dat (resultative) (see unit 12, Adjectivals);
inversion may be necessary for attributive use (see Attributes)

himself

reflexive pronoun: see unit 6, Relative pronouns and Reflexivity vs. reciprocity

his

possessive adjective: (his tortoise) definite or relative pronoun or Ìx. as a genitive attribute, i.e. mostly with benefactive (U)
For an example see unit 6, Relative pronouns.

possessive pronoun: (The tortoise is his.) definite or relative pronoun or Ìx. as a genitive
For examples see unit 10, Stative verbs, and unit 11, Inner qualitative.

hit

verb: dwnàt. (something-dat)

With an acc object, this verb means ‘shatter, smash’.

hobble, limp, totter

verb: stnàg. (self-transporting [nom for the hobbling action, acc for walking in a hobbling fashion, for hobbling along]: somewhere-dat etc.)

noun: stnàg., stnàlg.
He has a limp. stná(l)g tÌe.

hoist, raise

verb: see lift

hope

verb, noun: ràtx. (dat: something-acc)

horn

noun: kÌcx.

horned

adjective: kècx.

horse

noun: Ìhw.

hound

noun: RÌw.

hour

noun: 10.67 × kril-skmÌ. (see appendix, Time and Units of measurement)

house

noun: lÌj.

how

interrogative adverb: pà. plus accusative object, typically with inner factive (or compounded; see unit 16, ‘What about’-questions)

see also How do you do?

hundred

adjective, noun: 64hex gwynqè swilh-rÌnje.

hundredth

noun: one hundredth (1⁄64hex) rilRÌ gwynqÌn swilh-rÌnjyn. (see unit 7, Fractions)

adjective: mìR/r gwynqÌ swilhrÌnjy. (head noun as an acc object; see unit 8, Ordinal numerals)

hunt

verb, noun: kràt. ([for] someone/something-acc)

hurt

verb: cmàbv. (someone-dat)

hydrogen

noun: ètx.

I, me

personal pronoun: relative pronoun with inner nominative (see unit 6, Relative pronouns)

identity

noun: Ìd. (see unit 16, wh-questions)

if

subordinating conjunction: weak linking of a causative clause (see unit 15, Conditional clauses); among other possibilities (see Alternative translations)

in

preposition: scenic object (or);
locative object (ar) only if the location is either continuous or filled completely;
gmilkÌar –e. (‘inside’ in the locative case, plus a reference object in the nominative; see unit 12, Adjectivals and ‘inside’ constructions);
locative object with a fragmenting partitive

individual; dose, portion, quantum

noun: (also the term ‘quantum’ in physics) rÌ. or other definite or indefinite numerals (see unit 7, Numbers in grammar)

inflate, stretch

verb: nàwb. (dat; something-dat into some shape-acc)

To distinguish from the meaning ‘burst, rip, tear’, use an acc object or – often simpler – a nominal verb expressing a shape.

in order that

subordinating conjunction: final clause (Ul) (see unit 15, Clauses with other conjunctions)

inside

noun: gmilkÌ. (of something-nom)

adverb, preposition: gmilkÌar. (something-nom)

adjective: mìl — gmilkÌar. with the qualified noun in the acc (depictive, absorption possible) or dat (resultative) (see unit 12, Adjectivals);
inversion may be necessary for attributive use (see Attributes)

intend

verb: topicalisation of the tentive (o)

intensify

verb: tàcd. (dat; something-dat)

intention

noun: lò.

into

preposition: allative object (Ur) only if reaching the destination does not need to be expressed;
illative object (ir) only if the location is either continuous or filled completely;
gmilkÌir –e. (‘inside’ in the illative case, plus a reference object in the nominative; see unit 12, Adjectivals and ‘inside’ constructions);
illative object with a fragmenting partitive

iodine

noun: glyst-nÌs.

it

personal pronoun: definite or relative pronoun (see unit 6, Demonstrative pronouns)

its

possessive adjective: (its [the house’s] roof) definite or relative pronoun as a genitive attribute, i.e. mostly with benefactive (U)
For an example see unit 6, Relative pronouns.

possessive pronoun: (The roof is its [the house’s].) definite or relative pronoun as a genitive
For examples see unit 10, Stative verbs, and unit 11, Inner qualitative.

itself

reflexive pronoun: see unit 6, Relative pronouns and Reflexivity vs. reciprocity

joule

noun: (unit of energy) 269.7 × iotÌ. (see appendix, Units of measurement)

jump

verb, noun: làk. (self-transporting)

Jupiter, Zeus

proper noun: (god, planet) djeipysrÌd.

justly

phrase, justly claim: claimÌa. (inversion of ‘claim something’, making the claimed fact the predicate; or with other verbs of communication, especially verbs of certainty, ‘accuse, blame’)

kelvin

noun: (unit of temperature) 0.879 × qàc. (see appendix, Units of measurement)

key

noun: (means for locking and unlocking) plùk. (with outer partitive);
(metaphorical: a crucial requirement) nùt. (with outer partitive)

kill

verb: Rajgnà. (agentive caus: someone-nom); là RìRjga. (someone-nom of Ràjg.)

noun: là RìRjga.

kilogram

noun: (unit of mass) 1.314 × lÌq. (see appendix, Units of measurement)

king

noun: Rèc., Recèx. (someone’s-dat)

kiss

verb: fOà. (someone-dat)

kitten

noun: kyt-cnÌ.

knife

noun: gwrù. (with outer partitive)

knot

verb: snràk. (a piece of string etc.-dat)

noun: snrÌk.

know

verb: (have learned) gwìlt. (dat: about something-acc [with inner non-fact, e.g. aff for actions]; dat: how to do something-acc [with inner fact]);
(have heard) xOìlj. (dat: about something-acc [with inner non-fact, e.g. aff for having been told it]; dat: something-nom);
(have seen) dmìlt. (dat: something-nom);
or untranslated, especially with verbs of communication, e.g. know that one must do dìlxt. (dat: something-acc)

see also unit 14, ‘about’, and unit 10, Stative verbs

Kroblizh

proper noun: (Shabar Castle, the royal castle of Lemaria’s capital) kroblÌc.

lake

noun: (technically: glacial lake, informally: large lake) antÌ.

land

noun: (inhabited/habitable world as opposed to the sky or mythological/religious places) xnàr.

lapdog

noun: (jocular) RywnÌ. (lit. ‘not-hound’)

last

adjective: (previous) tilcd-ril-kìR/r. (head noun as an acc object; see unit 8, Ordinal numerals)
tilcdrilkìR djUtfrÌgy. is the Tuesday with the next lower week number, i.e. the one last week. Tuesday this week is tilcdnìR djUtfrÌgy.. Just use ‘Tuesday’ when clear from context (e.g. say ‘He came Tuesday’ for ‘He came last [= on the preceding] Tuesday’).

last but one tilcddwilkìR/r.
etc.;

(ultimate) jnìR/r. (head noun as an acc object)

law

noun: crÌw.

lay, fell

verb: (position horizontally, fell a tree) àf prÌi –e. ‘make the area in front of an object into an area upwards’, or with other spatial verbs depending on the orientation of the object’s coordinate system (see unit 12, Orientation);
(put to rest) làgc. (agentive caus or nom: someone-dat)

lay eggs: eggà.

lead

verb: (as a boss, chief) nàd. (someone-dat)

noun: (metal) liwÌ.

leap day

noun: djyt-tÌcd. (see appendix, Date)

learn

verb: gwàt. (dat: about something-acc [with inner non-fact, e.g. aff for actions]; dat: doing something-acc [with inner fact])

leave, depart

verb: (depart, regarding only the departure) jèrx., (go away, regarding the whole journey) jàx. (self-transporting; the first translation is perferred as the second typically needs an ela object for clarification; also with other verbs of movement)

left

adverbial, at the left: rilckÌar.; to the left rilckÌi(r). (both: of something-nom)

adjective: mìl — rilckÌar. with the qualified noun in the acc (depictive, absorption possible) or dat (resultative) (see unit 12, Adjectivals);
inversion may be necessary for attributive use (see Attributes)

leg

noun: dnù. (with outer partitive)

Lemaria

proper noun: (home country of the Lemizh) lemàrc.

Lemizh

proper noun, adjective: (person from Lemaria, pertaining to Lemaria) lemÌc.

lemon

noun: (the fruit) dryj-dÌv.;
(lemon tree) dryjdèv.

length

noun: (temporal) mìl prÌyR., mìl dmÌyR., (spatial) mìl prÌnyr. (often better translated with the adjective ‘long’)

lengthen

verb: (temporal) mà — tÌcdyR., (spatial) mà — priltÌncdyr. (dat; something-dat; compare unit 12, Adjectivals)

Leo

noun: (constellation) lÌw. (see appendix, Constellations)

lest

subordinating conjunction: negated final clause (Ul) (see unit 15, Clauses with other conjunctions)

lie

verb: (be positioned horizontally) ìlf prÌi –e. ‘having made the area in front of an object into an area upwards’, or with other spatial verbs depending on the orientation of the object’s coordinate system (see unit 12, Orientation);
(go to rest) làgc., (rest, be resting) lìlgc. (self-receiving, mainly dat)

life

noun: (living, being alive) Ràjg.; (living beings) Rèjg., Rejgjnè.

lift

verb: (to a higher place) jàx Ìfir. jirxàf., (from a lower place) jerxilfkà. (something-acc; also with other verbs of movement, especially ràxp. and ràwb.; also with the corresponding agent-centered spatial cases)

noun: (elevator) rirxp-ùf. (with outer partitive)

light

adjective: (of low weight) lilt-crÌ. (or with other weighting numerals);
(light colour) lÌbv.

light …, pale …

adjective: light/pale blue flilc-lÌbv. lìlbv flìlcil. ‘the blueness / blue colour = the light colour’, compare unit 5, Coordinations and brackets within brackets;
light/pale green etc. analogously

noun: light/pale blue (colour) flilclìlbv. etc.

like

verb: ràh. (something or someone-acc/dat)

adjective, preposition: qualitative case (see unit 11, Comparison)

lime

adjective: (lime green, yellow-green) glilstkÌ.

noun: (the fruit) dryj-lÌxw.;
(lime tree) dryjlèxw.;
(lime green colour) glilstkìl.

lion

noun: lÌw.

listen

verb: xOàj. (dat, agentive: to something-nom, to the sound of something-acc)

live

verb: Ràjg.

liver

noun: jsrè.

lizard

noun: fxyrcrÌ.

lock

verb: plilknà. (something-dat, a lock-acc to something-dat)

noun: plÌk.

long

adjective: (temporal) mìl — prÌyR., mìl — dmÌyR., (spatial) mìl — prÌnyr., with the qualified noun in the acc (depictive, absorption possible) or dat (resultative) (see unit 12, Adjectivals);
inversion may be necessary for attributive use (see Attributes)

look

verb: dmàt. (dat, agentive: at something-nom, at the image of something-acc);
look for xàsk. (something-acc)

loud

adjective: (someone, something loud) txèsk.; (a loud noise or sound) txÌsk.

low

adjective: mìl — ilf-crÌnyr. with the qualified noun in the acc (depictive, absorption possible) or dat (resultative) (see unit 12, Adjectivals; or with other weighting numerals);
inversion may be necessary for attributive use (see Attributes)

lower

verb: (to a lower place) jàx ilfkÌir. jirxilfkà., (from a higher place) jerxàf. (something-acc; also with other verbs of movement, especially ràxp. and ràwb.; also with the corresponding agent-centered spatial cases)

adjective: mìl — ilfkÌar. with the qualified noun in the acc (depictive, absorption possible) or dat (resultative) (see unit 12, Adjectivals);
inversion may be necessary for attributive use (see Attributes)

luck

noun: tUxà., tUxàl.

lumen

noun: (unit of luminous flux) 0.5205 × melUs-dmÌt. (see appendix, Units of measurement)

Lupus

noun: (constellation) xrÌw. (see appendix, Constellations)

lux

noun: (unit of illuminance) 4.408 × 10−3 × gomUs-dmÌt. (see appendix, Units of measurement)

machine

noun: jhnÌ.

magenta

adjective: lilxwkÌ.

noun: (magenta colour) lilxwkìl.

magnesium

noun: drèph

make

verb: mà. (something-acc from something-dat);
make someone do something: agentive caus

male

noun, adjective: Ìx. (symbol: ↯)

man

noun: (male) Ìx. (symbol: ↯)

manganese

noun: xfÌft.

many, much

adjective: dmÌ. (usually with partitive bracket; see unit 8, Cardinal numerals);
(much of an amount/substance, as opposed to ‘many’) dmy.;
(many individuals, as opposed to ‘much’) dmynmlÌ.

marriage

noun: (state of being married) dwìlc.;
(wedding) dwàc.

marry

verb: dwàc. (The man is usually in the nom and the woman in the dat.)

Mars, Ares

proper noun: (god, planet) frekrÌf.

maternal

adjective: (mother’s) mesè. as a genitive attribute;
(like a mother) mesè. as a qualitative object;
(maternal uncle/aunt) (younger) htrè mesèi., (elder) htrì mesèe.

may

verb: kmà. (dat: do something-acc; see unit 13, Overview of the modals)

means, tool

noun: lù.

mechanic

noun: jhnè.

medium

phrase, a medium number of things, a medium amount: bvÌ. (usually with partitive bracket; see unit 8, Cardinal numerals);
(a medium amount, as opposed to ‘a medium number’) bvy.;
(a medium number of individuals, as opposed to ‘a medium amount’) bvynmlÌ.

adverbial, in a medium amount of time, space etc.: bvÌ. with outer non-plot case

melt

verb: mlàtx. (dat; something-dat)

Mercury, Hermes

proper noun: (god, planet) OnkrÌt.

metre

noun: (unit of length) 10.867 × xrÌ. (see appendix, Units of measurement)

midday, noon

noun: prilnÌ (djÌte).

midsummer

noun: filpskÌ.

midwinter

noun: fÌps.

Midwinter God; Father Christmas, Santa Claus

proper noun: (the Lemizh deity roughly corresponding to Father Christmas) fOpysrÌf.; children generally call him psrèb fÌpse.

milk

verb: xmlàg. (dat, agentive: an animal-nom)

noun: xmlÌg.

mine

possessive pronoun: relative pronoun with inner nominative as a genitive, i.e. mostly with benefactive (U)
For examples see unit 10, Stative verbs, and unit 11, Inner qualitative.

minute

noun: 2.848 × kril-rÌj. (see appendix, Time and Units of measurement)

misplace

verb: vàsk jìrxi. jirxvìrsk. (something-acc somewhere-dat etc.)

Mister (Mr), Mistress (Mrs)

noun: not translated; a formal address usually consists of just the surname. To distinguish the partners of a married couple, compound with Ìx., bÌ., respectively.

phrase: Mr and Mrs … compound the surname with dwÌ.

momentary

adjective: nÌyR. (usually modifying abstract nouns, i.e. those with inner fact)

monarch

noun: Rèc. (someone’s-dat king or queen)

Monday

noun: corresponds to djUt-nÌt. (‘Saturnian day’; see appendix, Date)

money, currency

noun: dùpq. (with outer partitive)

month

noun: (synodic month, time span from one new moon to the next, i.e. of 29.53 days on average) xarÌhk. (see appendix, Moon calendar and Units of measurement for usage)

Moon; Luna, Selene

proper noun: (Earth’s satellite, goddess) ihkè. (symbol: ☾)

moonlight, moonshine; moonbeam

noun: ihkÌ.

moonbeam as distinguished from moonlight, moonshine ihky.

more

adverb: tÌcd. (often with qualitative; often compounded; see unit 11, Verbs of comparison and Comparative)

morning

noun: djèRt.

most

adverb: Ìst. (often with partitive; often compounded; see unit 11, Verbs of comparison and Superlative)

mother

noun: mesè., rarely psrìb. (of someone-acc)

motherly

adjective: (like a mother) mesè. as a qualitative object

motive

noun: lÒl., (motivational context) lùl.

mount

noun: (animal used to ride on) xìc., xÌc.

mouse

noun: (also computer mouse) mÌs.

move

verb: jàx. (something-acc somewhere-dat etc., also non-sending; a body part-acc; over a distance self-transporting)

noun: (literal sense) jàx.

mum(my), mom

noun: memè.

music

noun: (specific music, piece of music) trÌgc.;
(art form) tràgc.

must

verb: dàxt. (dat: do something-acc; see unit 13, Overview of the modals)

my

possessive adjective: relative pronoun with inner nominative as a genitive attribute, i.e. mostly with benefactive (U)
For an example see unit 6, Relative pronouns.

myself

reflexive pronoun: see unit 6, Relative pronouns and Reflexivity vs. reciprocity

nabu

proper noun: (European currency unit) nabà. (see appendix, Units of measurement)

name

verb: jàt. (someone-dat something-acc after someone-psu)

noun: jÌt.

narrow, thin

adjective: mìl — rilc-crÌnyr. with the qualified noun in the acc (depictive, absorption possible) or dat (resultative) (see unit 12, Adjectivals; or with other weighting numerals);
inversion may be necessary for attributive use (see Attributes)

near(by)

adverb: (at a time nearby) filw-crÌaR. (to some time-nom);
(at a place nearby) — filwcrÌar. (to something-nom);
(to a place nearby) — filwcrÌir. (to something-nom);
(near in degree) xpÌj. (to something: bracket or compound)
(or with other weighting numerals; see unit 12, Temporal and spatial verbs)

adjective: mìl — filwcrÌar. (or other outer spatial/temporal cases) with the qualified noun in the acc (depictive, absorption possible) or dat (resultative) (see unit 12, Adjectivals);
inversion may be necessary for attributive use (see Attributes)

necessary; necessity

adjective; noun: dÌxt.

nephew

noun: frès., fresèx. (of someone-acc)

Neptune, Poseidon

proper noun: (god) niftnÌj.;
(planet) fOpysrÌf.

never

adverb: nÌaR.

new, young

adjective: mìl — crÌyR. with the qualified noun in the dat (resultative) or possibly acc (depictive, absorption possible) (see unit 12, Adjectivals; or with other weighting numerals);
inversion may be necessary for attributive use (see Attributes)

newton

noun: (unit of force) 24.81 × emblÌ. (see appendix, Units of measurement)

New Year’s Eve

noun: corresponds to djUtfÌps. (‘Neptunian day’; see appendix, Date)

next

adjective: tilcd-rìR/r. (head noun as an acc object; see unit 8, Ordinal numerals)
tilcdrìR djUtfrÌgy. is the Tuesday with the next higher week number, i.e. the one next week. Tuesday this week is tilcdnìR djUtfrÌgy.. Just use ‘Tuesday’ when clear from context (e.g. say ‘See you Tuesday’ for ‘See you next [= on the following] Tuesday’).

next but one tilcddwìR/r.
etc.

nice

adjective: (beautiful, aesthetically pleasing to the senses) prÌj.;
(likable, enjoyable, pleasant) rìh.

nickel

noun: itrÌh.

niece

noun: frès., fres. (of someone-acc)

nightmare

noun: (act of dreaming) Rest-hràk., (content of dreaming) ResthrÌk. ( hrèk Rèste.)

nightshade

noun: zmèw.

nimble

adjective: (someone nimble) krèxt.; (a nimble action) krÌxt.

nine

adjective, noun: nÌh.;
(in counting) nàh.

ninth

noun: one ninth rilRÌ nÌhyn. (see unit 7, Fractions)

adjective: nìR/rh. (head noun as an acc object; see unit 8, Ordinal numerals)

no

pronoun: (for no reason, we sell no hot dogs etc.) nÌ. in a bracket, or nà. as predicate (see unit 9, Inversion ban)

adverb: (no wiser, bigger etc.) nà. as predicate, plus comparative

particle: (answering a question) nà. (see unit 16, Polar questions)

nobody, none, nothing, nought, zero

adjective, pronoun: nÌ.

noise, sound

adjective: txÌsk.

north

noun: rilckexnÌ. (‘the left in Earth’s coordinate system’, as east is the direction in which Earth interacts with the sun[rise], and – equivalently – the direction in which its surface is moving; symbol: a Lemizh r turned 180°)

adverb: (we went north) — rilckexnÌUr. (allative object)

Just use rilckÌ. if the context is clear.

nose

noun: nùs. (with outer partitive)

not

adverb: nà. (not to do, do not do something-acc; see unit 6, Negators)

now

adverb: — vàaR. (pronoun with outer temporal), –aRwà. (compound with pronoun and epenthetic temporal; see unit 12, Tense);
filwnÌaR. (see unit 12, Temporal and spatial verbs)

nowhere

adverb: nÌar.

object

noun: (grammar) Rìc. (of a predicate-nom)

of

preposition: genitive attribute, i.e. mostly with benefactive (U)

ohm

noun: (unit of electric resistance) 0.6795 × fragmÌ. (see appendix, Units of measurement)

okay

adjective: srÌwd.

interjection: srìlwd:

old

adjective: mìl — dmÌyR. with the qualified noun in the dat (resultative) (see unit 12, Adjectivals; or with other weighting numerals);
inversion may be necessary for attributive use (see Attributes)

on

preposition: (on a day) temporal (aR) or episodic object (oR), gmilkÌaR. (something-nom) (or fragmenting partitive; see appendix, Date);
(on a thing) gmilnÌar –e. (‘at the surface of’ in the locative case, plus a reference object in the nominative; see unit 12, Adjectivals and ‘inside’ constructions)

once

adverb: rÌa. (often a factive bracket; see unit 8, Multiplicative numerals)

one

adjective, noun: rÌ.;
(in counting) rà.

only

adjective: nÌn. in ‘and’-coordination with the qualified word (which therefore also has an inner partitive)

onto

preposition: gmilnÌir –e. (‘at the surface of’ in the illative case, plus a reference object in the nominative; see unit 12, Adjectivals and ‘inside’ constructions)

oolong (tea)

noun: (drink) txi-flÌc., ([dried] leaves) txiflìc.

open

verb: (enable access) nàt. (acc, occasionally self-transporting; something-acc, also non-sending; also metaphorically, as for opportunities);
(extend, spread out, as of arms, wings) mà — tÌcdyr. (dat; something-dat; compare unit 12, Adjectivals)

adjective: (enabling access) nÌt.;
(extended, spread out) mìl — fÌwyr., with the qualified noun in the dat (resultative) or possibly acc (depictive, absorption possible) (see unit 12, Adjectivals); inversion may be necessary for attributive use (see Attributes)

opportunity

noun: màqk., màlqk.; mÌqk.

or

inclusive conjunction: (and/or) coordination with inner and outer partitives (see unit 4, Inclusive ‘or’, or unit 16, Alternative questions)

exclusive conjunction: (either … or) partitive bracket or coordination of ‘one’, ‘some’ or another suitable numeral with an inclusive ‘or’ (see either unit 5, Partitive bracket and coordination, or again unit 16, Alternative questions)

orange

adjective: (yellow-red) yphÌ.

noun: (the fruit) dryjyphÌ.;
(orange tree) dryjyphè.;
(orange colour) yphìl.

orangutan

noun: oranutnÌ.

order

verb: (command) dàxt. (someone-dat to do something-acc; see unit 13, Overview of the modals)

see also in order that

Orion

noun: (constellation) krèt. (see appendix, Constellations)

our

possessive adjective: relative pronoun with inner partitive nominative as a genitive attribute, i.e. mostly with benefactive (U)
For an example see unit 6, Relative pronouns.

ours

possessive pronoun: relative pronoun with inner partitive nominative as a genitive, i.e. mostly with benefactive (U)
For examples see unit 10, Stative verbs, and unit 11, Inner qualitative.

ourselves

reflexive pronoun: see unit 6, Relative pronouns and Reflexivity vs. reciprocity

outside

noun: gmÌ. (of something-nom)

adverb, preposition: — gmÌar. (something-nom), niljkÌar. (a group of things-nom)

adjective: mìl — gmÌar., mìl — niljkÌar. with the qualified noun in the acc (depictive, absorption possible) or dat (resultative) (see unit 12, Adjectivals);
inversion may be necessary for attributive use (see Attributes)

over

preposition: (above) Ìfar.;
(past a point above) — Ìfur. (both: something-nom; see unit 12, Adjectivals and Attributes for special constructions);
(regarding clothing, worn on top of) gmÌar. (something-nom)

overtake

verb: jàx prÌir. (self-transporting: someone-nom of prà.)

ox

noun: gwÌk.

oxygen

noun: mlèv.

pale

adjective: lÌbv.

verb: (turn pale/white) làbv. (dat)

part

noun: (of which something consists; component) krìj.;
(into which something is divided; fragment, scrap) skrÌp.

pascal

noun: (unit of pressure) 0.2101 × arÌc. (see appendix, Units of measurement)

password

noun: wordyplÌk.

paternal

adjective: (father’s) psrèb. as a genitive attribute;
(like a father) psrèb. as a qualitative object;
(paternal uncle/aunt) (younger) htrè psrèbi., (elder) htrì psrèbe.

pay

verb: dàpq. (an amount/price-acc to someone-dat for something-fin)

pear

noun: fisÌ.

pear tree

noun: fisè.

peck

verb: fàsk. (at something-dat)

pedestrian

noun: dnÌ.; (one without a specific aim) frÌw.

perceive

verb: fràdj. (dat: something-nom)

permission

noun: kmà., kmàl.

pi (π)

mathematical constant: equals τ⁄2 in Lemizh mathematical terminology

place

verb: jìrx. (something-acc somewhere-dat etc.)

noun: làr.

planet

noun: xtrÌj.

plastic

noun: psreb-qlÌp.

please

verb: ràh., spàz. (agentive caus, causal-reflexive: someone-nom)

adverb: use polite forms of requesting, for example with a weakening numeral (see unit 16, Imperative)

plumage

noun: krij-cnÌzd.

poem

noun: fesÌx.

point; Lemizh comma, hexadecimal separator (,)

noun: xÌk.

pointless

adjective: (without a purpose) nÌUl. (usually modifying gerund-like abstract nouns, i.e. those with inner fact)

pointy

adjective: xÙk.

poison

noun: pÌbc.

verb: jyxpàbc. (someone/something-dat)

poisonous, venomous

noun: (producing poison/venom) pèbc., (being the benefactor of a poison) pÙbc. (see unit 5, Adjectives of possession), (poisoned) jyxpìbc.

poodle

noun: oRwxÌf.

possess

verb: dìl. (dat: something-acc); or as a genitive: Lucy possesses a horse Ìhw lusÌU.

potato

noun: (vegetable) zmywtuber.
(plant) zmywtuberè.

pour, spill

verb: fmàxk. (something-acc somewhere-dat etc.)

predicate

noun: (grammar) Rèc. (of an object-dat)

press

verb: (exert force) ràwb. (against something-dat; also non-sending);
(compress, squeeze) yzàj. (something-dat into some shape-acc [e.g. flat])To distinguish from the meaning ‘crush’, use an acc object or – often simpler – a nominal verb expressing a shape.

noun: yzùj. (with outer partitive)

previous

adjective: tilcd-ril-kìR/r. (head noun as an acc object; see unit 8, Ordinal numerals)

price

noun: dÌpq. (of something-fin)

prick, sting

verb: skràj. (someone-dat)

noun: (instrument or body part for stinging) skrùj. (with outer partitive)
(hole, indentation or other effect of pricking or stinging) skrìlj.

profession

noun: xràj.

prosper, thrive

verb: Ràdj.

pull

verb: ràxp. (something-acc somewhere-dat etc. [dat can be ambiguous]; at something-dat; also non-sending)

punctiform

adjective: mìl — nÌyr. with the qualified noun in the acc (depictive, absorption possible) or dat (resultative) (see unit 12, Adjectivals);
inversion may be necessary for attributive use (see Attributes)

puppy

noun: wygw-cnÌ.

purchase

noun: (something bought) dÙlpq.

purple

adjective: (purple/violet) glÌst.; (purple/magenta) lilxwkÌ.

noun: (purple/violet colour) glìlst.; (purple/magenta colour) lilxwkìl.

push

verb: ràwb. (something-acc somewhere-dat etc. [dat can be ambiguous]; against something-dat; also non-sending)

put

verb: jàx. (something-acc somewhere-dat etc.)

queen

noun: (ruling queen) Rèc., Rec. (someone’s-dat);
(king’s wife) dwecRìc. (, dwecRecbè.)

quest

noun: (hero’s journey) bast-jàx.

queue

verb: (form a queue) sràq. (dat)
(stand in a queue) srìlq. (dat)

noun: srÌq.

mercury, quicksilver

noun: txatxÌf.

quiet

adjective: (someone, something quiet) txilsk-crè.; (a quiet noise or sound) txilskcrÌ. (or with other weighting numerals)

quite

adverb: (quite good, quite interesting etc.) dmÌja.

adjectival, phrase, quite a lot (of): dmÌj. (usually with partitive bracket; see unit 8, Cardinal numerals)

adverbial, quite often, in quite a number of places etc.: dmÌj. with outer non-plot case

race

verb, noun: làqk. (self-transporting: someone-dat/com)

radian

noun: (unit of angle) rÌ. (see appendix, Units of measurement)

rain

verb: wzràf.

noun: wzrÌf.

Ramo

proper noun: (pen name of the author of the Tlöngö̀l, the epic novel defining the onset of New Lemizh) ramòc.

read

verb: àsh. ([about] something-acc to someone-dat;
or non-sending, ins: something-nom about something-acc to someone-dat [see unit 14, Language related objects])

reason

noun: lÒl.

receive

verb: dà. (dat: something-acc from someone-nom)

recipient

noun: lì., dì.

recommend

verb: Ràks. (someone-dat [to do] something-acc; see unit 13, Overview of the modals)

recommendation

noun: Ràks.

red

adjective: rÌjd.

noun: (red colour, redness) rìljd.

redden

verb: ràjd. (dat: with embarrassment-caus, -psu; something-dat)

region

noun: làr.

related

adjective: (younger family member) fnèwb. (to someone-acc);
(older family member) fnÌwb. (to someone-nom)

relative

noun: (younger family member) fnèwb. (of someone-acc);
(older family member) fnÌwb. (of someone-nom)

remember

verb: (not forget to do) smàj. (dat: something-acc [with inner fact]; but often untranslated: ‘Remember to buy the artichockes!’ = ‘Buy the artichokes!’);
(be aware of, have in mind) smàj. (dat: something-acc [with inner non-fact, e.g. aff for actions]);
(recall to mind) smèRj. (dat: something-acc [with inner non-fact])

see also unit 14, Differences between infinitives and gerunds

request

verb: pràk. (something-acc from someone-dat)

noun: pràk.

rest

verb: lìlgc. (self-receiving, mainly dat)

noun: làgc.

rhinoceros

noun: korncx-nès.

rice

noun: wÌcz.

ride

verb, noun: xàc. (a horse etc.-dat [focusing on the horse being directed] or -acc [focusing on the horse moving]);
(be transported) jàx. (a train etc.-ins);
ride a bicycle telmàx.

right

adverbial, at the right: rÌcar.; to the right rÌci(r). (both: of something-nom)

adjective: (right side) mìl — rÌcar. with the qualified noun in the acc (depictive, absorption possible) or dat (resultative) (see unit 12, Adjectivals);
inversion may be necessary for attributive use (see Attributes)
;

(correct) pÌt.

rip, tear

verb: nàwb. (dat; something-dat into something-acc [e.g. into parts, two])

To distinguish from the meaning ‘stretch’, use an acc object or – often simpler – a nominal verb such as skràp. ‘split, turn into parts’ or dwà. ‘turn into two [parts]’.

rise

verb: (to a higher place) jàx Ìfir. jirxàf., (from a lower place) jerxilfkà. (self-transporting; also with the corresponding agent-centered spatial cases)

river

noun: argÌ.

robin; redthroat

noun: (Erithacus rubecula; Pyrrholaemus brunneus) kryst-rÙjd.

rogue, rascal

noun, adjective: khwèc.

roll

verb: xàxs. (something-acc somewhere-dat etc., also non-sending; self-transporting: somewhere ditto)

rose

noun: gwrÌjd.

rotate

verb: xàxs. (self-transporting; something-acc)

rubidium

noun: rijd-vnè.

rule

verb: (as a monarch) Ràc. (over someone-dat)

ruminant

noun: vnat-mlè.

run

verb, noun: nenà. (self-transporting: somewhere-dat etc.)

sad

adjective: spèj. (about something-acc/causal-transporting, also dat/causal-receiving, see Ambiguous usage)

sadden

verb: spàj. (agentive caus, causal-reflexive: someone-nom)

sadness

noun: spàj. (about something-acc/causal-transporting, also dat/causal-receiving, see Ambiguous usage)

sail

verb: jstà. (a ship-acc somewhere-dat etc.)

noun: jstù. (with outer partitive)

salt

noun: hlÌ.

verb: (put salt into) jyxhlà.;
(give a salty taste to) àhp. (both: something-dat)

salty

adjective: Ìhp.

same

adjective, pronoun: (the identical thing) pronoun (e.g. ‘I live in Stratford’ – ‘I live in the same town’ with a relative pronoun referring to Stratford; see also unit 11, Objects in comparisons for another example)
or omitted (e.g. ‘Are you the
same person who phoned me?’ = ‘Are you the person who phoned me?’);

(something similar, something of the same type) pronoun with inner qual (see unit 11, Circumventing identity of action)

Saturday

noun: corresponds to djUt-xnÌ. (‘Terrestrial day’; see appendix, Date)

Saturn, Kronos

proper noun: (god, planet) djistnÌt.

scarecrow

noun: fleeynèlzd.

scatter

verb: jàx wÌOr. (self-transporting: somewhere-ill etc.: people or things-acc somewhere ditto)

scene

noun: (in the generic sense) lòr.

scissors

noun: pslù. (with outer partitive)

search

verb, noun: xàsk. ([for] something-acc)

seat

verb: zdàs. (someone-acc somewhere-dat etc.)

noun: zdòrs.

second

noun: (unit of time) 0.759 × krÌ. (see appendix, Time and Units of measurement)

adjective: (2nd) dwìR/r. (head noun as an acc object; see unit 8, Ordinal numerals)

see

verb: dmàt. (dat: something-nom, the image of something-acc)

seldom

adverb: crÌaR.

sergeant

noun: oshèc.

set

verb: set fire vnà. (agentive caus: to something-dat)

seven

adjective, noun: qÌf.;
(in counting) qàf.

seventh

noun: one seventh rilRÌ qÌfyn. (see unit 7, Fractions)

adjective: qìR/rf. (head noun as an acc object; see unit 8, Ordinal numerals)

several

adjective, noun: mlÌ.

Shabar

proper noun: (the capital of Lemaria) habÌ.

Shabazean

adjective: (of Shabar, the capital of Lemaria) habÌ. as a genitive attribute

shall, should

verb: (I should; shall, should we?) Ràks. (dat: do something-acc; see unit 13, Overview of the modals and The fuzziness of English modals)

shallow

adjective: (not much extending horizontally, as a wardrobe) mìl — pril-crÌnyr., (not much extending downwards, as a pond) mìl — ilfcrÌnyr. with the qualified noun in the acc (depictive, absorption possible) or dat (resultative) (see unit 12, Adjectivals; or with other weighting numerals);
inversion may be necessary for attributive use (see Attributes)

sharp

adjective: (pointy) xÙk.

sharpen

verb: (to a point, like a pencil) xàk. (something-ben)

shatter, smash

verb: (by hitting something) dwnàt. (dat; something-dat into something-acc [e.g. shards]) — To distinguish from the meaning ‘hit’, use an acc object or – often simpler – a nominal verb such as skràp. ‘split, turn into parts’ or shardà. ‘turn into shards’;
(dreams) nà. (dat)

she

personal pronoun: definite or relative pronoun or bÌ. (see unit 6, Demonstrative pronouns)

shh!

interjection: hh:

shine

phrase: the moon shines ihkà.;
a star shines, (the) stars shine màqx.;
the sun shines sxnàz.

ship

noun: Ìkh.

shipyard, space dock

noun: mÌg., (clarifying compound used by landlubbers) mUgÌkh.

shore

noun: splÌj.

short

adjective: (temporal) mìl — crÌyR., (spatial) mìl — prilcrÌnyr. (or with other weighting numerals), with the qualified noun in the acc (depictive, absorption possible) or dat (resultative) (see unit 12, Adjectivals; or with other weighting numerals);
inversion may be necessary for attributive use (see Attributes)

shoulder

noun: RÌxt.

verb: jixRàxt. (something-acc)

Shrek

noun: (legendary, ogre-like creature) hrèk. (lit.‘gravel-maker’)

sibling

noun: (younger sibling) htrè. (of someone-acc);
(older sibling) htrÌ. (of someone-nom)

sibling-in-law

noun: (sibling’s spouse) xnrè. (of someone-acc);
(spouse’s sibling) xnrÌ. (of someone-nom)

sibling object

noun: (in Lemizh grammar) (later [right] sibling object) htrè. (of another-acc);
(earlier [left] sibling object) htrÌ. (of another-nom)

siemens

noun: (unit of electrical conductance) 1.472 × rilRÌ fragmÌyn. (see appendix, Units of measurement)

silence

noun: txilsknìl.

silent

adjective: txilsknè.

silicon

noun: qmy-hrìk.

silver

noun: (metal) etxÌt.;
(colour) RymcjetxÌt.

simple

adjective: (uncompounded) krijrÌ. (see unit 8, Composite numerals)

since

preposition: ingressive object (eR)

subordinating conjunction: causative (el), persuasive (Ol) or ingressive clause

single

adjective: (one [individual]) rÌ.;
(uncompounded) krijrÌ. (see unit 8, Composite numerals)

sink

verb: jàx ilfkÌi/Ur. ji/Urxilfkà. (acc, occasionally self-transporting; something-acc; also with other verbs of movement, especially ràxp.)

noun: (of an action) lì.

sister

noun: (younger sister) htrè., htre. (of someone-acc);
(older sister) htrÌ., htrybÌ. (of someone-nom)

sister-in-law

noun: (sibling’s wife) xnrè., xnre. (of someone-acc);
(spouse’s sister) xnrÌ., xnrybÌ. (of someone-nom)

sit

verb: zdìls.; (sit down) zdàs. (self-transporting: somewhere-dat etc.)

six

adjective, noun: swÌh.;
(in counting) swàh.

sixteen

adjective, noun: rÌj.;
(in counting) ràj.

sixteenth

noun: one sixteenth rilRÌ rÌjyn. (see unit 7, Fractions)

adjective: rìR/rj. (head noun as an acc object; see unit 8, Ordinal numerals)

sixth

noun: one sixth rilRÌ swÌhyn. (see unit 7, Fractions)

adjective: swìR/rh. (head noun as an acc object; see unit 8, Ordinal numerals)

sixty-five thousand five hundred thirty-six (65,536)

adjective, noun: mrÌj.;
(in counting) mràj.

sixty-five thousand five hundred thirty-sixth

noun: one sixty-five thousand five hundred thirty-sixth (1⁄65,536) rilRÌ mrÌjyn. (see unit 7, Fractions)

adjective: 65,536th mrìR/rj. (head noun as an acc object; see unit 8, Ordinal numerals)

skin, peel

noun: lÌf.

verb: dylàf. (agentive dat: something-nom)

sleep

verb, noun: màt. (self-receiving)

slow

adjective: (someone slow) filt-crè.; (a slow action) filtcrÌ. (or with other weighting numerals)

small

adjective: mìl — crÌyr., (in height) mìl — ilfcrÌnyr., (in extension) mìl — filwcrÌnyr. with the qualified noun in the acc (depictive, absorption possible) or dat (resultative) (see unit 12, Adjectivals; or with other weighting numerals);
inversion may be necessary for attributive use (see Attributes)

smell

verb: nàs. (dat: something-nom; nom: of something-acc)

noun: nÌs.

smoke and ashes

phrase: vnÌ.

snow

verb: snàw.

noun: snÌw.

so

adverb: (sentence-initial, announcing a consequence) ìl. plus consecutive clause (il)

subordinating conjunction: consecutive (il) or final clause (Ul);
so that final clause

Socrates

proper noun: sokrateÌs.

sodium

noun: èhp.

some…, any…

indefinite adjective and pronoun, some/any, someone/anyone, somebody/anybody, something/anything: gwÌ. (see unit 6, Demonstrative pronouns);
some (several, more than one): mlÌ.;
some (a fairly small amount): RÌbv. (usually with partitive bracket; see unit 8, Cardinal numerals)

indefinite adverb(ial), some time / any time, somewhere/anywhere, etc.: gwÌ. with outer non-plot case;
sometimes, in some places etc.: RÌbv. with outer non-plot case

indefinite adverb, somewhat: — RÌbva.

phrase, not any more: topicalisation of the egressive (iR)

son

noun: psrÌb., psrybÌx. (of a father-nom and a mother-dat); mesÌ., mesyÌx. (of a mother-nom)

sort, type

verb: màh. (something-dat into something-acc)

noun: mÌh.

so that

subordinating conjunction: consecutive clause (il) (see unit 15, Clauses with other conjunctions)

sour, acidic

adjective: Ìtx.

source, sender

noun: lè.

south

noun: rec-xnÌ. (‘the right in Earth’s coordinate system’, as east is the direction in which Earth interacts with the sun[rise], and – equivalently – the direction in which its surface is moving; symbol: r)

adverb: (we went south) — recxnÌUr. (allative object)

Just use rÌc. if the context is clear.

space

noun: (outer space) gme-xnÌ. (Just use gmÌ. if the context is clear.)

sparrow

noun: stnÌt.

split

verb: (generally divide, break) skràp.;
(specifically split with an axe) wnàd. (both: dat; something-dat into something-acc [e.g. in two])

spouse

noun: dwèc. (tends to mean ‘husband’), dwìc. (tends to mean ‘wife’)

squirrel

noun: (tree squirrel) ksmÌs.

stand

verb: (place a person upright) pàf. (someone-acc somewhere-dat etc.);
(of a person: stand upright) pìlf., (stand up, get up) pàf. (self-transporting: somewhere ditto)

(place an object upright, position vertically) àf Ìfi –e. ‘make the area upwards of the object into an area upwards [in the default coordinate system]’, or with other spatial verbs depending on the orientation of the object’s coordinate system (see unit 12, Orientation);
(of an object: stand upright, be positioned vertically) ìlf Ìfi –e.

(don’t move, stand still) jaxnà., (stop moving) jìRx. (self-transporting: somewhere ditto; or with other verbs of movement)

star

noun: mèqx.

starlight

noun: mÌqx.

start

verb: topicalisation of the ingressive (eR)

noun: (of an activity) inner ingressive

statue

noun: agmÌ.

steal

verb: klàp. (dat: something-acc)

steer

verb: ràt. (something, especially a vehicle-acc, or someone; acc for the thing moved or dat for the thing manoeuvred, also metaphorically)

steradian

noun: (unit of solid angle) poweredwÌ rÌi. (see appendix, Units of measurement)

still

adjective: (not moving) jaxnÌ.

adverb: (as before) negated topicalisation of the egressive (–iRnà.)

strength

noun: blìl.

strengthen

verb: blà. (dat; something-dat)

strong

adjective: blÌ.

subject

noun: (someone ruled over) Rìc. (of a king or queen-nom);
(grammar) There is no difference between a subject and an object in Lemizh, i.e. Rìc. (of a predicate-nom)

suck

phrase: suck milk xmlàg. (dat, agentive: from a woman-nom)

sugar

noun: srÌx.

verb: jyxsràx. (something-dat)

suggest

verb: Ràks. (someone-dat [to do] something-acc; see unit 13, Overview of the modals)

suggestion

noun: Ràks.

Sun; Sol, Helios

proper noun (star, god) sxnèz. (symbol: 🞼)

Sunday

noun: corresponds to djUt-xmÌj. (‘Uranian day’; see appendix, Date)

sunlight, sunshine; sunbeam, sunray

noun: sxnÌz.

sunbeam, sunray as distinguished from sunlight, sunshine sxnyz.

surface

noun: (overside, up-side) ilfnÌ., (outside hull) gmilnÌ. (of something-nom)

surprise

verb: fràx. (agentive caus, causal-reflexive: someone-nom)

noun: (feeling of surprise) fràx. (about something-acc/causal-transporting, also dat/causal-receiving, see Ambiguous usage), (reason for surprise, something surprising) frÌx., frÒlx., also frìx. (ambiguous usage)

sweet

adjective: mlÌv.

sweeten

verb: mlàv. (dat; something-dat)

sweetener

noun: mlùv. (with outer partitive)

sweet pepper, bell pepper

noun: (vegetable) zmyw-mlÌv.
(plant) zmywmlèv.

swim

verb, noun: (swim actively, propel through water) cnàk. (self-transporting: somewhere-dat etc.);
(swim passively, float) see float

take

verb: dà. (dat, agentive: something-acc from someone-nom)

tan

verb: wrà. (dat; something-dat)

noun: wrìl.

tango

verb, noun: tamgà. (with someone-dat – the man is usually in the nom and the lady in the dat)

tar

noun: qlÌp.

Taurus

noun: (constellation) stry-Ìx. (see appendix, Constellations)

tea

noun: black/green/white tea (from the plant Camellia sinensis), spiced tea (beverage) txÌ.;
([dried] leaves) txì.

See txà. for different types of tea.

teach

verb: gwàt. (someone-dat something-acc; something-acc to someone-dat [the latter could be translated as a progressive aspect])

teacher

noun: gwèt.

television, TV

noun: (medium; TV set) dmet-fùw. (with outer partitive)

tell

verb: (command) dàxt. (someone-dat to do something-acc; see unit 13, Overview of the modals)

ten

adjective, noun: dÌh.;
(in counting) dàh.

tennessine

noun: ksry-nÌs.

tenth

noun: one tenth rilRÌ dÌhyn. (see unit 7, Fractions)

adjective: dìR/rh. (head noun as an acc object; see unit 8, Ordinal numerals)

Terra, Tellus, Gaia

proper noun: (goddess, also the Earth when explicitly referred to as a planet among the others) djingmesrÌ.

tesla

noun: (unit of magnetic flux density) 0.09983 × UdreÌ. (see appendix, Units of measurement)

text

noun: srÌb. (by someone-nom)

than

subordinating conjunction, preposition: qualitative coordination following the predicate tàcd. (see unit 11, Verbs of comparison), or a predicate compounded with tàcd. (see units 11, Comparative, and 15, Comparison clauses)

that

subordinating conjunction: accusative or sometimes persuasive (Ol) clause (see unit 15, ‘that’-clauses);
see also in order that, so that

demonstrative adjective and pronoun: (that one) tÌ. (see unit 6, Demonstrative pronouns);
(that [one] there as opposed to ‘this [one] here’) fÌw. (see unit 12, Temporal and spatial verbs: Pronouns)

restrictive relative pronoun: partitive bracket or coordination with inner plot case (see unit 16, Restrictive relative clauses)

the

article: not translated; use a pronoun to translate the accompanied noun when possible. Using pronouns to refer to things that have already been introduced ensures that we are referring to the same things, not to new ones of the same kind: see these two examples in unit 6.
If the accompanied noun hasn’t been introduced, to expressly state that it exists (‘He sees the white mice’) use a topicalisation.

adverb, the … the …: positive comparison (see unit 11, Comparative)

their

possessive adjective: definite or relative pronoun or (male) Ìx., (female) bÌ., all as a genitive attribute, i.e. mostly with benefactive (U)
For an example see unit 6, Relative pronouns.

theirs

possessive pronoun: definite or relative pronoun or (male) Ìx., (female) bÌ., all as a genitive, i.e. mostly with benefactive (U)
For examples see unit 10, Stative verbs, and unit 11, Inner qualitative.

themselves

reflexive pronoun: see unit 6, Relative pronouns and Reflexivity vs. reciprocity

then

adverb: relative pronoun with outer temporal, referring to the relevant action;
tÌaR.;
(at a distant time) fÌwaR. (see unit 12, Temporal and spatial verbs)

there

adverb: tÌar. (see unit 6, Demonstrative pronouns);
(as opposed to ‘here’) fÌwar. (see unit 12, Temporal and spatial verbs)

therefore

adverb: tÌel., — tÌOl. (see unit 6, Demonstrative pronouns)

they, them

personal pronoun: definite or relative pronoun or (male) Ìx., (female) bÌ. (see unit 6, Demonstrative pronouns)

thief

noun: klèp.

third

noun: one third rilRÌ trÌyn. (see unit 7, Fractions)

adjective: trìR/r. (head noun as an acc object; see unit 8, Ordinal numerals)

thirteen

adjective, noun: Ìc.;
(in counting) àc.

thirteenth

noun: one thirteenth rilRÌ Ìcyn. (see unit 7, Fractions)

adjective: ìR/rc. (head noun as an acc object; see unit 8, Ordinal numerals)

this (one)

demonstrative adjective and pronoun: tÌ. (see unit 6, Demonstrative pronouns);
(this [one] here as opposed to ‘that [one] there’) filw-crÌ. (or with other weighting numerals; see unit 12, Temporal and spatial verbs: Pronouns);
this week, year, Tuesday (= Tuesday this week) etc. tilcdnìR. (head noun as an acc object; see unit 8, Ordinal numerals) Just use ‘Tuesday’ when clear from context.

thousand

adjective, noun: 3E8hex xtynè ilb-rynjè tril-skmÌne.

thousandth

noun: one thousandth (1⁄3E8hex) rilRÌ xtynÌn ilb-rynjÌn tril-skmÌnyn. (see unit 7, Fractions)

adjective: mìR/r xtynÌ ilbrynjÌ trilskmÌny. (head noun as an acc object; see unit 8, Ordinal numerals)

three

adjective, noun: trÌ.;
(in counting) trà.

thrice

adverb: trÌa. (often a factive bracket; see unit 8, Multiplicative numerals)

throat

noun: krÌst.

Thursday

noun: corresponds to djUt-xÌps. (‘Jovian day’; see appendix, Date)

thus

adverb: (as a result, sentence-initial, announcing a consequence) ìl. plus consecutive clause (il);
(in this way) taà.

time

noun: làR.

adverbial, three times etc.: trÌa. etc. (often a factive bracket; see unit 8, Multiplicative numerals)

Tlöngö̀l

proper noun: (the epic novel defining the onset of New Lemizh) tlOnÒl.

to

particle: (infinitive marker) not translated

preposition: (give/say something to a person etc.) dative object (i);

(to, until a time) egressive object (iR) only if the time is continuous (such as ‘daytime’ or ‘nighttime’);
gmilkÌiR –e. (‘inside’ in the egressive case, plus a reference object in the nominative; see unit 12, Adjectivals and ‘inside’ constructions);
egressive object with a fragmenting partitive;

(to a place) analogous, with the illative (ir)

today

adjective: djyt-tilcd-. (compare ‘tomorrow’)

tomato

noun: (vegetable) zmyw-xalÌ.
(plant) zmywxalè.

tomorrow

adjective: djyt-tilcd-. (‘next daytime’)
tomorrow night: nightytilcdrÌ.
the day after tomorrow djyttilcddwÌ.
etc.

tonight

adjective: nighty-tilcd-. (compare ‘tomorrow night’)

too

adverb: (more than enough, to an excessive degree) comparative (see unit 13, ‘enough’ and ‘too’);
(also, as well) see also

tooth

noun: (molar) vnùt. (with outer partitive)

tortoise, turtle

noun: fkrÌj.

towards

preposition: allative object (Ur)

triple, ternary

adjective: (threefold) trÌ.;
(to highlight the composite aspect, i.e. three parts forming a whole as opposed to one thing in three parts) krijtrì. (see unit 8, Composite numerals)

Troy

proper noun: (home country of the Troyans) droàr.

Troyan

proper noun, adjective: (person from Troy, pertaining to Troy) droÌ.

trumpet

noun: saxùf. (with outer partitive)

trumpet player

noun: saxèf.

try

verb, noun: fnà. ([to do] something-acc)

Tuesday

noun: corresponds to djUt-frÌg. (‘Martian day’; see appendix, Date)

Turkish Delight

noun: droÌ krÌstU. droUkrÌst. (lit. ‘Troyan thing [beneficient] for the throat’)

turn

verb: (rotate) xàxs. (self-transporting; something-acc);
(change orientation) with constructions such as those in Orientation in unit 12, typically with topicalised fact;
(become, change) mà. (something-dat into something-acc; dat: into something-acc)

turquoise

adjective: (blue-green) riljdkÌ.

noun: (turquoise colour) riljdkìl.

twelfth

noun: one twelfth rilRÌ frÌyn. (see unit 7, Fractions)

adjective: frìR/r. (head noun as an acc object; see unit 8, Ordinal numerals)

twelve

adjective, noun: frÌ.;
(in counting) frà.

twice

adverb: dwÌa. (often a factive bracket; see unit 8, Multiplicative numerals)

twist

verb: (deform or break by torsion) tràd. (dat; something-dat into something-acc [e.g. into some shape, into parts, in two])

To distinguish the ‘deforming’ meaning from the ‘breaking’ meaning, use an acc object or – often simpler – a nominal verb expressing a shape, versus a nominal verb such as skràp. ‘split, turn into parts’ or dwà. ‘turn into two [parts]’.

two

adjective, noun: dwÌ.;
(in counting) dwà.

twofold, threefold etc.

adjective: (double, triple etc.) dwÌ., trÌ. etc.;
(to highlight the integritive aspect, i.e. one thing in two [or more] parts as opposed to two [or more] parts forming a whole) krijdwÌ. etc. (see unit 8, Composite numerals)

two hundred fifty-six (256)

adjective, noun: skmÌ.;
(in counting) skmà.

two hundred fifty-sixth

noun: one two hundred fifty-sixth (1⁄256) rilRÌ skmÌyn. (see unit 7, Fractions)

adjective: 256th skmìR/r. (head noun as an acc object; see unit 8, Ordinal numerals)

ugly

adjective: priljnÌ., priljkÌ.

ultimate

adjective: (last) jnìR/r. (head noun as an acc object; see unit 8, Ordinal numerals)

uncle

noun: (related by blood) frÌs., frysÌx. (of someone-nom)

under

preposition: (below) ilfkÌar.;
(to below) — ilfkÌir.;
(past a point below) — ilfkÌur. (all: something-nom; see unit 12, Adjectivals and Attributes for special constructions)

undo, annul, destroy

verb: nà. (something-dat; also with inner cons for the object, see unit 6, ‘unknot’)

unintentional

adjective: nÌo. (usually modifying gerund-like abstract nouns, i.e. those with inner fact)

unless

subordinating conjunction: weak linking of a negated causative clause (see unit 15, Conditional clauses); among other possibilities (see Alternative translations)

unlock

verb: plàk. (something-dat, a lock-acc to something-dat)

until

preposition: egressive object (iR)

subordinating conjunction: egressive clause (see unit 15, Clauses with other conjunctions)

up

adverb, preposition: (to a place above) Ìfir., (from a place below) — ilfkÌer. (up something-nom; see unit 12, Adjectivals and Attributes for special constructions)

upper

adjective: mìl — Ìfar. with the qualified noun in the acc (depictive, absorption possible) or dat (resultative) (see unit 12, Adjectivals);
inversion may be necessary for attributive use (see Attributes)

uranium

noun: eÌfs.

Uranus

proper noun: (planet) niftnÌj.

use

transitive verb, noun: instrumental object (u) of an appropriate verb (e.g. use a pencil, make use of a pencil: writeà pencilÌnu., drawà pencilÌnu.; all the uses of pencils jnyà pencilÌnu.)

intransitive verb: (I used to do this) habitual past tense (see Aspect)

vector

noun: (mathematics) dnà.

venom

noun: pÌbc.

Venus, Aphrodite

proper noun: (goddess, planet) usrÌ.

very

adverb: dmÌa. (or with other weighting numerals)

view

noun: (act of seeing) dmàt.; (range of vision) dmÌrt.; (something seen, something looked at, scenery) dmè(r)t.;
(mental viewpoint) thinkèr., thinkìr.

viewpoint

noun: (literal, optical sense) dmìrt.; (metaphorical, mental sense) thinkèr., thinkìr.

violet

adjective: (red-blue) glÌst.

noun: (violet colour) glìlst.

volt

noun: (unit of voltage or magnetic current) 15.54 × disfÌk. (see appendix, Units of measurement)

vomit

verb: ilvnà.

vote

verb: jbàt. (for something/someone-acc/dat)

noun: translated verbally, i.e. ‘I gave my vote to X’ = ‘I voted for X’, ‘Your vote is invalid’ = ‘you voted invalidly’

walk

verb, noun: dnà. (self-transporting: somewhere-dat etc.);
(amble, stroll; walk without a specific aim) fràw. (self-transporting)

waltz

verb, noun: xaxsà. (with someone-dat – the man is usually in the nom and the lady in the dat)

want

verb: làxt. (something-acc [from someone-dat]; [someone-dat] to do something-acc; see unit 13, Overview of the modals)

war

verb, noun: nàgc. (with/against someone-dat)

watch

verb: (look at something for a period of time) dmÌRt. (dat, agentive: something-nom)

phrase: to watch television dmetfàw.

water

noun: xÌf.

verb: dyxàf (something-dat)

watt

noun: (unit of power) 355.5 × melÌs. (see appendix, Units of measurement)

we, us

personal pronoun: relative pronoun with inner partitive nominative (see unit 6, Relative pronouns)

weak

adjective: blil-crÌ. (or with other weighting numerals)

weaken

verb: blil-crà. (or with other weighting numerals), blakà. (dat; something-dat)

weather

noun: xÌps.

weber

noun: (unit of magnetic charge or flux) 11.79 × OÌs. (see appendix, Units of measurement)

wedding

noun: dwàc.

Wednesday

noun: corresponds to djUt-Ìxk. (‘Mercurian day’; see appendix, Date)

week

noun: djÌvf. (see appendix, Units of measurement, for usage)

weigh

verb: (determine a weight) gwàt lìlty. (dat: something-acc [object of lìlt.]);
(have a weight) dìl. (dat: some weight-acc); lìlt. (acc: as much as something-qualacc; also resultative with dat and qualdat)

weight

noun: lìlt.

west

noun: prilkexnÌ. (‘the back in Earth’s coordinate system’, as east is the direction in which Earth interacts with the sun[rise], and – equivalently – the direction in which its surface is moving; symbol: g, i.e. a turned p)

adverb: (we went west) — prilkexnÌUr. (allative object)

Just use prilkÌ. if the context is clear.

whale

noun: gÌd.

what

interrogative pronoun: yd-. plus dative object with inner plot case, plus bracket (see unit 16, wh-questions)

whatever

subordinating conjunction: clause in a plot case with gwà. and a partitive bracket (see unit 15, Clauses with other conjunctions)

relative pronoun: gwà., usually with inner plot case and often forming a partitive bracket (see unit 16, Headless relative clauses)

wheel

noun: kùk. (with outer partitive)

when

subordinating conjunction: temporal clause (aR) (see unit 15, Clauses with other conjunctions)

relative adverb: bracket or coordination with inner temporal; in restrictive clauses, the bracket/coordination is sometimes partitive (see unit 16, Relative clauses)

interrogative adverb: [yd]. plus dative object with inner temporal (see unit 16, wh-questions)

whenever

subordinating conjunction: temporal clause (aR) with gwà. and a partitive bracket (see unit 15, Clauses with other conjunctions)

relative adverb: gwà., usually with inner plot case and forming a partitive bracket with an object having an inner temporal (see unit 16, Headless relative clauses)

where

subordinating conjunction: locative (ar) or illative clause (ir) (see unit 15, Clauses with other conjunctions)

relative adverb: bracket or coordination with inner locative or illative; in restrictive clauses, the bracket/coordination is sometimes partitive (see unit 16, Relative clauses)

interrogative adverb: [yd]. plus dative object with inner locative or illative (see unit 16, wh-questions)

wherefore

subordinating conjunction: factive (a), consecutive clause (il) or the like, often in a bracket, with inner causative (el) or persuasive (Ol) (see unit 16, Attributive and adverbial clauses)

wherever

subordinating conjunction: locative (ar) or illative clause (ir) with gwà. and a partitive bracket (see unit 15, Clauses with other conjunctions)

relative adverb: gwà., usually with inner plot case and forming a partitive bracket with an object having an inner locative or illative (see unit 16, Headless relative clauses)

whether

interrogative pronoun: la. plus accusative object, often with inner factive (see unit 16, Polar questions)

which

relative pronoun: bracket or coordination with inner plot case; in restrictive clauses, the bracket/coordination is sometimes partitive (see unit 16, Relative clauses)

interrogative pronoun: yd-. plus dative object with inner plot case, plus partitive bracket (see unit 16, wh-questions)

subordinating conjunction: factive (a), consecutive clause (il) or the like, often in a bracket, with inner plot case (see unit 16, Attributive and adverbial clauses)

whichever

relative pronoun: gwà., usually with inner plot case and forming a partitive bracket (see unit 16, Headless relative clauses)

while

subordinating conjunction: temporal clause (aR);
to specify that an event occurs while another is in progress: temporal clause with gmilkÌ. (or fragmenting partitive), or episodic clause (oR) (see unit 15, Clauses with other conjunctions)

white

adjective: lÌbv.; (pure white) lilbvjnÌ.

noun: (white colour, whiteness, lightness in colour) lìlbv.; (pure whiteness) lilbvjnìl.

whiten

verb: làbv.; (make pure white) lilbvcnà. (dat; something-dat)

who, whom

relative pronoun: bracket or coordination with inner plot case; in restrictive clauses, the bracket/coordination is sometimes partitive (see unit 16, Relative clauses)

interrogative pronoun: [yd]. plus dative object with inner plot case (see unit 16, wh-questions)

whoever, whomever

subordinating conjunction: clause in a plot case with gwà. and a partitive bracket (see unit 15, Clauses with other conjunctions)

relative pronoun: gwà., usually with inner plot case and forming a partitive bracket (see unit 16, Headless relative clauses)

why

relative adverb: bracket or coordination with inner causative or persuasive; in restrictive clauses, the bracket/coordination is sometimes partitive (see unit 16, Relative clauses)

interrogative adverb: [yd]. plus dative object with inner causative or persuasive (see unit 16, wh-questions)

wild-goose chase

noun: krat-ylàs. (for someone/something-acc)

wind

noun: xnÌt., (poetic, personifying) xngèt.

wisdom

noun: (property of being wise) mìlv.;
(wise saying, piece of wise advice) speakemÌv.

wise

adjective: (someone wise) mèv.; (a wise deed, saying, thought) mÌv.

wish

verb: làxt. (something-acc [from someone-dat]; [someone-dat] to do something-acc; see unit 13, Overview of the modals)

noun: làxt., làlxt.; (the wished thing, as in ‘My greatest wish is to dance.’) lÌxt.

wit

noun: mìlsk.

witch

noun: trèw.

witchcraft

noun: tràw.

with

preposition: (accompanied by) comitative object (O);
(by means of) instrumental object (u);
(having, as in ‘a river with a dam) bracket with inverted genitive, i.e. mostly with inner benefactive

without

preposition: (not accompanied by) nÌ.-modified comitative object (O);
(without the means of) nÌ.-modified instrumental object (u);
(not having) bracket with inverted genitive – i.e. mostly with inner benefactive – that is also a nÌ.-modified object (e.g. a river without a dam: riverÌ damynÙy.)

witty

adjective: (someone witty) mèsk.; (a witty deed, saying, thought) mÌsk.

wolf

noun: xrÌw.

world

noun: (inhabited/habitable world as opposed to the sky or mythological/religious places) xnàr.;
(Universe) jnÌ.

write

verb: sràb. (something-acc to someone-dat)

wrong

adjective: (made wrong) vìsk., (being wrong, being an error) vÌsk.; (not right) piltnÌ.

year

noun: (solar year) OtÌ. (see appendix, Date and Units of measurement for usage);
(lunar year) OteihkÌ. (see appendix, Moon calendar)

yellow

adjective: dÌv.

noun: (yellow colour, yellowness) dìlv.

verb: dàv. (dat; something-dat)

yes

particle: Ì. (see unit 16, Polar questions)

yesterday

adjective: djyt-tilcd-ril-kÌ. (‘the previous daytime’)
the day before yesterday djyttilcddwilkÌ.
etc.

you

personal pronoun: relative pronoun with inner dative (see unit 6, Relative pronouns)

young

adjective, noun: (general) see new;
(not having reached puberty; child) cnÌ.

your

possessive adjective: relative pronoun with inner dative as a genitive attribute, i.e. mostly with benefactive (U)
For an example see unit 6, Relative pronouns.

yours

possessive pronoun: relative pronoun with inner dative as a genitive, i.e. mostly with benefactive (U)
For examples see unit 10, Stative verbs, and unit 11, Inner qualitative.

yourself, yourselves

reflexive pronoun: see unit 6, Relative pronouns and Reflexivity vs. reciprocity

Zarathustra

proper noun: (ancient philosopher and poet) zaraqÌht.