lemÌc. Lemizh grammar and dictionary

Complete Lemizh / English dictionary with 345 lemmata

à.

relative pronoun type II level n: see unit 6, Relative pronouns

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem a, formed after the Ghean relative pronouns
a f‑a s‑a sh‑a x‑a / fˇ‑a sˇ‑a shˇ‑a xˇ‑a
/a ɸa s̟a ʃa χa / βa z̟a ʒa ʁa/

argà.

to make rivers

Etymology

NLem arg‑a
LMLem, MLem arg‑ar
OLem arg‑ ‘flow, drip’
PLem *arg‑, root present of
PIE *reg̑‑

Expected would be ModLem **ràg., but poststem formation was inhibited by the fact that rivers are mythologically female, as in other PIE languages.

Cognates

Ice raki ‘moisture, dampness’

aràc.

to make a pressure unit, a pressure of 4.759 pascals (see appendix, Units of measurement)

Etymology

gender change of
NLem aer‑a, academic loan of
Koi ἀήρ ‘air, wind’
SHell *awḗr
PIE *h₂u̯éh₁‑r, r-stem noun of
  PIE *h₂u̯eh₁‑ ‘blow’

Like the momentum unit, this word was probably masculinised to show some vigour.

Cognates

Eng wi‑nd, Ger wehen ‘blow (wind)’

antà.

technically: to make glacial lakes, informally: to make large lakes

Etymology

academic back formation from
antÌ àrxy. Ìx antàry. antarÌx. ‘Attersee’
Dan Ανταροχ

antaràx.

to make Attersee (a glacial lake in Danubia)

Etymology

Dan Ανταροχ

agmà.

to make/build statues

Connotations

Unsurprisingly, statues are commonly used as metaphors for slowness and immobility, as in lìl agmÌem. ‘be still like a statue’.

Etymology

NLem agm‑a
LMLem àgalma‑yr ‘statue, bust’
Koi ἄγαλμα
Koi ἀγάλλομαι ‘be proud, exult in’, of unknown origin

àd.

to give someone/something an identity (see unit 16, wh-questions)

Etymology

NLem yd‑a
LMLem, MLem yd‑yr
Ghe ətˇ‑ə /ədə/

àb.

to make fourteen individuals

Etymology

NLem ob‑a
LMLem, MLem ob‑yl
Ghe opˇ‑i /ɔbɪ/

àk.

to make air

Etymology

NLem akn‑a
LMLem, MLem akn‑yr
Ghe aqⁿ‑ə /aqⁿə/

àkh.

to make/build ships

Etymology

NLem akx‑a
LMLem, MLem akx‑yr
Ghe aqx‑ə /aqχə/

àtx.

to make sour, acidic, to give a sour taste to something-dat, to make an acid

ètx. hydrogen

Connotations

If not qualified with a weakening numeral, this word usually describes something as having a really sour taste (up to and including strong acids in the chemical sense). This is attested from Early New Lemizh.

Etymology

NLem Otx‑a
LMLem, MLem Otxx‑yr
Ghe ötxx‑ə /œtχχə/

àpq.

to make gold

Connotations

Gold is highly valued among artists, who have frequently been gold-plating all kinds of their work since Early New Lemizh times. This leaves the rest of the Lemizh population at a loss. In Modern Lemizh, Ìpq. is used metonymically to denote such gilded works.

Etymology

NLem apf‑a
LMLem, MLem aptf‑yr
Ghe aptf‑ə /aptɸə/

àc.

to make thirteen individuals

Etymology

NLem yc‑a
LMLem, MLem yc‑yl
Ghe əshˡ‑i /əʒɪ/

acRàd.

to do duty as an admiral, general

acRèd. admiral, general

Etymology

NLem acoRd‑a
LMLem àcòRdd‑yr
MLem aacouRdd‑yr
Ghe āshˇoəxᴛᴛˇ‑ə /ʌːʒɔ͜əʁd̠d̠ə/

àv.

to feed someone-dat with something-acc;
self-receiving: to eat something-acc, to feed on something-acc

ilvnà. to vomit

àv djèRtaR. to have breakfast
àv djìRtaR. to have dinner

Connotations

While being the standard word for eating, àv. has a tendency to mean ‘gobble, eat noisily’. Avoid it when talking, for example, about a state banquet; àqsk. is better suited for that purpose. Unless of course you want to say what the banquet was really like.

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem ev‑a
OLem hedh‑
PLem *hedh‑, Narten present of
PIE *h₁ed‑

Cognates

Eng eat, Lat edō

àx.

to make male(s), to make men (males; symbol: ↯)

Etymology

NLem axr‑a
LMLem, MLem axr‑yr
OLem axr‑
PLem *axr‑, unclear derivation of
  PLem *xner‑ ‘man’
PIE *h₂nér‑s

Cognates

Gk ἀνήρ ‘man’, Ir neart ‘strength’

axileàs.

to make Achilles (a hero of the Troyan War)

Etymology

academic loan of
Koi Ἀχιλλεύ‑ς, probably meaning ‘grief of the people’

àxk.

djUtÌxk. Mercurian day, the Lemizh equivalent of Wednesday (see appendix, Date)

Connotations

The planet Mercury, as well as the god, is called OnkrÌt. in Modern Lemizh.

Etymology

NLem Onkr‑a
LMLem Ònkyrt‑ar ‘Lone Runner (the God of trade)’
MLem OOnkyrt‑ar
OLem hönkyrt‑
PLem *hōn‑kars‑, compound of
  PLem *hōn‑ ‘single, alone’
PIE *h₁ói̯‑n‑os ‘one, single’, adjectival form of
  PIE *h₁ei̯ ‘he, she, it’
 —and—
  PLem *kars‑ ‘run’, root present of
PIE *k̑ers‑

The sound shift from stem-final *s to t in OLem is unexplained; this development is only expected in verbs and adjectives, not in nouns.

Cognates

Eng one; Gk Ἐπί‑κουρος (Epicurus) ‘ally’ (lit. ‘one running with [someone]’), Lat currō ‘run’

àhp.

to make salty, to give a salty taste to something-dat

This word refers to the taste, as opposed to the substance salt. hlà. ‘make salt’ is used for the latter purpose.

èhp. sodium

Etymology

NLem yhph‑a
LMLem, MLem yhph‑yr
Ghe əshpshⁿ‑ə /əʃpʃə/

àhw.

to make horses

Connotations

Since Middle Lemizh times this word emphasises the nobility the Lemizh have traditionally seen in this animal; i.e. it connotes ‘steed’ rather than ‘nag’.

Etymology

NLem ehw‑a
LMLem, MLem ehw‑yr
OLem heshw‑
PLem *heshw‑
PIE *h₁ék̑u̯‑os

Cognates

Lat equus, Gk ἵππος

àst.

to make the most, to make the largest amount (often with partitive; often compounded; see unit 11, Verbs of comparison and Superlative)

Connotations

The absence of causes for most things has been a common theme in Lemizh literature and other arts since Late Middle Lemizh times, well before quantum physics was devloped. Compare tàcd..

Etymology

NLem, LMLem ist‑a
MLem istu‑a, back formation of
OLem superlative suffix ‑istu‑
PLem *‑isto‑
PIE *‑isto‑s

Cognates

Eng superlative suffix ‑est, probably fir‑st

àsw.

to enjoy something-acc/dat

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem usw‑a
OLem husw‑ ‘enjoyable’
PLem *husw‑, u-stem adjective of
PIE *h₁u̯es‑ ‘good’

Cognates

Ved vásu- ‘good, magnificent’, OCS veselŭ ‘merry’

àsh.

to read (about) something-acc to someone-dat;
or non-sending, ins: something-nom about something-acc to someone-dat (see unit 14, Language related objects)

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem Osh‑a
Ghe össhⁿ‑a /œs̟ʃa/

àqsk.

to feed someone-dat (daintily) with something-acc;
self-receiving: to eat something-acc (daintily)

Connotations

The standard word for eating is àv., which however has a tendency to mean ‘gobble, eat noisily’. Use àqsk. when this is undesirable.

Etymology

contamination of
NLem, LMLem, MLem isk‑a
Ghe isq‑a /ɪs̟qa/
 —with—
NLem, LMLem, MLem ev‑a
OLem hedh‑
PLem *hedh‑, Narten present of
PIE *h₁ed‑

àf.

to make points / an area up(wards), above (of) something-nom (see unit 12, Temporal and spatial verbs)

Etymology

NLem uf‑a, inflected form of
LMLem, MLem uf ‘above’
OLem uf, shortened form of
PLem *ufer
PIE *uper

Cognates

Eng over, Gk ὑπέρ ‘above, over’

eàfs.

to make uranium

Etymology

NLem eafst‑a
LMLem èàfst‑yr
MLem eiayfst‑yr ‘uranium, pitchblende (?)’
Ghe eiaəfst‑ə /ɛ͜ɪa͜əɸs̟tə/

elefà.

to make elephants

Etymology

NLem elefa‑a, academic loan of
Koi ἐλέφᾱ‑ς, probably from an Afro-Asiatic language

replaced the inherited LMLem elèfa‑yr > NLem **lew‑a, from the same source, which would have been homophonous with the word for ‘lion’

Cognates

Eng elephant

emblà.

to make a force unit, a force of 40.30 millinewtons (see appendix, Units of measurement)

Etymology

NLem embol‑a, academic loan of
Koi ἐμβολ‑ή ‘thrust, battering ram’
SHell *en‑q̌ol‑ā́ ‘thrust’, nominalisation, compound of
  SHell, PIE *en ‘in’
 —and—
  SHell *q̌él‑mi ‘hit, throw’, root present of
PIE *gʷelh₁‑

Actually, this is a very low force for a battering ram.

Cognates

Eng embolism, ballistic (via Gk βάλλω ‘throw’)

etxàt.

to make silver

Connotations

The word is used metonymically for metal-made works of art such as figurines or tableware, even if they are not made of silver.

Etymology

NLem etsat‑a
LMLem, MLem etst‑yr
Ghe etsᴛ‑ə /ɛts̟t̠ə/

epikuràs.

to make Epicurus (an Ancient Greek philosopher)

Etymology

academic loan of
Koi Ἐπίκουρ‑ος, meaning ‘ally’

esfàs.

to hide something-acc, or self-transporting: somewhere-dat etc. (perfect: describing the state, otherwise the action)

Connotations

This verb is only used for hiding things or people (including oneself), not for facts or feelings. This was different until Middle Lemizh.

Etymology

poststem from perfect of
NLem esf‑a
LMLem èsf‑a
MLem eisf‑a
Ghe eisf‑a /ɛ͜ɪs̟ɸa/

eqinà.

to make Ethiynic

eqinàr. the federation of Ethiyn in northeastern Europe

Etymology

Eth Eþījnu, of unknown origin

ylàs.

to make futile, vain, to do something-acc in vain

Etymology

NLem ylas‑a
Besk ɨlas /h‑/, of unknown origin

ytàs.

to make an electric inductance unit, an inductance of 1.940 henries (see appendix, Units of measurement)

Etymology

allegedly academic loan of the name of some Ἔττις, a moor where giants were supposed to dwell; to match the capacitance unit and the large value of this unit

The spelling with y was adopted because this was one of the few letters still available for unit symbols.

yphà.

to make (colour) orange

yphilkà. to make (colour) cerulean (blue-green, a colour between blue and cyan/turquoise)

Connotations

While the Gheans applied the term əpshqⁿ‑ə only to a specific hue of orange, which they despised, the range of meaning was somewhat widened in Early New Lemizh. Modern Lemizh views the complete range between red and yellow as yphÌ.; and any negative connotations are obsolete.

Being the only ‘female’ of the basic spectral colour words (see the etymology section), orange is perceived as overwhelmingly girly.

Etymology

gender change of
NLem yphakn‑a
LMLem, MLem yphkn‑yr
Ghe əpshqⁿ‑ə /əpʃqⁿə/

Gender change was caused by simplification of yphilk-kÌ. ‘cerulean’ to yphil-kÌ..

yzàj.

to (com)press, squeeze something-dat into some shape-acc [e.g. flat]; to crush something-dat to something-acc [e.g. parts, dust];
dat: to contract; to crush to something-acc

The deforming and destroying meanings are distinguished by the acc object or – often simpler – by instead using a nominal verb expressing a shape, versus nominal verbs such as skràp. ‘split, turn into parts’, dustà. ‘turn into dust’, etc.

Etymology

poststem from plural of
NLem, LMLem, MLem yz‑a ‘crush’
Ghe əsˇ‑a /əz̟a/

The ‘plural’ poststem, atypical for a non-nominal verb, probably stems from the fact that crushing usually results in multiple fragments (yzÌj.).

ysrà.

to make goats

Etymology

NLem ysr‑a
LMLem Ìassr‑yr
MLem yyassr‑yr
Ghe ə̄asspʳ‑ə /ɯː͜ar̥r̥ʙə/

iotà.

to make an energy unit, an energy of 3.708 millijoules (see appendix, Units of measurement)

nÌ iotìly. not the slightest amount, lit. ‘not a iotỳ’

Etymology

NLem iote‑a, academic loan of
Koi ἰότη‑ς ‘wish’, of unknown origin

The idea behind this unit is that the (potential, kinetic, etc.) energy contained in an object represents its ‘wish’ to perform work.

The phrase ‘not a iotỳ’ comes from the fact that this is a pretty small unit of energy.

itràh.

to make nickel

Etymology

NLem itarh‑a
LMLem ìtàrh‑yr
MLem iitayrh‑yr ‘nickel (mineral?)’
Ghe ītaəpshʳ‑ə /iːta͜əʙr̠̥ə/

ihkà.

to shine (only of the Moon)

ihkè. Moon; Luna, Selene (goddess) (symbol: ☾)
ihkÌ. moonlight, moonshine; moonbeam

sxnyrÌ. moonbeam

Connotations

See the word for the Sun.

Etymology

NLem ihk‑a
LMLem, MLem ihk‑ar
Ghe ishq‑ə /ɪʃqə/

oàs.

to make an electric charge or flux unit, a charge/flux of 57.64 millicoulombs (see appendix, Units of measurement)

Etymology

academic loan of
Koi οἶ‑ς ‘sheep’
SHell *ówi‑s
PIE *h₂óu̯i‑s

A way of creating static electricity is to rub amber against sheep’s wool. As e (for Koi ἤλεκτρον ‘amber’) was already used as the symbol for the force unit, it was decided to name the charge unit for the sheep.

See also Oàs..

Cognates

Eng ewe, Lat ovis

oRwxàf.

to make poodles

Poodles make a sound rather like this.

Etymology

NLem oRw‑xaf‑a, compound of
  NLem oRw‑a ‘hound’
LMLem, MLem oRw‑yr
Ghe oxfˇ‑ə /ɔʁβə/ ‘dog’, an onomatopoeia
 —and—
  NLem xaf‑a ‘water’
LMLem, MLem xaf‑yr
OLem xaf‑ ‘water, stream’
PLem *xaf‑ ‘water’ [animate], ‘stream’
PIE *h₂ép‑s

The poodle is named ‘water-hound’ for its qualities in waterfowl hunting. (Compare the English name, which is related to puddle.)

Cognates

Ved ā́p ‘water’, Ir abhainn ‘river’

oranutnà.

to make orangutans

Etymology

NLem oranutan‑a
< Malay orang hutan lit. ‘forest person’

It is not clear whether orang hutan referred to the ape, or whether this was a misunderstanding between Europeans and Malays. The term might actually have meant ‘forest people’ or ‘librarians’ (i.e. ‘free people’).

omàj.

to make eleven individuals

Connotations

The number eleven is associated with a sense of ‘too much, more than one’s fill’, as seen in such phrases as omàj. ‘make eleven = do more than really necessary’ or làxt omÌjy. ‘want eleven = want more than one’s share’. This is often thought to be a remnant of the old decimal system (11 = more than 10), but has only been attested by Late Middle Lemizh times, about 700 years after the adoption of the Ghean hexadecimal numbers.

Etymology

poststem from plural of
NLem om‑a
LMLem òm‑yl
MLem oum‑yl
Ghe oəfʱ‑i /ɔ͜əmɪ/

oshàc.

to do duty as a sergeant

oshèc. sergeant

Etymology

poststem from singular of
NLem osh‑a
LMLem òyshs‑yr
MLem oayshs‑yr
Ghe oaəsshs‑ə /ɔa͜əs̟ʃs̟ə/

Oàs.

to make a magnetic charge or flux unit, a charge/flux of 84.82 milliwebers (see appendix, Units of measurement)

Etymology

named in analogy to the electric charge/flux unit oàs.

Onkràt.

to make the god or the planet Mercury/Hermes

Connotations

See djeipysràd. for more information on Lemizh polytheism, and àxk. for the weekday associated with this god.

Etymology

NLem Onkyrt‑a, academic loan of
OLem hönkyrt‑ ‘Lone Runner (the God of trade)’
PLem *hōn‑kars‑, compound of
  PLem *hōn‑ ‘single, alone’
PIE *h₁ói̯‑n‑os ‘one, single’, adjectival form of
  PIE *h₁ei̯ ‘he, she, it’
 —and—
  PLem *kars‑ ‘run’, root present of
PIE *k̑ers‑

The sound shift from stem-final *s to t in OLem is unexplained; this development is only expected in verbs and adjectives, not in nouns.

Cognates

Eng one; Gk Ἐπί‑κουρος (Epicurus) ‘ally’ (lit. ‘one running with [someone]’), Lat currō ‘run’

udreà.

to make an electric flux density unit, a flux density of 6.807 coulombs per square metre (see appendix, Units of measurement)

Etymology

named in analogy to the magnetic flux density unit Udreà., following the example of oàs. and Oàs.

usrà.

to make the goddess or the planet Venus/Aphrodite

Connotations

See djeipysràd. for more information on Lemizh polytheism, and xsrà. for the weekday associated with this goddess.

Etymology

NLem usor‑a, academic loan of
OLem huhsor‑ ‘Lady Love’
PLem *huh‑sor‑, feminine of
  PLem *huh‑ ‘be comfortable with, love’, root aorist of
PIE *h₁eu̯k‑ ‘get used to, learn’

Cognates

Ved ucyasi ‘[you] are used to’; the PLem feminine suffix is related to the second components of Eng sister and probably Lat uxor ‘wife’

Udreà.

to make a magnetic flux density unit, a flux density of 10.02 teslas (see appendix, Units of measurement)

Etymology

shortened form, academic loan of
Koi ὑδρεί‑ᾱ ‘irrigation, water supply’, abstract noun of
  Koi ὕδωρ ‘water’, contamination from plural, ‘voiceless’ initial of
SHell *wódr̥
PIE *u̯ódr̥ ‘water’ [inanimate], deverbal noun of
  PIE *u̯ed‑ ‘well, gush’

Like most electromagnetic units, Udreà. uses the electricity is water metaphor. Physicists were running out of letters for unit symbols, which explains the omission of initial x that would be expected here.

See also udreà..

là.

to do something-fact, to act;
fact: to happen

lè. source, sender; other case descriptors analogous

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem l‑a
Ghe ᴛˡ‑a /d̠ˡa/

làgc.

self-receiving, mainly dat: to go to rest, perfect: to rest;
agentive caus or nom: to put someone-dat to rest

Connotations

Going to rest usually implies lying down (unless of course you are a parrot); but to primarily express the change of orientation as opposed to the goal of resting, we use constructions with spatial verbs (see unit 12, Orientation).

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem algj‑a ‘lay’
OLem alggh‑ ‘lie’
PLem *alggh‑, root aorist of
PIE *legʰ‑ ‘lie down’

Cognates

Eng lie (position), Ir luigh

làbv.

to make white, to make a light/pale colour (as in ‘to go white’), to whiten, to brighten up (referring to colour, not to light intensity)

lilbvjnà. to make (pure) white
lilbvnà. to make black, to blacken (non-white, ‘passive’ black, as in ‘blackened by age, dark/black night’; compare wàcg.)

lybvnÌs. fluorine

Etymology

NLem albw‑a
LMLem, MLem albw‑yr
OLem albw‑, dialect borrowing of
PLem *xalbw‑, o-stem adjective of
PIE *h₂elbʰ‑

Proto-Lemizh *(x)albw‑ could also be a u-stem. The o-stem is assumed on semantic grounds.

Cognates

Eng elf, Lat albus

làk.

self-transporting: to jump

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem lek‑a
OLem lek‑
PLem *lex‑ ‘move one’s limbs’, Narten present of
PIE *lek‑

Cognates

Lit lekiù ‘fly, run’

làt.

to make heavy

Etymology

NLem alt‑a
LMLem, MLem alt‑yr
OLem alt‑
PLem *als‑ ‘gather, pick up’, root present of
PIE *les‑

Cognates

Ger lesen ‘gather; read’, Lit lesù ‘pick (up)’

làj.

to make/build houses

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem lingj‑a
OLem lingj‑
PLem *lingj‑ ‘house, hive’, back formation of
  PLem *melidhlingj‑ ‘beehive’
PIE *melidlíg̑ʰ‑i‑eh₂ ‘bee’, nominalisation of
  PIE *mélid‑lei̯g̑ʰ‑ ‘’, compound of
  PIE *mélid ‘honey’
 —and—
  PIE *lei̯g̑ʰ‑ ‘lick’

Cognates

Eng lick, Gk λείχω ‘lick’

làjg.

to bend something-dat into some shape-acc [e.g. into a z]; to break something-dat into something-acc [e.g. into parts, in two] by bending;
dat: to bend; to break into something-acc by being bent

The ‘deforming’ and ‘destroying’ meanings are distinguished by the acc object or – often simpler – by instead using a nominal verb expressing a shape, versus nominal verbs such as skràp. ‘split, turn into parts’, dwà. ‘turn into two [parts]’, etc.

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem lung‑a ‘break by bending’
OLem lung‑
PLem *lung‑, nasal-infix present of
PIE *leu̯g̑‑ or *leu̯g‑

Cognates

Eng lock

làw.

to make lions (also the constellation Leo; see appendix, Constellations)

Etymology

NLem lew‑a
LMLem, MLem lew‑yr
OLem lew‑
SHell *leũ‑on
PIE *léu̯‑om

PIE *léu̯‑om might be a borrowing from PSem *labiʾ‑ (compare Heb לביא). Or it might be the other way round.

Cognates

Eng lion, Gk λέων

làxt.

want, wish something-acc [from someone-dat]; [someone-dat] to do something-acc (see unit 13, Overview of the modals)

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem lint‑a ‘touch’
OLem lint‑
PLem *lint‑, nasal-infix present of
PIE *lei̯t‑

The modern meaning has developed from the notion ‘touch with one’s mind’. The similarity with dàxt. ‘must’ is pure coincidence.

Cognates

Gk λιτέσθαι ‘beg, implore’

The word is said to mean ‘laugh’ (semantic development perhaps via ‘tickle’) in an obscure central European language, but this has never been confirmed.

làxw.

to make green, to green

lilxwkà. to make (colour) magenta

Etymology

NLem alxw‑a
LMLem, MLem alxw‑yr
OLem alxw‑
PLem *alxw‑, u-present of
PIE *leh₂‑ ‘pour, water’

In Proto-Lemizh the meaning is probably only ‘to green’ as a metonymy of ‘to water’. Cross-linguistically, many words for ‘green’ are derived from terms relating to plants and their growth.

Cognates

Lat lāma ‘puddle’, Hit lāhui ‘pour’

làq.

to make a mass unit, a mass of 761.1 grams (see appendix, Units of measurement)

Etymology

NLem liq‑a, academic loan of
Koi λίθ‑ος ‘stone’, of uncertain origin

Obviously, the Lemizh have quite a different idea than the English of how heavy a stone should be.

Cognates

Eng litho-graphy

làqk.

self-transporting: to race someone-dat/com, a race

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem liqk‑a
OLem lithk‑
PLem *lithk‑, sk̑-present of
PIE *lei̯t‑ ‘go, move (away)’

Cognates

Eng lead, TochB lita ‘went (away)’

lemàc.

to make Lemizh

lemàrc. the country of Lemaria

Etymology

NLem lem‑a (inner acc collective sg: lem‑yr)
LMLem lèmin‑yr
MLem leemin‑yr
OLem lēmin‑
PLem *lēmen‑
PIE *lei̯Hmh̥́₁n‑os ‘from the bay’ (vrddhi derivation of the mediopassive participle *liH‑mh̥₁n‑ós ‘snuggling oneself [against]’ > ‘bay’)

The Lemizh language is called ‘Lemurian’ or ‘Lemurean’ in older texts; these terms are derived from NLem lem‑yr.

Cognates

Ved láyate ‘snuggles [against], sticks [to]’

liwà.

to make lead

Etymology

NLem liw‑a
LMLem, MLem oliw‑yr, of unknown origin

Cognates

possibly OCS olovo ‘lead’, Gk ἀλφός ‘white rash’

Rà.

to make each individual separately/respectively (see unit 7, Indefinite numerals);
(mathematics) to divide (see Fractions)

Etymology

NLem R‑a
LMLem, MLem R‑yr
Ghe xˇ‑ə /ʁə/

Ràdj.

to prosper, thrive

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem Randz‑a
OLem xandz‑ ‘sprout, bloom’
PLem *xandz‑, root present of
PIE *h₂endʰ‑

Cognates

Eng antho‑logy (via Gk ἄνθος ‘flower’)

Ràbv.

to make some, a fairly small number/amount (relative weight 3⁄8; see unit 7, Weighting numerals – usually with partitive bracket; see unit 8, Cardinal numerals)

Etymology

NLem yRbw‑a ‘a medium amount’
LMLem, MLem yRbw‑yr
Ghe xpˡ‑ə /ʁbʷə/

The Ghean weighting numerals were (sorted from ‘few, little’ to ‘all, the whole’)
xpʳ‑ə pʳ‑ə xpˡ‑ə pˡ‑ə xp‑ə p‑ə
/ʀ̥ʙə ʙə ʁbʷə bʷə χpə pə/

Only xpˡə, pˡə (> bvà.) and xpə (> xpàj.) have survived until today. The first two were fairly recently diminished in meaning, when the six-degree system was extended to an eight-degree one by inserting two new words between bvà. and xpàj., namely dmàj. and dmà..

xpʳə was replaced with a native word originally meaning ‘negligible’ (modern càwb.) in Late Middle Lemizh. pʳə and never made their way into Lemizh; already Middle Lemizh had dropped them in favour of native words (modern crà. and jnà., respectively).

Ràks.

dat: should do something-acc, shall we do something-acc?;
recommend, suggest someone-dat [to do] something-acc (see unit 13, Overview of the modals)

Etymology

NLem Ranks‑a
LMLem, MLem Rankt‑a ‘command’
OLem xankt‑ ‘force, compel’
PLem *xanks‑ ‘want’, s-desiderative of
PIE *h₂nek̑‑ ‘reach’

Cognates

Eng e‑nough, Lat nancīscor ‘stumble on, obtain, reach, find’

Ràj.

to make geese

Connotations

The familiar pejorative sense ‘(mentally) weak, stupid person’ is ancient. However, since Middle Lemizh times, calling someone a goose can also compliment them on their firm, resolute stance.

Etymology

NLem Ran‑a
LMLem, MLem Ran‑yr
OLem xan‑
PLem *kxan‑
PIE *g̑ʰh₂én‑s

Cognates

Eng goose, Lat ānser ‘goose’

Ràjg.

to live, a/the life

làxt (viì) RajgÌ Ràdjy. ‘Live and prosper!’

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem Reng‑a
OLem xing‑ ‘move’
PLem *xing‑, nasal-infix present of
PIE *h₂ei̯g‑ ‘move (violently?)’

Cognates

Ved éjati ‘stirs’

Ràc.

to rule (as a monarch) over someone-dat; in grammar: to act as a predicate of an object-dat

Rèc. monarch; king, queen; also the constellation roughly corresponding to Cepheus (see appendix, Constellations)

Connotations

The Ghean monarch likely was an absolute ruler, possibly something like a god-king. After the Ghean rule, by Late Middle Lemizh times, the word was applied to the Lemizh king, and by extension to monarchs of other countries. During Early New Lemizh times, Lemaria became a constitutional monarchy, which it remains today. Ràc. in modern contexts therefore mainly refers to representative and administrative tasks.

Etymology

NLem aRc‑a
LMLem àRcc‑yr
MLem ayRcc‑yr
Ghe aəxshshˡ‑ə /a͜əʁʒʒə/

Cognates

unrelated to Lat rex ‘king’, Ved rājan ‘king, prince’

Ràcj.

to colour something-dat

RycjnÌs. halogen

Etymology

NLem Rarj‑a
LMLem, MLem Rarj‑ar
OLem gharj‑
PLem *ggharj‑ ‘paint, anoint’, root present of
PIE *gʰrei̯‑

Cognates

Eng grimace, Gk χρίω ‘paint, anoint’

Ràw.

to make hounds, hunting dogs (also the constellation Canis Major; see appendix, Constellations)

— Rynwè RÌnje. hunter and hunted (used figuratively), lit. ‘hounds and geese’

Etymology

NLem oRw‑a
LMLem, MLem oRw‑yr
Ghe oxfˇ‑ə /ɔʁβə/ ‘dog’, an onomatopoeia like axʱ‑ə /aɴə/ ‘cat’ and otq‑ə /ɔtqə/ ‘chicken’

Ràxt.

to make shoulders

Etymology

NLem Rant‑a
LMLem, MLem Rant‑yr
OLem xanht‑ ‘doorpost’
PLem *xanht‑
PIE *h₂ń̥h₁t‑eh₂

Cognates

Lat antae ‘pillars on either side of a doorway’

Ràst.

reflexive: to dream (of) something-acc

Resthràk. to have a nightmare ( hrèk Rèste.)

Etymology

NLem Rostx‑a
LMLem, MLem Rostxj‑er ‘strange lands’
OLem ghostxj‑
PLem *gghostxj‑ ‘foreign parts, abroad’
PIE *gʰósth₂i‑s ‘stranger, foreigner’

Cognates

Eng guest, host (via Lat hospes)

rà.

to make one individual

to make an angle unit, an angle of one radian or any other dimensionless unit (see appendix, Units of measurement)

Etymology

NLem r‑a
LMLem, MLem r‑yr
Ghe ᴛʳ‑ə /r̠ə/

ramàc.

ramòc. Ramo (pen name of the author of the Tlöngö̀l, the epic novel defining the onset of New Lemizh)

Etymology

irregular masculinisation of
NLem ram‑o

The fact that Ramo chose a pen name with an inner tentive case speaks volumes.

ràdj.

dat: to discover something-acc

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem ardz‑a ‘emerge’
OLem ardz‑
PLem *ardz‑, root present of
PIE *redʰ‑ ‘emerge, appear’

Cognates

OCS roždǫ ‘give birth’

ràt.

to drive a vehicle-acc, to steer something/someone-acc (for the thing moved) or dat (for the thing manoeuvred, also metaphorically)

rèt. also the constellation Auriga (see appendix, Constellations)

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem ret‑a
OLem ret‑
PLem *reth‑ ‘run’, Narten present of
PIE *ret‑

The verb may have meant ‘go on wheels’ already in PIE, as *rot‑eh₂ is the source of Lat rota ‘wheel’ and *rot‑h₂‑ós that of Ved rátha ‘chariot’.

Cognates

Ger Rad ‘wheel’, Ir rith ‘run’; likely unrelated to Eng rattle and Ger rattern

ràtx.

to give hope to someone-dat about something-acc;
dat: to hope for something-acc

Etymology

NLem rentx‑a
LMLem, MLem rentk‑a ‘tackle confidently’
OLem rentk‑
PLem *rentk‑, sk̑-present of
PIE *reh₁dʰ‑ ‘be successful’

Cognates

Ger reden ‘talk’, OCS raždǫ ‘care’

ràj.

to make sixteen individuals

Etymology

NLem ran‑a
LMLem, MLem ran‑yl
Ghe ᴛʳ‑asʱ‑i /r̠anɪ/ ‘sixteen’, lit. ‘one-zero’ [hexadeximal], compound of
  Ghe ᴛʳ‑ə /r̠ə/ ‘one’
 —and—
  Ghe asʱ‑i /anɪ/ ‘zero’

ràjd.

to make red, to redden (with embarrassment-caus, -psu)

riljdkà. to make cyan or turquoise

rijdvnè. rubidium

Connotations

rÌjd. is more likely to describe the focal colour (‘bright red’) than other colour terms, as attested since Middle Lemizh. (Conversely, ‘reddish’, i.e. a compound with a weakening numeral, is more likely to be used for hues that are not quite focal red.)

Etymology

NLem rundr‑a
LMLem, MLem rundr‑yr
OLem hrundr‑
PLem *hrundr‑, r-stem adjective of
PIE *h₁reu̯dʰ‑

This is the word for ‘red’ in most Indo-European languages.

Cognates

Eng red, Gk ἐρυθρός

ràc.

to make points / an area to the right of something-nom (see unit 12, Temporal and spatial verbs)

recxnÌ., rÌc. south (symbol: r)
rilckexnÌ., rilckÌ. north (symbol: a Lemizh r turned 180°)

Connotations

Right-handed men used to carry their swords on the left, which gave rise to the custom of letting the lady walk on the right-hand side so as not to ruin her dress when drawing. Curiously, the ‘male’ poststem of rÌc. and the ‘female’ one of the opposite rilckÌ. have not been able to change this tradition.

Likewise, it is not socially acceptable for the man to walk too far away from the lady, nor to walk between two ladies, despite the gender change of these words.

Etymology

gender change of
NLem Ur‑a
LMLem, MLem Ur‑yr
OLem ür‑
PLem *ūr‑, r-stem adjective of
PIE *u̯eg̑‑ ‘lively, strong’

Many languages derive their words for the direction ‘right’ from the idea that the right hand is the ‘correct’ or the ‘strong’ one. Gender change occurred to avoid homophony with the numeral rà..

Cognates

Eng wake, vigour (via Lat vigeō ‘thrive, flourish’); however, none of the original sounds is left in the present-day word: both r and c come from the PIE adjectival suffix -r-.

ràzg.

to braid, plait something-dat

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem arzg‑a
OLem arzg‑
PLem *arzg‑, root present of
PIE *resg‑

Cognates

Lat restis ‘rope’, Lit rezgù ‘braid, knit’

ràw.

to make an amount

Etymology

NLem orw‑a
LMLem òrw‑yl
MLem oerw‑yl
Ghe oeᴛpʳ‑i /ɔ͜ɛr̠ʙɪ/

ràwb.

to push something-acc somewhere-dat etc. (dat can be ambiguous); to push, press against something-dat; also non-sending

Connotations

Since Old Lemizh, this verb is connoted positively. Don’t use it to translate hostile kinds of pushing such as ‘shove, jostle’.

Etymology

contamination of
NLem srUmb‑a
LMLem, MLem srimb‑a
OLem srimb‑
PLem *tsrimb‑, root present of
PIE *dʰrei̯bʰ‑ ‘drive’
 —with—
NLem, LMLem, MLem runp‑a ‘break, snap’
OLem runp‑ ‘break, snap’ [intr.]
PLem *runp‑, nasal-infix present of
PIE *reu̯p‑

ràwb. (for expected **sràwb.) was contaminated with ràxp., the modern word for ‘pull’.

Cognates

Eng drive

ràxp.

to pull something-acc somewhere-dat etc. (dat can be ambiguous); at something-dat; also non-sending

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem runp‑a ‘break, snap’
OLem runp‑ ‘break, snap’ [intr.]
PLem *runp‑, nasal-infix present of
PIE *reu̯p‑

Cognates

Eng rupture (via Lat rumpō ‘break, burst, tear’ [tr.]), Ved lumpáti ‘breaks’ [tr.]

ràh.

to like something or someone-acc/dat;
agentive caus, causal-reflexive: to please someone-nom

Connotations

This verb is usually taken to mean ‘like very much’; it is close to our informal use of ‘love’ as in ‘I love books’.

Etymology

NLem irh‑a
LMLem, MLem irhh‑a
Ghe ipshshʳ‑a /ɪʙr̠̥r̠̥a/

ràsk.

to make the ground

Etymology

NLem arsk‑a
LMLem arsk‑er
MLem arsk‑er ‘area, ground’
OLem harsk‑ ‘get somewhere, end up somewhere’
PLem *harsk‑, sk̑-present of
PIE *h₁er‑

Cognates

Hit āri ‘arrives’, probably Gk ἔρχομαι ‘come, go’

nà.

nonexistence (‘zero’) negator (see unit 6, Negators): do not do something-acc;
to make something-dat nonexistent, to undo, annul, destroy something-dat (all: also with inner cons for the object, see unit 6, ‘unknot’);
to make zero individuals, none, nothing

Connotations

Interestingly, the proverbial entities ‘doing nothing’ are various types of poisonous or inedible mushroom, as in speakanà agaricÌem. ‘be as silent as a fly agaric’ or toadstoolÌem. ‘do nothing, like a toadstool’. Such phrases have been recorded since Late Middle Lemizh times.

Etymology

NLem, LMLem n‑a
MLem ne‑a
OLem ne‑, inflected form of
PLem, PIE *ne ‘not’

Cognates

Eng no, Lat ne

nàgc.

to (make) war, a war with/against someone-dat

Etymology

NLem engj‑a ‘armour’
LMLem, MLem engj‑yr
OLem hengj‑ ‘protection, armour’
PLem *hengj‑ ‘spines > protection, armour’
PIE *h₁ég̑ʰi‑s ‘hedgehog’

Cognates

Ger Igel ‘hedgehog’, Gk ἐχῖνος ‘hedgehog’

nàgw.

self-receiving: to drink something-acc

Connotations

This verb often refers to drinking alcoholic beverages in particular. This use is attested from Middle Lemizh.

Etymology

NLem engw‑a
LMLem èngw‑a
MLem eengw‑a
OLem hēngw‑
PLem *hēngw‑, e-reduplicated athematic present of
PIE *h₁egʷʰ‑

Cognates

Lat ēbrius ‘drunk’, TochB yokäṃ ‘drinks’

nabà.

to make a nabu, the European currency unit (symbol: n; see appendix, Units of measurement)

Etymology

Eth nabũ
PWald *Nabū́ ‘God of literacy and wisdom’
Akk 𒀭𒀝

The Mesopotamian god Nabū was equated with Mercury and Hermes and thus became the God of trade and later the namesake of the European currency. The symbol is the Lemizh supplemental letter ‘n’ and is also reminiscent of this god’s symbol, the caduceus or winged staff .

nàt.

to open something-acc, also non-sending
acc, occasionally self-transporting: to
open

djUtnÌt. Saturnian day, the Lemizh equivalent of Monday (see appendix, Date)

Connotations

The inherited name of the god has been used metonymically in the sense of ‘seed, inception, beginning’ since Old Lemizh times. In Early New Lemizh, the verbal form expressed facilitating access to something, or the ‘opening’ of new opportunities – a usage that is alive today.

The planet Saturn, as well as the god, is called djistnÌt. in Modern Lemizh.

Etymology

haplology of
NLem dzokont‑a
LMLem, MLem dziskont‑yr ‘Seedputter (the God of agriculture)’
OLem dziskont‑
PLem *dzeskont‑
PIE *dʰh̥₁sk̑‑ónt‑s ‘putting, making’, sk̑é-present active participle of
  PIE *dʰeh₁‑ ‘put, make’

Expected would be ModLem **djotnàt. and resulting **djUt-djotnÌt. for the name of the day; this caused the haplology. The root is probably the same as in PIE *dʰoh₁‑néh₂‑s ‘seed, grain’.

Cognates

Gk δίδωμι, Lat

natlà.

to make an angular power density unit, an angular power density of 2.813 milliwatts per steradian (see appendix, Units of measurement)

Etymology

shortened form, academic loan of
Koi ναυτιλί‑ᾱ ‘seafaring’, nominal derivation of
  Koi ναῦ‑ς ‘ship’
SHell *nāú‑s, u-stem noun of
PIE *(s)neh₂‑ ‘swim, bathe’

Having been invented together with the unit of power density, this unit too has a naval name.

Cognates

Eng navy (via Lat nāvis ‘ship’)

nàj.

to make points / an area between objects-nom (see unit 12, Temporal and spatial verbs)

Connotations

See the connotations section of ràc. for some context on gender change in spatial verbs.

Etymology

gender change of
NLem en‑a, inflected form of
LMLem, MLem en
OLem hen ‘in’
PLem *hen
PIE *h₁en

Gender change occurred to avoid homophony with the negator nà..

Cognates

Eng in, Gk ἐν ‘in’

nàzd.

to make birds

Etymology

NLem nezd‑a
LMLem, MLem nezd‑yr
OLem nizd‑ ‘nest’
PLem *nizd‑
PIE *nisd‑ós

The meaning ‘bird’ developed from MLem nezd‑ar, lit. ‘nest-builder’, which is attested in a few instances.

Cognates

Eng nest, Lat nīdus ‘nest’

nàwb.

to inflate, stretch something-dat into some shape-acc; to burst, rip, tear something-dat into something-acc [e.g. dust; in two];
dat: to stretch; to burst, rip, tear into something-acc

The deforming and destroying meanings are distinguished by the acc object or – often simpler – by instead using a nominal verb expressing a shape, versus nominal verbs such as skràp. ‘split, turn into parts’, dwà. ‘turn into two [parts]’, etc.

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem nemb‑a ‘burst, tear’
OLem nemb‑
PLem *nemb‑ ‘burst, shatter’, Narten present of
PIE *nebʰ‑

Cognates

Ved nábhate ‘bursts, shatters’

nàh.

to make nine individuals

Connotations

The number nine has been associated with art since classical times (corresponding to Late Middle Lemizh), as can be seen in the number of the Muses, sources of the knowledge contained in art. Without doubt, Terpsichore is the fairest one of them.

Much earlier, in Old Lemizh, nine was the number of healers. In Middle Lemizh, it has come to denote placebo effects: if I give you nine pills, I am helping you but not because of any pharmacologic effect of the pills. Counseling someone nine times generates something close to a self-fulfilling prophecy.

Etymology

NLem neh‑a
LMLem nèh‑yl, contamination of
MLem nee‑yl
OLem hnē‑, inflected form of
PLem *hnewan
PIE *h₁néu̯n̥
 —with—
MLem dih‑yl ‘ten’
OLem dish‑, inflected form of
PLem *deshamt
PIE *dék̑m̥t

Cognates

Eng nine, Gk ἐννέα

nàs.

dat: to smell something-nom; nom: to smell of something-acc

nùs. (with outer partitive) nose

Etymology

NLem nas‑a ‘nose’
LMLem, MLem nas‑yr
OLem nas‑
PLem *nas‑
PIE *nás‑os

Cognates

Eng nose, Lat nāsus

nenà.

self-transporting: to run somewhere-dat etc.;
acc: to drift or float quickly somewhere ditto in water etc.-nom [or agentive caus]

Etymology

NLem neni‑a
LMLem nènì‑a
MLem neenii‑a
OLem nēnī‑
PLem *nēnī‑ ‘be driven > run’, intensive of
PIE *nei̯H‑ ‘lead, guide’

The secondary meaning ‘to drift quickly’ is attested from Late Middle Lemizh, in a song about 255 toy balloons made from pig bladders.

Cognates

Ved náyati ‘leads’

nexwaklà.

to work manually, to do a blue-collar job

nexwaklè. blue-collar worker

Etymology

NLem nexwatal‑a ‘Nechwatal’ (prototypical blue-collar worker)
Gl Nechwatal, of unknown origin

niftnàj.

to make the god Neptune/Poseidon; to make the planet Uranus

Connotations

See djeipysràd. for more information on Lemizh polytheism, and xmàj. for the weekday associated with this god.

Confusingly, the planet Uranus, known to the Lemizh since ancient times, was named by them after the water god – corresponding to the god Neptune/Poseidon in our tradition. The planet Neptune, discovered in modern times, has the Midwinter God, fOpysrÌf., as its patron.

Etymology

gender change of
NLem nifton‑a, academic loan of
OLem nifton‑ ‘Nephew of the Waters’
PLem *nefton‑
PIE *népton‑os

Cognates

Lat Neptune, Ir Nechtan

mà.

to make or build something-acc from something-dat, to turn something-dat into something-acc;
dat: to turn into something-acc, to become something-acc

mÌ. entity, thing; stuff

Connotations

The chicken is proverbial for ‘making’ something, namely eggs. chickenÌem. ‘make/build something, like a chicken’, (where mà. can absorb an accusative object) in the sense of ‘make/build something thoroughly, consistently’ (not necessarily at high speed) is attested since Late Middle Lemizh.

Etymology

NLem me‑a
LMLem mè‑a
MLem mee‑a ‘change’
OLem mē‑ ‘change’ [intr.]
PLem *mē‑, Narten present of
PIE *mei̯‑ ‘(ex)change’

Cognates

Ved ví mayante ‘take turns (?)’, TochB mäsk‑ ‘exchange’; unrelated to Eng make

màc.

to make full, to fill [something-dat] with something-acc, to fill something-acc into something-dat

Etymology

NLem mec‑a
LMLem, MLem mec‑yr
OLem mezhk‑ ‘large’
PLem *mezhx‑
PIE *még̑h₂‑s

Cognates

Eng much, Gk μέγας ‘large’

màv.

to act, speak, think wisely, to make/produce wisdom, wise deeds, sayings, thoughts

Etymology

NLem mev‑a
LMLem, MLem mev‑yr
OLem medh‑ ‘measure, look after, enforce’
PLem *medh‑, Narten present of
PIE *med‑

Cognates

Ger messen ‘measure’ (but not Eng measure), Gk μήδομαι ‘contrive, devise, plot’

màh.

to sort something-dat into something-acc, to group something-dat according to type (see unit 7, Grouping numerals)

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem mih‑a, back formation of
  MLem mihk‑a ‘mix’
OLem mishk‑
PLem *mishk‑, sk̑-present of
PIE *mei̯k̑‑

MLem reinterpreted the stem-final k as opposition negator, innovating mih‑a ‘the opposite of mixing, unmixing = sorting’.

Cognates

Eng mix, Lat misceō ‘mix’

màs.

to make mice (also computer mice)

Etymology

NLem mUs‑a
LMLem, MLem mUs‑yr
OLem müs‑
PLem *mūs‑
PIE *múh₂s

The meaning ‘computer mouse’ is calqued from Br lač.

Cognates

Eng mouse, Lat mūs

màqk.

dat: can (have the opportunity to) do something-acc;
to give someone-dat the opportunity to do something-acc (see unit 13, Overview of the modals)

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem miqk‑a
OLem mithk‑ ‘send someone on a quest, give someone an opportunity’
PLem *mithx‑ ‘remote, far’, o-stem adjective of
PIE *mei̯th₂‑ ‘change, remove’

Cognates

Lat mittō ‘send, release’, Ger meiden ‘avoid’

màqx.

to shine (only of stars)

mèqx. star
mÌqx. starlight

Etymology

NLem miqxp‑a
LMLem miqxp‑ar
MLem miqxpe‑ar, haplology of
OLem mithxpeir‑
PLem *mithx‑pāwar‑ ‘remote or far shining fire; star?’, compound of
  PLem *mithx‑ ‘remote, far’, o-stem adjective of
PIE *mei̯th₂‑ ‘change, remove’
 —and—
  PLem *pāwar‑ ‘fire’ [inanimate]
PIE *péh₂u̯r̥

Cognates

Lat mittō ‘send, release’, Ger meiden ‘avoid’; Eng fire

melàs.

to make a power unit, a power of 2.813 milliwatts (see appendix, Units of measurement)

Etymology

NLem meliss‑a, academic loan of
Koi μέλισσ‑α ‘bee’
SHell *melilíkhi‑ā
PIE *melidlíg̑ʰ‑i‑eh₂, nominalisation of
  PIE *mélid‑lei̯g̑ʰ‑, compound of
  PIE *mélid ‘honey’
 —and—
  PIE *lei̯g̑ʰ‑ ‘lick’

An old unit of power was named after the more impressive horse (Koi ἵππος), but (1) the symbol x was needed for the length unit, (2) 2.8 milliwatts are closer to a bee’s than to a horse’s power output, and (3) one of the physicists who devised the modern unit system had a wife called Μέλισσα.

Cognates

Eng mil‑dew, Lat mel ‘honey’

memà.

to become a mum(my)-nom

memè. mum(my) of someone-acc

Etymology

baby talk for mesè. ‘mother’

mesà.

to give birth to a child-acc

mesè. mother of someone-acc
mesÌ. child (son, daughter) of a mother-nom

Etymology

NLem mes‑a
LMLem mès‑yr ‘child (of someone)’
MLem mees‑yr, haplology of
OLem mēsir‑
PLem *māser‑ ‘mother’
PIE *méh₂ter‑s

Cognates

Eng mother, Gk μήτηρ

mlà.

to make several individuals

Etymology

NLem mal‑a
LMLem, MLem mimal‑yl ‘separate’
OLem mimalk‑ ‘crush, separate’
PLem *memalx‑ ‘grind’, e-reduplicated athematic present of
PIE *melh₂‑

Cognates

Ger mahlen ‘grind’, Eng molar [tooth] (via Lat molō ‘grind’)

mlàtx.

to melt something-dat; dat: to melt

Etymology

NLem maltx‑a
LMLem, MLem maltk‑a
OLem maltk‑
PLem *maltk‑, sk̑-present of
PIE *meld‑ ‘soften’

Cognates

Eng melt, Ger schmelzen

mlàv.

to make sweet, to sweeten

mlèv. oxygen
mlùv. (with outer partitive) sweetener

Etymology

NLem mliv‑a
LMLem, MLem miliv‑yr
OLem milidh‑
PLem *melidh‑ ‘honey’
PIE *mélid

Cognates

Eng mil‑dew, Lat mel ‘honey’

mràj.

to make 65,536 individuals

Etymology

shortening, poststem from plural of
NLem mra‑a
LMLem mUrià‑yr
Koi μυριά‑ς ‘ten thousand, countless numbers’, nominalisation of
  Koi μυρί‑ος ‘countless’, of uncertain origin

This is a (probably academic) loan from the Greek word for 10,000, modelled after skmà. ‘256’, originally ‘100’.

Cognates

Eng myriad

gà.

to informally greet someone-dat, to say goodbye to someone-dat; an informal greeting, ‘Hello! Hi! Bye!’ etc. (gesture: 🖖 for the letter g)

Etymology

originally spelt g–à., this is a shortened form of gcrà., the more formal variant of greeting

gàd.

to make whales

Etymology

NLem ged‑a
LMLem gèd‑yr
MLem geed‑yr ‘whale, sea monster’
OTroy κητ‑ος /ˈɡeːdos/
SHell *kẽt‑os, of unknown origin

Cognates

Gk κῆτ‑ος

gàjd.

to act competently, beneficially or ethically, to make good (beneficial, of high quality, ethically sound)

Etymology

NLem gundr‑a
LMLem, MLem gundr‑yr
OLem kundr‑ ‘clean’
PLem *kundr‑, r-stem adjective of
PIE *k̑eu̯dʰ‑ ‘become clean’

Cognates

Ved śundhati ‘cleans’

gomàs.

to make a power density unit, a power density of 0.3322 watts per square metre (see appendix, Units of measurement)

Etymology

academic loan of
Koi γόμ‑ος ‘cargo’
SHell *góm‑os, nominalisation of
  SHell *gém‑ō ‘be full(y loaded)’, full-grade thematic present of
PIE *gem‑ ‘seize, grab’

Cognates

TochB kamāte ‘carried’

glàst.

to make (colour) violet, purple (any hue between magenta and blue)

glilstkà. to make lime green, yellow-green

glystnÌs. iodine

Connotations

There is an enzyme called GLAST in the Müller glia of the eye’s retina.

A gamma-ray space observatory has been termed GLAST, after the short wavelengths of violet light. And of course there is EGRET.

Etymology

NLem dlost‑a ‘lavender’ [a painter’s term for the specific hue of a valued type of lavender]
LMLem ydlàstt‑yr ‘lavender’ [colour]
MLem ydlaystt‑yr
Ghe əᴛˡaəstt‑ə /əd̠ˡa͜əs̟ttə/

grUrà.

to make the river Dniester

Etymology

NLem grUr‑a
LMLem argUr‑yr
MLem arg‑Ur‑yr, compound of
  MLem arg‑ar ‘river’
OLem arg‑ ‘flow, drip’
PLem *arg‑, root present of
PIE *reg̑‑
 —and—
  MLem Ur‑yr ‘right’ [direction]
OLem ür‑
PLem *ūr‑, r-stem adjective of
PIE *u̯eg̑‑ ‘lively, strong’

Expected would be ModLem **gràc., but poststem formation was inhibited by the fact that rivers are mythologically female, as in other PIE languages.

The ‘left’ river is the Dnieper.

Cognates

Ice raki ‘moisture, dampness’; Eng wake, vigour (via Lat vigeō ‘thrive, flourish’)

gmà.

to make points / an area outside something-nom (see unit 12, Temporal and spatial verbs)

Etymology

NLem gom‑a, inflected form of
LMLem, MLem gom
OLem kom ‘with’
PLem, PIE *kom

Cognates

Lat cum ‘with’

gcà.

to make fifteen individuals

Connotations

Historically, 15 was the number of councillors or ministers in the Lemizh monarchy. gcÌ. ‘the Fifteen’ is still used pars pro toto for the (or any) government.

Etymology

NLem gj‑a
LMLem, MLem gj‑yl
Ghe qˡ‑i /ɢˠɪ/

gcrà.

to greet, welcome someone-dat to someplace-sce, to say farewell, goodbye to someone-dat; a greeting or farewell, ‘How do you do? Good morning/afternoon/evening/night! Goodbye!’ etc.

Connotations

While this verb used to be reserved for welcome greetings until recent times, it is now used as a fairly universal greeting, also for farewells. The informal variant is gà..

Etymology

NLem gjor‑a, syncope of
LMLem, MLem gjisor‑a ‘welcome, show respect’
OLem gjisor‑
PLem *gjesor‑ ‘hand’
PIE *g̑ʰés‑or‑s, r-stem noun of
  PIE *g̑ʰes‑ ‘grip’

Cognates

Eng chiro‑practic (via Koi), TochB ṣar ‘hand’

gwà.

indefinite pronoun: see unit 6, Demonstrative pronouns

gwÌ. someone/anyone, somebody/anybody, something/anything;
with outer causative/persuasive: for some/any reason;
with outer temporal: some/any time;
with outer locative: somewhere/anywhere;
etc.

Etymology

NLem gw‑a
LMLem, MLem gw‑yr ‘someone, anyone’
OLem gw‑
PLem *gw‑
PIE *kʷ‑ós ‘who?’

Cognates

Eng who, what, Lat quis, quid

gwàk.

to make oxen

Etymology

gender change of
NLem gwo‑a ‘cow’
LMLem gwò‑yr
MLem gwou‑yr
OLem gwou‑
PLem *gwow‑
PIE *gʷóu̯‑s

Cognates

Eng cow, Gk βοῦς ‘cow, ox, cattle’

gwàt.

to teach someone-dat something-acc; something-acc to someone-dat (the latter can be translated as a progressive aspect);
dat: to learn about something-acc (with inner non-fact, e.g. aff for actions); dat: doing something-acc (with inner fact);
dat, perfect: to know about something-acc (with inner non-fact); dat, perfect: to know how to do something-acc, can do, be able to do something-acc (with inner fact)

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem gwet‑a
OLem gwet‑
PLem *gwesh‑ ‘know’, Narten present of
PIE *kʷek̑‑ ‘see’

Cognates

Ved ákhyat ‘has seen, has looked’, OCS kažǫ ‘show, admonish’

gwàq.

to make four individuals

‘make four’, a version of an old language game for four players, focusing on abstract thought. Other versions of this game are for five, seven or ten players, and named accordingly. The cover term for the game is dmàj. ‘fill (up), make full’.

Connotations

As in other traditions, four is the number of the physical world (Earth, or the cosmos). This metaphor, which is probably based on the four cardinal points of the compass, the four classical elements, and other concepts, is attested from Proto-Lemizh. As far as we know, the Lemizh always have had a positive attitude towards this world (and thus to the number four) and identified more with their bodies than with their psyches, similar to the Greeks.

Etymology

NLem gwiq‑a
LMLem, MLem gwiq‑yl
OLem gwith‑, inflected form of
PLem *gwethwores
PIE *kʷétu̯ores

Cognates

Eng four, Gk τέτταρες

gwrà.

to cut something-dat into something-acc [e.g. pieces, in two] with a knife

gwrù. (with outer partitive) knife

Connotations

The knife is a metaphor for nourishing and supporting fellow humans, for example children (based on the idea of cutting bread or meat).

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem gwer‑a
OLem gwer‑ ‘cut’
PLem *gwer‑, Narten present of
PIE *kʷer‑

Cognates

Ved kr̥ṇóti ‘does’, Lit kuriù ‘build, create; kindle’

gwràjd.

to make roses

Etymology

contamination of
NLem gword‑a
LMLem, MLem gword‑yr
OLem gword‑
PWald *gvórd‑a
PIE *u̯ŕ̥d‑om ‘flower’
 —with—
NLem rundr‑a ‘red’
LMLem, MLem rundr‑yr
OLem hrundr‑
PLem *hrundr‑, r-stem adjective of
PIE *h₁reu̯dʰ‑

Cognates

Eng rose (via Gk ῥόδον and an Indo-Iranian language)

dà.

to give something-acc to someone-dat;
dat: to get, receive (agentive: take) something-acc from someone-nom

dyxàf. to water something-dat

Connotations

Giving at the ‘right’ time was an important issue in Late Middle Lemizh times, governed by rather complicated rules. Today, we still have phrases such as dà nÌjaR. ‘give between times = commit a social blunder’ and dà gmÌaR. ‘give outside times = ditto’; and dàR. ‘the time of giving’ can mean ‘exactly the right moment’.

Etymology

NLem dO‑a
LMLem dÒ‑a
MLem dOO‑a
OLem dö‑
PLem *dō‑, Narten present of
PIE *deh₃‑

Cognates

Gk δίδωμι, Lat

dàpq.

to pay an amount/price-acc to someone-dat for something-fin

dòpq. fin: to cost (be intended to be sold for an amount-acc)
dìlpq. fin: to cost (have been sold for an amount-acc)

dÌpq. price
dùpq. (with outer partitive) money
dÙlpq. purchase (something bought)

dypqcrÙl. cheap
dypqdmÙl. expensive

Etymology

NLem dOpf‑a
LMLem dÒaptf‑a
MLem dOO‑aptf‑a, compound of
  MLem dOO‑a ‘give’
OLem dö‑
PLem *dō‑, Narten present of
PIE *deh₃‑
 —and—
  MLem aptf‑yr ‘gold’
Ghe aptf‑ə /aptɸə/

Cognates

Gk δίδωμι, Lat

dàv.

to make yellow, to yellow

dyvnÌs. chlorine

Etymology

NLem devr‑a
LMLem dèqur‑yr ‘shiny, yellow’
MLem deequr‑yr
OLem dēthur‑
PLem *dēthor‑ ‘light-giver’
PIE *déi̯h₂‑tor‑s, event agent of
  PIE *dei̯h₂‑ ‘light up’

Old Lemizh ‘shiny, yellow [one]’ is a metonymy of the earlier meaning ‘light-giver’.

Cognates

Gk δέατο ‘it seemed, appeared’, Ved dīdā́ya ‘shines’

dàxt.

dat: must, have to do something-acc;
to command, order, tell someone-dat to do something-acc (see unit 13, Overview of the modals)

dÌxt. necessary; necessity

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem daxt‑a
OLem daçt‑
PLem *daçs‑ ‘be capable, be suitable’, root present of
PIE *dek̑s‑

The similarity with làxt. ‘want’ is pure coincidence.

Cognates

Ved dákṣate ‘is of use, is able’

dàh.

to make ten individuals

‘make ten’, a version of an old language game for ten players, focusing on abstract thought. Other versions of this game are for four, five or seven players, and named accordingly. The cover term for the game is dmàj. ‘fill (up), make full’.

Etymology

NLem dih‑a
LMLem, MLem dih‑yl
OLem dish‑, inflected form of
PLem *deshamt
PIE *dék̑m̥t

Cognates

Eng ten, Gk δέκα

dàsk.

to make circles

Etymology

NLem disk‑a
LMLem dìsk‑yr ‘disk, circle’
Koi δίσκ‑ος ‘disk’, of unknown origin

Cognates

Eng disc (via Lat discus)

disfàk.

to make a voltage or magnetic current unit, a voltage of 64.34 millivolts (see appendix, Units of measurement)

Etymology

shortened form, academic loan of
Koi δια‑σφάξ ‘gorge’, lit. ‘hewn through’, compound of
  Koi σφάζω ‘slaughter, kill’, of unknown origin
 —and—
  Koi δια‑ ‘through, across, by, over’
SHell *dwisa‑, prefix derivation of
  SHell *dwis ‘twice’
PIE *du̯is, multiplicative of
  PIE *du̯óh₁ ‘two’

Most electric units use the electricity is water metaphor, which relates voltage to an altitude difference.

dràph.

to make bitter, to give a bitter taste to something-dat

drèph. magnesium

Etymology

contamination of
NLem drOp‑a ‘acrid, pungent’
LMLem, MLem drep‑ir ‘midge biting season’
OLem drep‑ ‘tear, bite off’ [especially said of small animals]
PLem *dref‑ ‘cut, tear (off)’, Narten present of
PIE *drep‑
 —with—
NLem abc‑a ‘bitter’
LMLem, MLem abgc‑yr
Ghe apqshˇ‑ə /abɢʒə/

Cognates

Gk δρέπτω ‘pluck, pick’, Slov dȓpljem ‘pluck, tear’

dràj.

to make citrus fruits

drèj. citrus tree or shrub (especially those with edible fruit)
drÌj. citrus fruit

dryjyphà. to make oranges
dryjlàbv. to make white grapefriuts
dryjlàxw. to make limes
dryjglàst. to make (red) grapefruits
dryjdàv. to make lemons
(all with inner nom for the tree and inner acc for the fruit)

Connotations

Citrus trees have been personified since Early New Lemizh times. Prominent is the idea that they purposefully produce their fruit for its colour, smell and taste.

Etymology

NLem drun‑a
LMLem dryn‑a
OCh  /*[d]ˤrəŋ/ ‘citrus tree’, of unknown origin

dràw.

to dance with someone-dat (In partner dances, the man is usually in the nom and the lady in the dat; in group dances, we use the nom, or possibly the acc if seen as self-transporting, with a partitive ‘and’.);
a dance (action of dancing)

drèw., drìw. dance partner (in a partner dance)
dròrw. dance floor

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem darw‑a
OLem darw‑
PLem *darw‑, u-present of
PIE *dreu̯‑ ‘run’

For NLem darw‑in ‘dance partners, among others’, see Nature 462, 288: Bird behaviour, Darwin and dance.

Cognates

Ved drávati ‘runs’, Cro Drava and other European river names. Although Eng draw is unrelated, partner dancing is really a draw in at least three senses of the word.

droà.

to make Troyan

droàr. the country of Troy (modern endonym: ηλψσό /l̩pˈsu/) in Asia Minor

droÌ krÌstU. droUkrÌst. Turkish Delight, lit. ‘Troyan thing (beneficient) for the throat’

Etymology

NLem dro‑a
LMLem drò‑yr
MLem drou‑yr
OTroy Τροι‑α /ˈdroia/, from an Anatolian word, ultimately
PIE *trḗb‑s ‘dwelling’

The term for Turkish Delight is calqued from Ar رَاحَة الْحُلْقُوم ‘throat comfort’.

Cognates

Ger Dorf ‘village’, Eng place names such as Weaver‑thorpe, OIr treb ‘house, farm’

dnà.

self-transporting: to walk somewhere-dat etc.;
(maths) a vector

dnù. (with outer partitive) leg

Connotations

This word can connote walking somewhere for a purpose, or walking with an aim, as fràw. is the go-to word for ambling aimlessly.

Etymology

NLem dn‑a
LMLem drn‑a ‘run’
MLem drnu‑a
OLem drnu‑
PLem *drnu‑, nasal-infix present of
PIE *dreu̯‑

Cognates

probably Ved drávati ‘runs’, Cro Drava and other European river names; Eng dromedary is from a related PIE root

dnujrà.

to make the river Danube

Etymology

gender change of
NLem dnuj‑arg‑a, clarifying compound of
  NLem dnuj‑a
LMLem danòj‑yr
MLem danouj‑yr
PCelt *danouy‑os, derivation, u-present of
PIE *dʰenh₂‑ ‘run away’
 —and—
  NLem arg‑a ‘river’
LMLem, MLem arg‑ar
OLem arg‑ ‘flow, drip’
PLem *arg‑, root present of
PIE *reg̑‑

Cognates

Eng Danube; Ice raki ‘moisture, dampness’

dmà.

to make many, much (relative weight 3⁄4; see unit 7, Weighting numerals – usually with partitive bracket; see unit 8, Cardinal numerals)

also an alternative name for the language game mentioned under dmàj.

Etymology

gender change of
NLem bmin‑a ‘full’
LMLem, MLem pylmen‑yr
OLem pylhmen‑
PLem *palhmen‑
PIE *pl̥h₁‑mh̥₁n‑ós ‘filled’, root present mediopassive participle of
  PIE *pleh₁‑ ‘fill, become full’

See Ràbv. for information on Ghean weighting numerals.

Cognates

Eng full, Lat plēnus

dmàt.

dat: to see (agentive: look at) something-nom, the image of something-acc;
dat, perfect: to know something-nom (having seen it)

dmùt. (with outer partitive) eye

dmetfàw. to watch television
dmetfùw. (with outer partitive) the medium of television; television set

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem demt‑a
OLem demt‑
PLem *dems‑, Narten present of
PIE *dekʷs‑ ‘show’

The word for television is a calque from British.

Cognates

Av daxšat̰ ‘teach(?)’

dmàj.

to make quite a lot (relative weight 5⁄8; see unit 7, Weighting numerals – usually with partitive bracket; see unit 8, Cardinal numerals)

also an old language game for four, five, seven or ten players, focusing on abstract thought. Although the game is 4000 years old, this cover term only came into use by Early New Lemizh times when it still meant ‘make full’.

Etymology

NLem bmin‑a ‘full’
LMLem, MLem pylmen‑yr
OLem pylhmen‑
PLem *palhmen‑
PIE *pl̥h₁‑mh̥₁n‑ós ‘filled’, root present mediopassive participle of
  PIE *pleh₁‑ ‘fill, become full’

See Ràbv. for information on Ghean weighting numerals.

Cognates

Eng full, Lat plēnus

djàt.

to make (it) daytime

djèRt. morning
djìRt. evening

For compounds denoting weekdays, see the appendix, Date.

Connotations

Daytime, like the sun, is mythologically and poetically seen as male. This is the source of the ‘male’ (non-zero) poststem.

Etymology

gender change of
NLem dje‑a
LMLem djè‑yr
MLem djei‑yr ‘day’
OLem djei‑
PLem *djēw‑
PIE *di̯ḗu‑s ‘sky’

Cognates

Gk Ζεύς ‘Zeus’, Lat diēs ‘day’

djàvf.

to make a week, a time span of seven days (see appendix, Units of measurement, for usage)

Etymology

NLem djevf‑a
LMLem djèqif‑yr
MLem djei‑qif‑yr, compound of
  MLem djei‑yr ‘day’
OLem djei‑
PLem *djēw‑
PIE *di̯ḗu‑s ‘sky’
 —and—
  MLem qif‑yl ‘seven’
OLem thift‑, inflected form of
PLem *seftam
PIE *septḿ̥

Cognates

Lat diēs ‘day’; Eng seven

djeipysràd.

to make the god or the planet Jupiter/Zeus

Connotations

This is the head of the PIE polytheistic religion’s pantheon in the Lemizh denomination. Other denominations such as Greek and Ethiynic polytheism mainly differ in gods’ names, holidays, and other details. Anyway, no one takes the gods very seriously today.

See xàps. for the associated weekday.

Etymology

gender change of
NLem djeipysir‑a, academic loan of
OLem djeipysir‑ ‘Father Sky’
PLem *djēw‑paser‑, compound of
  PLem *djēw‑ ‘sky’
PIE *di̯ḗu‑s
 —and—
  PLem *paser‑ ‘father’
PIE *ph̥₂tér‑s

Cognates

Gk Ζεύς Πατήρ ‘Father Zeus’, Lat Jupiter

djingmesrà.

to make the goddess Terra/Gaia, also the Earth when explicitly referred to as a planet among the others

Connotations

See djeipysràd. for more information on Lemizh polytheism, and xnà. for the weekday associated with this goddess.

Etymology

NLem dzingmesir‑a, academic loan of
OLem dzingmēsir‑ ‘Mother Earth’
PLem *dzeng‑māser‑, compound of
  PLem *dzeng‑ ‘?’, Narten present of
PIE *dʰég̑ʰ‑
 —and—
  PLem *māser‑ ‘mother’
PIE *méh₂ter‑s

The first part of the PLem compound *dzeng‑māser‑ is the (verbal) root of PLem *dzeng‑om‑ ‘earth’ and is of unclear meaning.

Cognates

Eng humus (via Lat humus ‘ground, earth, soil’); Eng mother

djistnàt.

to make the god or the planet Saturn/Kronos

Connotations

See djeipysràd. for more information on Lemizh polytheism, and nàt. for the weekday associated with this god.

Etymology

NLem dziskont‑a, academic loan of
OLem dziskont‑ ‘Seedputter (the God of agriculture)’
PLem *dzeskont‑
PIE *dʰh̥₁sk̑‑ónt‑s ‘putting, making’, sk̑é-present active participle of
  PIE *dʰeh₁‑ ‘put, make’

The root is probably the same as in PIE *dʰóh₁‑n‑eh₂ ‘seed, grain’.

Cognates

Gk δίδωμι, Lat

dwà.

to make two individuals

Connotations

The number two conjures up teatime. The traditional Lemizh teatime ritual is more akin to the English than to the Chinese one – homely, without much fuss, and ideally for two people.

Etymology

NLem dwO‑a
LMLem dwÒ‑yl
MLem dwOO‑yl
OLem dwö‑, inflected form of
PLem *dwō
PIE *du̯óh₁

Cognates

Eng two, Gk δύο

dwàc.

to marry (The man is usually in the nom and the woman in the dat.); a wedding

dwèc. spouse, bridegroom, husband
dwìc. spouse, bride, wife
dwìlc. marriage

dwecRìc. king’s wife; also the constellation Cassiopeia (see appendix, Constellations)

Connotations

While a modern Lemizh marriage amounts to a sincere promise, little is known about the situation in Old Lemizh times. OLem dwarnh‑ seems to have referred to a rather more informal concept; it may have meant something closer to ‘get engaged’.

The resemblence to dwà. ‘make two’ is pure chance but often seen as quite fitting.

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem dwarn‑a
OLem dwarnh‑
PLem *dwarnh‑, nasal-infix present of
PIE *tu̯erh₁‑ ‘grasp’

Cognates

Lit tveriù ‘grasp’, Gk σειρᾱ́ ‘rope, chain’

dwàw.

to make bottles

Etymology

NLem dwOwr‑a
LMLem dwÒ‑wer‑yr ‘amphora, bottle’, nominalisation, compound of
  LMLem dwÒ‑yl ‘two’
MLem dwOO‑yl
OLem dwö‑, inflected form of
PLem *dwō
PIE *du̯óh₁
 —and—
  LMLem, MLem wer‑a ‘carry, bear’
OLem wer‑
PLem *bwer‑, Narten present of
PIE *bʰer‑

This is a LMLem calque from Koi ἀμφορεύς ‘amphora’.

Cognates

Eng two; Eng bear

dwnàt.

to hit something-dat; to smash, shatter something-dat into something-acc [e.g. shards] by hitting it;
dat: to be hit; to shatter into something-acc

The ‘destroying’ meanings are distinguished from the ‘hitting’ one by the acc object or – often simpler – by instead using nominal verbs such as skràp. ‘split, turn into parts’, shardà. ‘turn into shards’, etc.

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem dwant‑a ‘shatter’
OLem dwant‑
PLem *dwans‑ ‘crumble’, nasal-infix present of
PIE *dʰu̯ens‑ ‘crumble, dissipate’

Cognates

Ved dhváṁsate ‘crumbles, dissipates’, arguably Eng dust

bà.

to make female(s), to make women (symbol: ⊕)

Etymology

NLem b‑a
LMLem, MLem b‑yr
Ghe pˇ‑ə /bə/

Cognates

Claims that the Ghe word is loaned from PCelt *bén‑ā < PIE *gʷén‑eh₂ ‘woman’ are purely hypothetical.

bàst.

to do heroic deeds, to be a hero

bèst. hero

bastjàx. hero’s journey, hero’s quest

Etymology

NLem bast‑a
LMLem bast‑ar, nominalisation of
Koi βαστ‑ώ ‘lift, raise, bear’, short form of
  Koi βαστάζ‑ω, of Pre-Greek origin

Cognates

Ital bastare ‘be enough, suffice’

bunà.

to make coffee

bunÌ. coffee (beverage)
bunì. coffee beans, ground coffee

Connotations

An old urban legend held that coffee was made from dead, pulverised rabbits, or alternatively that coffee beans were roasted rabbit droppings. No one believes that, nowadays.

Etymology

NLem buna‑a
Amh buna (or from another Afro-Asiatic language)

blà.

to make strong, to strengthen

Connotations

The Lemizh have never taken strength quite seriously. This can be exemplified with a Late Middle Lemizh author who wrote ‘Any reason for strength is just idle talk’. Incidentally, he was killed by a disoriented wrestler.

Etymology

NLem bl‑a
LMLem bl‑yr
MLem blu‑yr
OLem blu‑
PLem *blu‑, u-stem adjective of
PIE *bel‑

Cognates

Gk βελτίων ‘better’, Lat de‑bīlis ‘weak’

blàp.

to make a momentum unit, a momentum of 53.13 millinewton-seconds (see appendix, Units of measurement)

Etymology

gender change of
NLem bel‑a, academic loan of
Koi βέλ‑ος ‘missile, arrow’, levelling of
SHell *q̌él‑os
PIE *gʷélh₁‑os, zero-affix noun of
  PIE *gʷelh₁‑ ‘hit, throw’

Gender change occurred to avoid homophony with blà. ‘strong’, and also because physicists wanted to be taken seriously.

Cognates

Eng ballistic (via Gk βάλλω ‘throw’) and probably ball (dancing party) (via Gk βαλλίζω ‘dance’)

bràk.

to make dwarfs

Etymology

NLem bark‑a
LMLem, MLem bark‑yr
OLem bark‑
PLem *bark‑, of unknown origin

bvà.

to make a medium number/amount (relative weight 1⁄2; see unit 7, Weighting numerals – usually with partitive bracket; see unit 8, Cardinal numerals)

Etymology

NLem bw‑a ‘much’
LMLem, MLem bw‑yr
Ghe pˡ‑ə /bʷə/

See Ràbv. for more on Ghean weighting numerals.

kà.

opposition (‘minus’) negator (see unit 6, Negators): to turn something-dat into the opposite;
to make minus one individual

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem k‑a
Ghe q‑a /qa/

Development of the minus sign

k →  → _

kamlà.

to make camels

Etymology

NLem kaml‑a
LMLem kàmel‑yr
Koi κάμηλ‑ος
SHell *kámēl‑os
PSem *gamal-

Compare kamlàj. and kamlàc..

Cognates

Eng camel, Ar جَمَل

kamlàj.

to make two-humped or Bactrian camels

Etymology

poststem from plural of
NLem kaml‑a ‘camel’ (see kamlà.)

kamlàc.

to make one-humped camels or dromedaries (also a constellation in the region of Carina and Vela, the Ship’s keel and sails)

Etymology

poststem from singular of
NLem kaml‑a ‘camel’ (see kamlà.)

kàk.

self-transporting: to go somewhere-dat etc. on wheels

kùk. (with outer partitive) wheel

Etymology

NLem kUkl‑a
LMLem kÙkl‑yr ‘wheel, circle’
Koi κύκλ‑ος
SHell *qúql‑os
PIE *kʷékʷl‑os

replaced native MLem gweml‑yr

Cognates

Eng wheel, cycle (via Lat cyclus)

kàt.

to make cats

Connotations

Cats, being regarded as somewhat mysterious creatures as in many cultures, have a whole host of associations, a common theme being causality and its absence. A good synopsis is:

Etymology

NLem kat‑a
LMLem kàt‑yr
MLem kaut‑yr
Egy ṯaute ‘jungle cat’, female form of
  Egy ṯaus

Cognates

Eng cat, Ital gatto

kàcx.

to make horns

kècx. horned (animal)
korncxnès. rhinoceros

Etymology

NLem karxn‑a
LMLem, MLem karxn‑yr
OLem karxn‑
PLem *karxn‑
PIE *k̑r̥h₂n‑ós

Cognates

Eng horn, Lat cornū

kàx.

to make a speed (actually a rapidity) unit, a speed of 6.980 centimetres per second (see appendix, Units of measurement)

Etymology

NLem koxl‑a ‘unit of velocity’, academic loan of
Koi κόχλ‑ος ‘snail (shell)’, probably related to
  Koi κόγχ‑η ‘mussel’
SHell *kónkh‑ā
PIE *kóngʰ‑eh₂ ‘shell, mussel’

The name of the basic speed unit was chosen for its slowness. It was redefined from a unit of speed to one of rapidity upon the discovery of Lorentz symmetry.

Cognates

Eng, Lat cochlea

klàp.

dat: to steal something-acc

klèp. thief

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem kalp‑a
OLem kalp‑
PLem *kalp‑, root present of
PIE *klep‑

Cognates

Eng klepto‑maniac (via Gk κλέπτω ‘steal’)

klàj.

to cope (agentive: deal) with, handle something-dat

Connotations

This word, in its Early New Lemizh form, is the title of the Tlöngö̀l, which many Lemizh refuse to recognise as their national epic.

Etymology

NLem tlOn‑a ‘endure, pluck up courage’
LMLem tlèn‑a
Koi τλῆναι, nasal-infix present of
PIE *telh₂‑ ‘lift up, take upon oneself’

Cognates

Eng thole, tolerate (via Lat tolerō ‘endure’), Lat tollō ‘lift up, take away’

krà.

to make a time unit, a time span of 1.318 seconds (see appendix, Time and Units of measurement)

krilrÌj. 16 time units, a time span of about 20 seconds
krilskmÌ. 256 time units, a time span of about 5½ minutes
kriljÌs. 4096 time units, a time span of 90 minutes
krilmrÌj. 65,536 time units, a time span of 24 hours

Etymology

gender change of
NLem kard‑a, shortened form, academic loan of
Koi καρδί‑ᾱ ‘heart’
SHell *kr̥dí‑ā
PIE *k̑r̥dí‑eh₂, i̯-extension, feminine of
  PIE *k̑érd‑s

The name of the basic time unit was chosen for its length of (very roughly) a heartbeat. Gender change occurred to avoid homophony with the related word kràd. ‘(heart)beat’.

Cognates

Eng heart, Lat cor

kràd.

to beat (only of the heart)

krèd. heart

Etymology

NLem kerd‑a
LMLem, MLem kerd‑ar
OLem kerd‑ ‘heart’
PLem *kerd‑
PIE *k̑érd‑s

Cognates

Eng heart, Gk καρδία

kràt.

to hunt, to chase someone/something-acc

krèt. also the constellation Orion (see appendix, Constellations)
krÙlt. to catch (up with) someone/something-dat

kratylàs. to hunt in vain; a vain hunt, a wild-goose chase (often used with inner ten: to intend / be about to go on a wild-goose chase)

kràt happyày. the pursuit of happiness

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem kart‑a
OLem kart‑
PLem *kars‑ ‘run’, root present of
PIE *k̑ers‑ or *k̑ers‑

Cognates

Gk Ἐπί‑κουρος (Epicurus) ‘ally’ (lit. ‘one running with [someone]’), Lat currō ‘run’

kràj.

to form an ensemble of something-dat (see unit 7, Grouping numerals)

krÌj. ensemble
krìj. component

krijcnÌzd. plumage
krijfnÌwb. family (also the biological rank)
etc.

Etymology

NLem korj‑a
LMLem, MLem korj‑yr ‘male association’
OLem korj‑
PLem *korj‑
PIE *kór‑i̯‑os, derivation of
  PIE *kór‑os ‘war’

Cognates

Ger Heer ‘army’, Gk Κοιρό‑μαχος and other proper names; unrelated to Ger Krieg ‘war’

kràxt.

to act/move nimbly, to make one’s actions nimble

Etymology

NLem kront‑a
LMLem, MLem yrkant‑yr ‘crippled’
OLem hyrkant‑
PLem *harkans‑ ‘damage, harm’, nasal-infix present of
PIE *h₁rek̑s‑

The nasal-infix present was probably innovated in PLem as it is unlikely for a PIE root with this phonetic structure.

Cognates

Gk ἐρέχθω ‘rend, break’

kràst.

to make throats

krystrÙjd. robin; redthroat

Etymology

NLem karst‑a
LMLem, MLem karst‑yr
OLem karst‑
PLem *karst‑
PIE *kŕ̥s‑t‑s ‘cut’, verbal adjective of
  PIE *kers‑

The throat is probably named for its function to separate head and body.

Cognates

Hit karaszi ‘cuts, separates’

kmà.

dat: may do something-acc;
to allow someone-dat to do something-acc (see unit 13, Overview of the modals)

Etymology

NLem kem‑a
LMLem kèm‑a
MLem keem‑a ‘announce, praise’
OLem kēm‑
PLem *kēm‑, Narten present of
PIE *k̑ems‑

Cognates

Eng census (via Lat cēnseō ‘count, opine’), Ved śáṁsati ‘praises’

khwà.

to be easygoing, nonconformist

Etymology

gender change of
NLem kxwar‑n‑a ‘unreliable, reckless, devil-may-care’, compound of
  NLem kxwar‑a ‘faeces’
LMLem, MLem kuxwar‑yr
OLem kuhwar‑
PLem *kohwar‑
PIE *k̑ókʷr̥
 —and—
  NLem, LMLem n‑a ‘not’
MLem ne‑a
OLem ne‑, inflected form of
PLem *ne
PIE *ne ‘no, not’

The compound is probably based on the idea of someone ‘not giving a shit’. See also khwàc..

Cognates

Gk κόπρος ‘dung, filth, dirt’; Eng no

khwàc.

to be / act as a rogue, to behave in a rogue way, to be a rascal

Etymology

NLem kxwar‑n‑a ‘unreliable, reckless, devil-may-care’, compound of
  NLem kxwar‑a ‘faeces’
LMLem, MLem kuxwar‑yr
OLem kuhwar‑
PLem *kohwar‑
PIE *k̑ókʷr̥
 —and—
  NLem, LMLem n‑a ‘not’
MLem ne‑a
OLem ne‑, inflected form of
PLem *ne
PIE *ne ‘no, not’

The compound is probably based on the idea of someone ‘not giving a shit’. See also khwà..

Cognates

Gk κόπρος ‘dung, filth, dirt’; Eng no

ksrà.

to make grey

ksrynÌs. tennessine

Etymology

NLem ksr‑a
LMLem, MLem ksr‑yr
OLem ksr‑
PLem *ksr‑, r-stem adjective of
PIE *k̑as‑

Most basic colour terms in Lemizh are r-stem Caland adjectives, perhaps motivated by the word for ‘red’.

Cognates

Eng hare (lit. ‘the grey one’), Lat cānus ‘grey, old’

ksmàs.

to make tree squirrels

Connotations

Calling someone a squirrel refers to their thrift or stinginess, often combined with a tendency to come up with unexpected presents (especially in winter). This use is only attested from Early New Lemizh.

Etymology

NLem ksmUs‑a
LMLem, MLem kesmUs‑yr
OLem kes‑müs‑, clarifying compound of
  OLem kes‑
PLem *kes‑, of unknown origin
 —and—
  OLem müs‑ ‘mouse’
PLem *mūs‑
PIE *múh₂s

Might have referred to other tree-dwelling rodents in the past, but in NLem it is definitely the red squirrel, Sciurus vulgaris. Extended to tree squirrels of other continents in modern times.

Cognates

Eng mouse, Lat mūs

tà.

definite pronoun: see unit 6, Demonstrative pronouns

tÌ. this/that (one);
with outer causative/persuasive: therefore;
with outer temporal: at this/that time;
with outer locative: here/there;
etc.

Etymology

NLem t‑a
LMLem, MLem t‑yr ‘this, that’
OLem t‑
PLem *t‑
PIE *t‑ód

Cognates

Eng that, the, Gk τό

taà.

to measure the circle

taù., τ = 2π = 6.28318530717958647692528676655900…

Connotations

The Lemizh got it right. Yes, really.

Etymology

academic loan, back formation of
Koi ταῦ ‘the letter τ’, either from τόρνος ‘lathe, compass (drawing tool)’ or from Τερψιχόρη ‘the muse of dancing’

Cognates

either Eng turn, or Lit tarpstù ‘thrive, prosper’ and probably Ger dürfen ‘may, be allowed’

tamgà.

to tango with someone-dat (the man is usually in the nom and the lady in the dat); a tango (action of dancing)

tamgè. male tango partner
tamgì. female tango partner

Etymology

NLem tamgu‑a
< Ibibio tamgu ‘to dance’

tàj.

to make/build/found cities, towns

Etymology

NLem taj‑a
LMLem, MLem taxj‑yr ‘dwelling’
OLem taçj‑
PLem *taçj‑, o-stem adjective of
PIE *tk̑ei̯‑ ‘dwell, farm’

Cognates

Ved kṣéti ‘dwells’, Gk ἔκτισσα ‘found (a city)’

tàcd.

to make more, to make a larger amount (often with qualitative; often compounded; see unit 11, Verbs of comparison and Comparative)

Connotations

The difficulty of locating more of something (such as knowledge, wisdom) has been a common theme in literature and other arts since Late Middle Lemizh times; e.g. thinkà tìlcdy gwÌar. in the well-known song (‘Won’t you dance for me cos I just don’t care / What’s going on today, I think there’s something more…’). Compare àst..

Etymology

gender change, anomalous poststem formation (under the influence of àst. ‘make the most’) of
NLem, LMLem tir‑a
MLem tiro‑a, back formation of
OLem comparative suffix ‑tiro‑
PLem *‑tero‑
PIE *‑tero‑s

Cognates

Eng far‑ther, Gk comparative suffix ‑τερος

tàx.

to make/produce art, (an) art

tÌx. artwork

Etymology

NLem texn‑a
LMLem tèxn‑yr
Koi τέχν‑η ‘craft, art’
SHell *tékhn‑ā, nominalisation of
PIE *tetk̑‑ ‘produce, create’

Cognates

Eng technical, Ved tákṣati ‘timbers, produces, creates’

telmà.

to make an electric capacitance unit, a capacitance of 0.8959 farads (see appendix, Units of measurement)

telmàr. (jocular, nerdy) location of a treasure

Etymology

shortened form, academic loan of
Koi τέλμα ‘swamp’, possibly from
  Koi τέλλω ‘perform, accomplish’
PIE *kʷelh₁‑ ‘turn (around)’

Most electric units use the electricity is water metaphor, which relates electric capacitance to a water reservoir. A lake (Koi λίμνη) would have been the obvious choice, but the symbol l was already used for the mass unit.

The jocular meaning of the inner locative is based on viewing stored electricity as a treasure.

Cognates

possibly Ger dulden ‘tolerate, endure’

telmàx.

to (ride a) bicycle

telmÌx. a bicycle

Etymology

named for its inventor, one Τηλέμαχος (not the classical one)

tUxà.

to happen by chance

tUxà., tUxàl. chance, luck

Etymology

NLem tUx‑a
LMLem tÙx‑yr
Koi Τύχ‑η ‘Tyche (the Goddess of luck)’
SHell *túkh‑ā ‘luck, fortune’, nominalisation, zero-grade root stative of
PIE *dʰeu̯gʰ‑ ‘hit, produce something useful’

Cognates

Ger tüchtig ‘capable, efficient’, Ved duhé ‘give milk’

tlOnà.

tlOnÒl. Tlöngö̀l (the epic novel defining the onset of New Lemizh)

Etymology

NLem tlOn‑a ‘endure, pluck up courage’
LMLem tlèn‑a
Koi τλῆναι, nasal-infix present of
PIE *telh₂‑ ‘lift up, take upon oneself’

This verb is only used for the name of the epic. The modern form for all other purposes is klàj..

Cognates

Eng thole, tolerate (via Lat tolerō ‘endure’), Lat tollō ‘lift up, take away’

trà.

to make three individuals

Etymology

NLem trO‑a
LMLem trè‑yl
MLem tree‑yl
OLem trē‑
PLem *trē‑
PIE *tréi̯‑es

Cognates

Eng three, Gk τρεῖς

tràgc.

to make music, the art of music

Etymology

NLem trUgj‑a
LMLem, MLem trigj‑yr
PCelt *trigy‑os, of unknown origin

tràd.

to twist something-dat into some shape-acc; to break something-dat into something-acc [e.g. into parts, in two] by torsion;
dat: to twist; to break into something-acc by torsion

The ‘deforming’ and ‘destroying’ meanings are distinguished by the acc object or – often simpler – by instead using a nominal verb expressing a shape, versus nominal verbs such as skràp. ‘split, turn into parts’, dwà. ‘turn into two [parts]’, etc.

Etymology

gender change of
NLem, LMLem, MLem tar‑a
OLem tarh‑ ‘drill, rub’
PLem *tarh‑, root present of
PIE *terh₁‑

Cognates

Lat terō ‘rub’, possibly Eng throw

tràw.

to perform witchcraft

trèw. witch

Connotations

The idea that witches often come in threes is nicely matched by the phonological similarity to trÌ. ‘three’.

Etymology

NLem trom‑a
LMLem tràmi‑yr ‘gut’
Koi τράμι‑ς, nominalisation of
SHell *tér‑mi ‘drill, rub’, root present of
PIE *terh₁‑

The NLem word literally means ‘gut-maker’; the concept was probably ‘someone making the guts whole = someone healing the innards’. Gender change was inhibited by the word trÌ..

Cognates

Lat terō ‘rub’, possibly Eng throw

tràxk.

to make beavers

Etymology

NLem troxk‑a
LMLem, MLem troxk‑ar
OLem troçk‑ ‘gnaw to pieces’
PLem *troçk‑, sk̑-present of
PIE *treh₃g̑‑ ‘gnaw through’

Cognates

Gk τρώγω ‘gnaw through’, TochB treṣṣäṃ ‘chews (through)’

tnàdw.

to do duty as a captain, to captain a ship or crew-dat

tnèdw. captain

Etymology

NLem tondw‑a
LMLem, MLem etondb‑yr
Ghe etostpʱ‑ə /ɛtɔndʱbʱə/

tmà.

to lead to the opposite expectation-acc [given previous information]

tmÌ. but, even (typically in a bracket or compound with the ‘unexpected’ object, the one that gives rise to the perceived contrast; for ‘even’, this object has an inner partitive)

Etymology

NLem tam‑a ‘(unpleasant) surprise’
LMLem, MLem tamn‑yr ‘(surprise) attack’
OLem tamnh‑ ‘cut’
PLem *tamnh‑, nasal-infix present of
PIE *temh₁‑

Cognates

Eng contempt (via Lat con‑temnō ‘despise’), Gk τέμνω ‘cut’

txà.

to make/prepare (black) tea from Camellia sinensis or other plants (see connotations)

txÌ. tea (beverage)
txì. tea ([dried] leaves)

txilàbv. to make/prepare white tea
txilàxw. to make green tea
txiwrà. to make black tea
txiflàc. to make oolong
(all with inner acc for the beverage and inner dat for the leaves)

Connotations

This is the word for tea from the plant Camellia sinensis and, by extension, for other strongly aromatic sorts of tea, especially spiced teas.

Etymology

NLem tha‑a ‘black tea’
Man
OCh  /*rlaː, laː, ɦlja/ ‘a bitter tasting plant, tea’
PST *s-la ‘leaf, tea?, flat object’

Cognates

Eng tea, chai

txatxàf.

to make mercury, quicksilver

Etymology

NLem tsatxaf‑a
LMLem etstxaf‑yr
MLem etst‑xaf‑yr, compound of
  MLem etst‑yr ‘silver’
Ghe etsᴛ‑ə /ɛts̟t̠ə/
 —and—
  MLem xaf‑yr ‘water’
OLem xaf‑ ‘water, stream’
PLem *xaf‑ ‘water’ [animate], stream’
PIE *h₂ép‑s

Cognates

Ved ā́p ‘water’, Ir abhainn ‘river’

txàsk.

to make loud, to make a noise, a sound

Etymology

NLem txusk‑a
LMLem txutk‑a
MLem txut‑k‑a, compound of
  MLem txut‑yr ‘silent’
OLem txut‑
PLem *txus‑, o-stem adjective of
PIE *th₂eu̯s‑ ‘be silent’
 —and—
  MLem k‑a ‘opposition’
Ghe q‑a /qa/

Cognates

Hit tuhussiyezzi ‘watches quietly’

pà.

to ask someone-dat about something-acc (see unit 16, Questions, imperative and exclamations)

là pÙla. to answer something-acc to someone-dat

Etymology

NLem pi‑a
LMLem pì‑a
MLem pii‑a ‘sing’
OLem pī‑
PLem *pī‑, root present of
PIE *pei̯h₂‑

Cognates

OCS pojǫ ‘sing’

pàbc.

to make/produce poison, venom

Etymology

NLem pibc‑a
LMLem pìp‑abgc‑yr, clarifying compound of
  LMLem pìp‑yr
MLem piip‑yr
OLem pīp‑
PLem *piwf‑ ‘drink’, i-reduplicated athematic present of
PIE *peh₃‑
 —and—
  LMLem, MLem abgc‑yr ‘bitter’
Ghe apqshˇ‑ə /abɢʒə/

Cognates

Lat bibō ‘drink’

pàt.

to make correct, right; to correct, fix something-dat

pèt pèpe. daddy doing [it/everything] right, daddy is right [about everything], a phrase loved by little and loathed by older children

Etymology

NLem pet‑a
LMLem, MLem pet‑yr
OLem pet‑
PLem *pesh‑ ‘be happy’, Narten present of
PIE *pek̑‑

Cognates

OEng ġefēon ‘rejoice’, Lit púošiu ‘decorate’

pàp.

to become a dad(dy)-nom

pèp. dad(dy) of someone-acc

Etymology

baby talk for psrèb. ‘father’

pàf.

to place a person-acc upright somewhere-dat etc.;
self-transporting: to stand up, get up, perfect: to stand somewhere ditto;

This verb is not used for objects whose position can be determined with spatial verbs alone (see ‘stand’ in the English / Lemizh dictionary). It is only needed to distinguish a standing from a sitting or squatting person, whose coordinate systems share the same orientation.

Etymology

NLem, LMLem pifn‑a
MLem pif‑ne‑a ‘stand (still)’, compound of
  MLem pif‑a ‘move (purposefully)’
OLem pifh‑ ‘move’ [intr.]
PLem *pifh‑, i-reduplicated athematic present of
PIE *peh₁‑
 —and—
  MLem ne‑a ‘not’
OLem ne‑, inflected form of
PLem *ne
PIE *ne ‘no, not’

Cognates

Ved vi-pipāná- ‘sorting out’, probably Hit pippanzi ‘overturn’

potmàs.

to make an electric current or magnetomotive force (‘magnetic voltage’) unit, a current of 43.72 milliamperes (see appendix, Units of measurement)

Etymology

shortened form, academic loan of
Koi ποταμ‑ός ‘river’, probably related to
Koi πῑ́πτ‑ω ‘fall’
SHell *pī́pt‑ō, i-reduplicated thematic present of
PIE *peth₂‑ ‘fly (up)’

Most electric units use the electricity is water metaphor, which relates an electric current to running water.

Cognates

Eng hippo‑potamus; probably feather, petition (via Lat petō ‘ask, request’)

plàk.

to unlock something-dat, to open a lock-acc to something-dat

plÌk. a lock
plùk. (with outer partitive) key

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem pylk‑a, reanalysis of
OLem pylkanh‑ ‘cover, conceal > lock’
PLem *palkanh‑ ‘cover, conceal’, néH-present of
PIE *pelk‑

The n was reanalysed as a negation in late OLem, after the syncope of stem-final h.

Cognates

Eng feal ‘hide’

prà.

to make points / an area in front of something-nom (see unit 12, Temporal and spatial verbs)

prexnÌ., prÌ. east (symbol: p)
prilkexnÌ., prilkÌ. west (symbol: g, i.e. a turned p)

Etymology

NLem prO‑a, inflected form of
LMLem prÒ ‘in front of’
MLem prOO
OLem prö
PLem *prō
PIE *prō ‘forth’

Cognates

Lat prō ‘for, in front of’

pràk.

to request something-acc from someone-dat

Connotations

This verb typically refers to friendly requests.

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem park‑a
OLem park‑
PLem *park‑, sk̑-present of
PIE *prek̑‑ ‘ask’

Cognates

Eng postulate (via Lat postulō ‘request’), Ger fragen ‘ask’

pràt.

to barely/just do something-acc;
acc: to barely/just happen

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem part‑a
OLem part‑
PLem *pars‑ ‘try’, s-desiderative of
PIE *per‑ ‘traverse’

Cognates

Eng fare, Gk πείρω ‘pierce, run through’

pràj.

to make beautiful, to beautify

used for anything aesthetically pleasing to the senses, including tastes and smells

Etymology

NLem prUn‑a
LMLem prìn‑yr ‘pleasing, dear’ [of things]
MLem priin‑yr ‘pleasing, dear’
OLem prīn‑ ‘please, be dear’
PLem *prīn‑, nasal-infix present of
PIE *prei̯H‑

Cognates

Ved prīṇā́ti ‘pleases’; needless to say, unrelated to Ger Pracht ‘splendour’

pnà.

to make five individuals

‘make five’, a version of an old language game for five players, focusing on abstract thought. Other versions of this game are for four, seven or ten players, and named accordingly. The cover term for the game is dmàj. ‘fill (up), make full’.

Etymology

NLem pin‑a
LMLem, MLem pin‑yl
OLem ping‑, inflected form of
PLem *pengwe
PIE *pénkʷe

Cognates

Eng five, Gk πέντε

pnàb.

to make fauns

pnèb. the god Faunus/Pan, lit. ‘maker/father of fauns’

Etymology

gender change of
NLem pan‑a
LMLem pàn‑yr
Koi Πᾱ́ν ‘Pan’, probably from
PIE *peh₂- ‘protect, shepherd’

Cognates

probably Ved Pūṣan ‘a Vedic deity’, Eng pasture (via Lat pāscō ‘feed, graze’)

pslà.

to cut something-dat into something-acc [e.g. pieces, in two] with scissors

pslù. (with outer partitive) scissors; a kind of steel used for making high-quality scissors

Etymology

NLem pslU‑a
LMLem psalì‑yr
Koi ψαλί‑ς, of unknown origin

psràb.

to father a child-acc;
dat: to conceive a child-acc

psrèb. father of someone-acc
psrìb. mother of someone-acc (rare)
psrÌb. child (son, daughter) of a father-nom and a mother-dat

psrebqlÌp. plastic

Connotations

Metaphoric use of ‘child’ for younger people who are not the speaker’s sons or daughters, either affectionate or patronising, has been common at least since Early New Lemizh.

Etymology

gender change of
NLem pser‑a
LMLem, MLem pyser‑yr ‘someone’s child, son’
OLem pyser‑
PLem *paser‑ ‘father’
PIE *ph̥₂tér‑s

Cognates

Eng father, Gk πατήρ

pqàb.

to be angry with someone-dat/causal-receiving, about something-acc/causal-transporting (see Ambiguous usage);
agentive caus, causal-reflexive: to anger someone-nom

Connotations

Anger being a potentially constructive emotion has been recognised since Early New Lemizh times. In Modern Lemizh, this verb mainly evokes an energetic, extroverted kind of reaction.

Etymology

gender change of
NLem pfi‑a
LMLem pifì‑yr ‘a bulge’
MLem pifii‑yr
OLem pifī‑ ‘swell’
PLem *pifī‑, i-reduplicated athematic present of
PIE *pei̯h₁‑

For some strange reason, masculinisation is common in verbs of emotion; see spàz. ‘be happy’.

Cognates

Ved pínvate ‘swells’

jà.

relative pronoun type I level n−5: see unit 6, Relative pronouns

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem j‑a, formed after the Ghean relative pronouns
a f‑a s‑a sh‑a x‑a / fˇ‑a sˇ‑a shˇ‑a xˇ‑a
/a ɸa s̟a ʃa χa / βa z̟a ʒa ʁa/

jàt.

to give a name to someone-dat, to call, name someone-dat something-acc after someone-psu

jÌt. a name

Etymology

NLem jet‑a
LMLem jèt‑a
MLem jeet‑a ‘call (by name)’
OLem jēt‑ ‘call, rouse’
PLem *jews‑ ‘notice, awake’, Narten present of
PIE *i̯eu̯t‑

Cognates

OCS oštuštǫ ‘sense, notice’

jàx.

to move something-acc somewhere-dat etc., also non-sending; a body part-acc;
self-transporting: to move (a distance), to go somewhere ditto by train etc.-ins

jìrx. to put something-acc somewhere ditto; self-transporting: to arrive;
jèrx. self-transporting: to leave, depart

jyxhlà. to salt something-dat
jyxsràx. to sugar something-dat
etc.

jixdwàw. to bottle something-acc
jixRàxt. to shoulder something-acc
etc.

Etymology

gender change of
NLem, LMLem, MLem j‑a
OLem j‑
PLem *j‑, root present of
PIE *h₁ei̯‑

Gender change occurred to avoid homophony with the pronoun jà., as pronouns referring to verbs were becoming more common during the last centuries.

Cognates

Gk εἶμι, Lat

jàs.

to make 4096 individuals

Connotations

The number 1000 has traditionally been seen as unlucky, attested from Old Lemizh. Fortunately, it is no longer a round number (1000dec = 3E8hex) and can easily be avoided.

Etymology

NLem jesl‑a
LMLem, MLem jesl‑yl
OLem jesl‑ ‘thousand’
PLem *gjesl‑
PIE *g̑ʰés‑l‑os lit. ‘a hand full (of corn?)’, l-stem noun of
  PIE *g̑ʰes‑ ‘grip’

Following the example of skmà., the numeric value of this word was adapted to the Ghean hexadecimal system in Middle Lemizh.

Cognates

Eng kilo- (via Gk χίλιοι ‘thousand’), probably Lat mille (< PIE *sm̥‑g̑ʰésl‑os ‘one thousand’)

jàsk.

to make/brew beer

Etymology

NLem jeskx‑a
LMLem jèsakx‑yr ‘ship soup’
MLem jees‑akx‑yr, compound of
  MLem jees‑yr ‘thick soup’
OLem jēs‑
PLem *jews‑
PIE *i̯éu̯h₁s ‘broth, soup’
 —and—
  MLem akx‑yr ‘ship’
Ghe aqx‑ə /aqχə/

jloà.

to make Greek

jloàr. the country of Greece

— jloynè droÌne. squabblers, enemies, lit. ‘Greeks and Troyans’

Etymology

NLem jlo‑a
LMLem xellà‑yr
Koi Ἑλλά‑ς
Gk Σελλοί ‘inhabitants of northwestern Greece’

jnà.

to make every, all, the whole (relative weight 1; see unit 7, Weighting numerals – usually with partitive bracket; see unit 8, Cardinal numerals), the Universe

Connotations

This word has pejorative connotations when used with certain words (mainly flat things, but also faces), dating from Middle Lemizh:

This list is far from complete.

The meaning ‘Universe’ is probably influenced by the unrelated but similar sounding xnàr. ‘land, (inhabited) world’.

Etymology

irregular development of
NLem can‑a ‘complete, all’
LMLem, MLem can‑yr
OLem shand‑ ‘win’
PLem *sand‑ ‘succeed’, root aorist of
PIE *seh₂dʰ‑

The idiosyncratic development from NLem c to modern j could be a contamination from the neighbouring xpàj.. (It also avoids confusion with the near-antonym crà..)

See Ràbv. for information on Ghean weighting numerals.

Cognates

Gk ἰθῡ́ς ‘straight, fair’, Ved sídhyati ‘succeeds’

jhnà.

to make machines

jhnè. mechanic

Etymology

NLem jhen‑a
LMLem, MLem xuxsen‑yr ‘ox’
OLem xuhsen‑
PLem *xuhsen‑
PIE *h₂uksén‑s

Cognates

Eng ox, Ved ukṣā́ ‘young bull’

jsrà.

to make bile

jsrè. liver

Etymology

NLem jsar‑a
LMLem, MLem jixwar‑yr
OLem jixwar‑
PLem *jexwar‑ ‘liver’
PIE *i̯ékʷr̥

Cognates

Gk ἧπαρ ‘liver’, Lat iecur ‘liver’

cà.

relative pronoun type I level n−4: see unit 6, Relative pronouns

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem c‑a, formed after the Ghean relative pronouns
a f‑a s‑a sh‑a x‑a / fˇ‑a sˇ‑a shˇ‑a xˇ‑a
/a ɸa s̟a ʃa χa / βa z̟a ʒa ʁa/

càwb.

to make hardly any(thing) (relative weight 1⁄8; see unit 7, Weighting numerals – usually with partitive bracket; see unit 8, Cardinal numerals)

Connotations

The Middle and Old Lemizh sense of ‘negligible, trivial, not worth mentioning’ is still palpable today.

Etymology

NLem cambr‑a
LMLem cambr‑yr
MLem cambr‑yr ‘negligible’
OLem zhambr‑
PLem *dzambr‑ ‘few, little’, r-stem adjective of
PIE *dʰebʰ‑ ‘reduce’

See Ràbv. for information on Ghean weighting numerals.

Cognates

Ved dabhnóti ‘deceives’, Lv dâbt ‘strike, beat’

càhw.

to make hair, fur

cahwnè., cahwcèwb. bald

Etymology

NLem cOhw‑a
LMLem cÒ‑ehw‑yr, compound of
  LMLem cÒ‑yr ‘awn’
MLem cOO‑yr
OLem zhö‑
PLem *dzō‑ ‘grain, seed’
PIE *dʰóh₁n‑eh₂
 —and—
  LMLem, MLem ehw‑yr ‘horse’
OLem heshw‑
PLem *heshw‑
PIE *h₁ék̑u̯‑os

Cognates

Lit dúona ‘bread’; Lat equus

crà.

to make few, little, a bit (relative weight 1⁄4; see unit 7, Weighting numerals – usually with partitive bracket; see unit 8, Cardinal numerals)

Etymology

gender change of
NLem crumbw‑a
LMLem crumbw‑yr, contamination of
MLem srumbw‑yr ‘few, little’
OLem srumbw‑
PLem *tsrumbw‑ ‘trifle’, u-stem adjective of
PIE *dʰreu̯bʰ‑ ‘break’ [intr.], crumble’
 —with—
MLem cambr‑yr ‘negligible’
OLem zhambr‑
PLem *dzambr‑ ‘few, little’, r-stem adjective of
PIE *dʰebʰ‑ ‘reduce’

See Ràbv. for information on Ghean weighting numerals.

Cognates

Gk θρύπτω ‘crush, grind’

cnà.

to make children (human or other living beings before puberty) of a parent-nom

This word is not used to express ‘someone’s child (son or daughter)’ unless to specifically refer to a child before puberty; see psràb. ‘father’ and mesà. ‘give birth’.

Etymology

gender change of
NLem cUnw‑a
LMLem, MLem cUnw‑yr
OLem shünw‑ ‘(young) child’
PLem *sūnw‑ ‘son’
PIE *suh₁nú‑s

Gender change possibly occurred for similarity with crà. ‘little’.

Cognates

Eng son, OCS synŭ ‘son’

cnàk.

self-transporting: to (actively) swim somewhere-dat etc.

Connotations

In Old Lemizh, this verb apparently could also mean ‘drown’; and there is a classical if gruesome story about a man drowning after his lower legs were bitten off by a large fish. From Middle Lemizh onwards, swimming is mosty positively connoted, as seen in metaphors where it means ‘escape, get out of harm’s way’.

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem cank‑a
OLem shank‑ ‘swim through’
PLem *sanx‑ ‘swim, bathe’, root present of
PIE *(s)neh₂‑

Cognates

Eng navy (via Lat nāvis ‘ship’)

cnàzd.

to make feathers

Etymology

NLem cOnzd‑a
LMLem cÒ‑nezd‑yr, compound of
  LMLem cÒ‑yr ‘awn’
MLem cOO‑yr
OLem zhö‑
PLem *dzō‑ ‘grain, seed’
PIE *dʰóh₁n‑eh₂
 —and—
  LMLem, MLem nezd‑yr ‘bird’
OLem nizd‑ ‘nest’
PLem *nizd‑
PIE *nisd‑ós

Cognates

Lit dúona ‘bread’; Eng nest

cmàbv.

to hurt someone-dat

Connotations

In Modern Lemizh, this verb is also used to express hurting someone verbally and colloquially often just means ‘annoy, get on someone’s nerves’.

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem cambw‑a
OLem zhambw‑
PLem *dzambw‑ ‘hit, smash (?)’, root present of
PIE *dʰembʰ‑

Cognates

Ved dambháyati ‘smashes, destroys’

zà.

relative pronoun type I level n−3: see unit 6, Relative pronouns

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem z‑a, formed after the Ghean relative pronouns
a f‑a s‑a sh‑a x‑a / fˇ‑a sˇ‑a shˇ‑a xˇ‑a
/a ɸa s̟a ʃa χa / βa z̟a ʒa ʁa/

zaraqàht.

to make Zarathustra (an ancient philosopher and poet)

Etymology

NLem zaraquhtr‑a, academic loan of
OLem zarathushtr‑, from an Asian language

Cognates

To judge from context, Av Zaraθuštra seems to be related.

znàg.

to deform something-dat into some shape-acc [e.g. flat, into a z]

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem zing‑a, probably dialect borrowing of
OLem dhing‑
PLem *dzing‑ ‘knead, form’, root present of
PIE *dʰei̯g̑ʰ‑

Cognates

Eng dough, Lat fingō ‘to form’

zmàw.

to make nightshade fruits

zmèw. nightshade plant
zmÌw. nightshade fruit

zmywràjd. to make bittersweet nightshade berries
zmywmlàv. to make sweet peppers, bell peppers
zmywwàcg. to make black nightshade berries
zmywxalà. to make tomatoes
zmywfisà. to make eggplants
(all with inner nom for the plant and inner acc for the fruit)

Etymology

NLem zmingw‑a
LMLem frenk‑vengw‑yr ‘fire-fruit (toxic fruit, nightshade?)’, compound of
  LMLem, MLem frenk‑a ‘fruit’
OLem frenk‑
PLem *pfrenk‑, Narten present of
PIE *bʰrenk‑ ‘swell’
 —and—
  LMLem, MLem vengw‑yr ‘fire’
OLem dhengw‑ ‘make fire’
PLem *dzengw‑ ‘burn’ [tr.], Narten present of
PIE *dʰegʷʰ‑

Cognates

ON bringa ‘breast, chest’; Lat foveō ‘(keep) warm, foster’

zdàs.

to seat someone-acc somewhere-dat etc.;
self-transporting: to sit down, perfect: to sit somewhere ditto;
acc, perfect: to float, to be afloat in water etc.-nom (or agentive caus)

zdòrs. a seat

zdasgwìlt. to be capable of floating

Etymology

poststem from perfect of
NLem, LMLem, MLem zd‑a
OLem zd‑ ‘sit’
PLem *zd‑, root aorist of
PIE *sed‑ ‘sit down’

The secondary meaning ‘float’ was generalised from the earlier development of nenà. ‘run’ > also ‘float quickly’.

Cognates

Eng sit, Lat sedeō

zvrà.

to be friends with someone-dat; friendship

zvrè. friend

Connotations

Calling someone a friend is not to be taken lightly. Someone you just correspond with via a social platform is not a friend.

Etymology

NLem zvor‑a
LMLem, MLem swisor‑yr ‘sibling’
OLem swisor‑
PLem *swesor‑ ‘sister’
PIE *su̯ésor‑s

Cognates

Eng sister, Lat soror

và.

relative pronoun type I level n−2: see unit 6, Relative pronouns

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem v‑a, formed after the Ghean relative pronouns
a f‑a s‑a sh‑a x‑a / fˇ‑a sˇ‑a shˇ‑a xˇ‑a
/a ɸa s̟a ʃa χa / βa z̟a ʒa ʁa/

vàsk.

to err in something-dat (the thing made wrong) or -acc (the wrong thing);
an error, mistake

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem vesk‑a
OLem dhesk‑ ‘misplace > err’
PLem *dzesk‑ ‘put’, sk̑-present of
PIE *dʰeh₁‑ ‘put, make’

Cognates

Eng do, and funnily thesis (via Gk θέσις ‘placement, arrangement’) and Lat crē‑dō ‘trust, believe’

vnà.

to burn (of fire);
agentive caus: to set fire to something-dat, to burn something-dat to something-acc [e.g. ashes];
dat: to burn (of an object)

vnè. a/the fire
vnÌ. smoke and ashes
vnòr. fireplace, hearth

vnajnà. agentive caus: to burn down something-dat (as opposed to ‘set fire to’)

Connotations

Fire is mythologically and poetically seen as female, which is the source of the ‘female’ (zero) poststem in Modern Lemizh. George Lakoff did not comment on this fact. (xÌf. ‘water’, by comparison, is male, as for some reason is sxnèz. ‘sun’.)

Etymology

gender change of
NLem vengw‑a
LMLem, MLem vengw‑yr ‘fire’
OLem dhengw‑ ‘make fire’
PLem *dzengw‑ ‘burn’ [tr.], Narten present of
PIE *dʰegʷʰ‑

The Old Lemizh meaning ‘make fire’ gave rise to the inner accusative of MLem vengw‑yr ‘fire’. The modern plot, by contrast, views the fire-nom as burning an object-dat, in analogy to someone breaking a branch, the sun melting snow, etc.

Cognates

Lat foveō ‘(keep) warm, foster’, Ved dáhati ‘burns’ [tr.]

vnàt.

to chew something-dat into something-acc [e.g. mush]

vnùt. (with outer partitive) (molar) tooth

vnatmlè. ruminant

Etymology

NLem vont‑a
LMLem, MLem vont‑yr ‘tooth’
OLem dhont‑
PLem *edhont‑
PIE *h̥₁d‑ónt‑s, Narten present active participle of
  PIE *h₁ed‑ ‘eat’

Cognates

Eng tooth, Lat dēns

wà.

relative pronoun type I level n−1: see unit 6, Relative pronouns

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem w‑a, formed after the Ghean relative pronouns
a f‑a s‑a sh‑a x‑a / fˇ‑a sˇ‑a shˇ‑a xˇ‑a
/a ɸa s̟a ʃa χa / βa z̟a ʒa ʁa/

wàgw.

to make dogs

Connotations

Dogs are, of course, famous for wagging their tails.

Etymology

NLem wagw‑a
LMLem, MLem wagw‑yr, dialect borrowing of
OLem walgw‑
PLem *walgw‑
PIE *u̯ĺ̥kʷ‑os ‘wolf’

Cognates

Eng wolf, Gk λύκος ‘wolf’

wàtx.

to make books

Etymology

NLem weth‑a ‘scroll’
LMLem, MLem aweth‑yr
Ghe afˡetsh‑ə /aβɛtʃə/

This word, originally meaning ‘scroll’, now refers to books of all shapes, and especially the modern form consisting of bound pages. The older term for ‘book’, NLem blU‑a (< Koi βιβλί‑ον) has fallen out of use after acquiring pejorative connotations on the lines of ‘old, yellowing, smelly tome’.

wàcg.

to make black, to blacken (‘active’ black, as in black fur or varnish; compare lilbvnà.)

wycgnÌs. astatine

Etymology

NLem wargr‑a
LMLem, MLem wargr‑yr
OLem wargr‑
PLem *bwargr‑ ‘dark, black’, r-stem adjective of
PIE *bʰerg̑‑ ‘roast’

Most basic colour terms in Lemizh are r-stem Caland adjectives, perhaps motivated by the word for ‘red’.

Cognates

Ved bhr̥jjáti ‘roasts’, Lat fer(c)tum ‘a sacrificial cake’

wàcz.

to make rice

Etymology

NLem warzn‑a
LMLem warndz‑yr
MLem warndzi‑yr
OLem warndzi‑
PWald *várnji‑s, probably from Austroasiatic

Cognates

Eng rice, Ved vrīhi ‘rice’

wemà.

to make/build dams

Connotations

This verb has been used since Early New Lemizh to express ‘putting obstacles in someone’s way’; with an inner accusative, the word can mean ‘obstacle, hurdle’.

Etymology

gender change of
NLem wemabwr‑a
LMLem, MLem wembrw‑yr
OLem wembrw‑
PLem *bwembrw‑
PIE *bʰébʰru‑s ‘beaver’, reduplicated noun of
  PIE *bʰreu̯‑ ‘brown’

Gender change was motivated by the myth that only female beavers build dams.

Cognates

Eng beaver, brown

wrà.

to make brown, to brown, to tan

wrìl. a tan

wrynÌs. bromine

Etymology

NLem war‑a
LMLem, MLem war‑yr
OLem war‑ ‘glossy brown’
PLem *bwar‑ ‘shiny, glossy’, r-stem adjective of
PIE *bʰeh₂‑ ‘shine’

Most basic colour terms in Lemizh are r-stem Caland adjectives, perhaps motivated by the word for ‘red’.

Cognates

Gk φαίνω ‘show, bring to light’, Ger bohnern ‘polish’

wràdj.

to make chins

Etymology

NLem wardz‑a ‘beard’
LMLem, MLem wardz‑yr
OLem wardz‑
PLem *bwardz‑
PIE *bʰárdʰ‑os

From Old Lemizh onwards, this word described a bristly, untidy beard, then an unshaven chin, whence the modern meaning.

Cognates

Eng beard, Lat barba ‘beard’

wnàd.

to split something-dat into something-acc [e.g. pieces, in two] with an axe

wnùd. (with outer partitive) axe

Connotations

The axe has traditionally been seen as a lowly and despicable tool, as attested from Old Lemizh. The Winged Axe, however, is held in great esteem.

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem wind‑a
OLem wind‑
PLem *bwind‑ ‘split’, nasal-infix present of
PIE *bʰei̯d‑

Cognates

Eng bite, fissure (via Lat findō ‘split’)

wzràf.

to rain

wzrèf. rain cloud
wzrÌf. the rain

Connotations

Unsurprisingly, rain is associated with weeping and thus sadness. Together with xnÌt. ‘wind’, which can stand for happiness because of its whistling, this gives us metaphors such as — wzrynfÒ xnÌntO. ‘with (wildly) mixed feelings’, attested from Early New Lemizh.

Gender change is motivated by the mythologically male gender of water and probably also by the final -f of xÌf. ‘water’.

Etymology

gender change of
NLem wzar‑a
LMLem, MLem wuzar‑yr
OLem wuzar‑
PLem *wozar‑ ‘water’ [inanimate]
PIE *u̯ódr̥, deverbal noun of
  PIE *u̯ed‑ ‘well, gush’

PIE also had an animate word for water, *h₂ép‑s; see xàf..

Cognates

Eng water, undulate (via Lat unda ‘wave’), Gk ὕδωρ

xà.

relative pronoun type II level n−5: see unit 6, Relative pronouns

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem x‑a, formed after the Ghean relative pronouns
a f‑a s‑a sh‑a x‑a / fˇ‑a sˇ‑a shˇ‑a xˇ‑a
/a ɸa s̟a ʃa χa / βa z̟a ʒa ʁa/

xalà.

to make apples

xalè. apple tree
xalÌ. apple

Connotations

Apple trees are supposed to always be on time in producing their fruit. Since Late Middle Lemizh, you can praise a punctual person by calling them an apple tree; and xalàR. or xalòR. is the end of summer (whereas fràRxk. and fròRxk. refer to early summer).

Etymology

NLem xaOl‑a
LMLem xàÒl‑yr
MLem xayOOl‑yr
OLem xayöl‑
PLem *xawōl‑
PIE *h₂ébōl

Cognates

Eng apple, Avalon (via a Celtic language)

xaràhk.

to make a synodic month, a time span from one new moon to the next, i.e. of 29.53 days on average (see appendix, Units of measurement, for usage)

Etymology

NLem xar‑ihk‑a, clarifying compound of
  NLem xar‑a
LMLem, MLem jixar‑yr ‘year’
OLem jihar‑
PLem *jehar‑
PIE *i̯éh₁r̥
 —and—
  NLem ihk‑a ‘moon’
LMLem, MLem ihk‑ar
Ghe ishq‑ə /ɪʃqə/

Cognates

Eng year, hour (via Gk ὥρᾱ)

xàk.

to make points (also Lemizh commas or hexadecimal separators [,]), to sharpen something-ben to a point

xykdwÌ. Lemizh full stop [.]

Etymology

NLem xak‑a
LMLem, MLem xak‑yr
OLem xak‑ ‘sharpen (to a point)’
PLem *xaç‑ ‘be sharp’, Narten present of
PIE *h₂ek̑‑

Cognates

Ger eggen ‘harrow’, Lat aceō ‘be sour’

xàps.

to make weather

djUtxÌps. Jovian day, the Lemizh equivalent of Thursday (see appendix, Date)

Connotations

The name of the Indo-European sky god, equivalent to Jupiter/Zeus, has been used metonymically to refer to the weather since Old Lemizh. From Early New Lemizh times onwards, this word is used exclusively to describe the weather (both fair and rough). It is also found compounded in the name of a weekday.

The planet Jupiter, as well as the god, is called djeipysrÌd. in Modern Lemizh.

Etymology

simplification and voicing assimilation (from the weekday) of
NLem djeps‑a
LMLem djèpys‑yr ‘Father Sky’
MLem djeipys‑yr, haplology of
OLem djeipysir‑
PLem *djēw‑paser‑, compound of
  PLem *djēw‑ ‘day’
PIE *di̯ḗu‑s ‘sky’
 —and—
  PLem *paser‑ ‘father’
PIE *ph̥₂tér‑s

Cognates

Gk Ζεύς Πατήρ ‘Father Zeus’, Lat Jupiter

xàc.

to ride a horse etc.-dat (focusing on the horse being directed) or -acc (focusing on the horse moving)

xìc., xÌc. mount (animal/device used to ride on)

Connotations

As this word implies steering, it is unsuitable for translating phrases such as ‘ride a train’; use jàx. with an instrumental object instead. Also compare ràt. which means steering without necessarily mounting up.

Etymology

NLem xic‑a
LMLem xìc‑a
MLem xiic‑a ‘drive’
OLem xīzh‑
PLem *xīzh‑, i-reduplicated athematic present of
PIE *h₂eg̑‑

Cognates

Eng act (via Lat agō ‘drive’)

xàxs.

to rotate, turn something-acc (continuously), to roll something-acc somewhere-dat etc., also non-sending;
self-transporting: to rotate, to roll somewhere ditto;
(maths) the curl of a vector field-acc (curl F = ∇[mFn] ≡ ∇m Fn − ∇n Fm)

xùxs. (with outer partitive) axis, axle

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem xaxs‑a
OLem xaçs‑ ‘axis, axle’
PLem *xaçs‑
PIE *h₂ék̑s‑os

See also xaxsà. ‘waltz’.

Cognates

Eng axle, axis (via Lat axis)

xaxsà.

to waltz with someone-dat (the man is usually in the nom and the lady in the dat); a waltz (action of dancing)

xaxsè. male waltzing partner
xaxsì. female waltzing partner

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem xaxs‑a ‘rotate’
OLem xaçs‑ ‘axis, axle’
PLem *xaçs‑
PIE *h₂ék̑s‑os

See also xàxs. ‘rotate’.

Cognates

Eng axle, axis (via Lat axis)

xàsk.

to search, to look for something-acc;
agentive acc: to hide from someone-nom

xÙlsk. to find something-dat

Connotations

Since Middle Lemizh, this verb connotes that the searched-for thing or person is actively hiding or concealing itself. Conversely, with agentive accusative it can express ‘hide from someone (who is searching for you)’, literally ‘have someone looking for you’.

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem xesk‑a
OLem xisk‑
PLem *xisk‑, sk̑-present of
PIE *h₂ei̯s‑

Cognates

Eng ask, Lat qu‑aerō ‘ask’

xàf.

to make water

Connotations

Water is mythologically and poetically seen as male, matching the non-zero poststem; vnè. ‘fire’, by contrast, is female.

Etymology

NLem xaf‑a
LMLem, MLem xaf‑yr
OLem xaf‑ ‘water, stream’
PLem *xaf‑ ‘water’ [animate], ‘stream’
PIE *h₂ép‑s

PIE also had an inanimate word for water, *u̯ódr̥; see wzràf..

Cognates

Ved ā́p ‘water’, Ir abhainn ‘river’

xOàj.

dat: to hear (agentive: listen to) something-nom, the sound of something-acc

xOùj. (with outer partitive) ear

Etymology

poststem from plural of
NLem xO‑a
LMLem xÒ‑a
MLem xOU‑a
OLem xöü‑ ‘ear’
PLem *xōw‑
PIE *h₂ṓu̯s

The plural poststem comes from the fact that we have two ears.

Cognates

Eng ear, Lat auris

xrà.

to make a length unit, a length of 92.023 millimetres (see appendix, Units of measurement)

Etymology

NLem xer‑a, academic loan of
Koi χείρ ‘hand’
SHell *kheī́r
PIE *g̑ʰés‑or‑s, r-stem noun of
  PIE *g̑ʰes‑ ‘grip’

The name of the basic length unit was chosen for the width of a hand.

Cognates

Eng chiro‑practic (via Koi), TochB ṣar ‘hand’

xràtx.

to fear, to be afraid of someone or something-acc/causal-transporting (also dat/causal-receiving, see Ambiguous usage);
agentive caus, causal-reflexive: to frighten someone-nom

Etymology

NLem xartx‑a
LMLem, MLem xartk‑yr ‘bear’
OLem xartk‑
PLem *xartk‑
PIE *h₂ŕ̥tk̑‑os

Cognates

Eng Arctic (via Gk ἄρκτος ‘bear’), Lat ursus ‘bear’

xràj.

(to pursue) a profession (see unit 6, Compounds from brackets)

Etymology

gender change of
NLem xer‑a
LMLem xèr‑a
MLem xeer‑a ‘get up, get to work’
OLem xēr‑
PLem *xār‑
PIE *h₂éi̯r̥ ‘day, morning’

Masculinisation occurred at a time when professional work was mainly done by men, while women stayed at home with their children. Things have long since changed, but the language is stuck with this anachronism.

Cognates

Eng ear‑ly, Gk ἄρι‑στον ‘breakfast’

xràw.

to make wolves (also the constellation Lupus; see appendix, Constellations)

Connotations

Calling someone a wolf primarily refers to their strength and leadership qualities since Old Lemizh (as opposed to their fierceness or savagery).

Etymology

NLem xrOm‑a
LMLem, MLem xrem‑yr
OLem xrem‑
PLem *kxrem‑ ‘howl (of wolves)’, Narten present of
PIE *gʰrem‑ ‘resound, rage’

Cognates

Ger Gram ‘grief’, Lit grumiù ‘resound, thunder’

xnà.

to make earthly

xnàr. the (surface of the) earth, the land, the inhabited/habitable world as opposed to the sky or mythological/religious places

djUtxnÌ. Terrestrial day, the Lemizh equivalent of Saturday (see appendix, Date)

Connotations

The Earth as a planet among the others, as well as the goddess Terra/Gaia, is called djingmesrÌ. in Modern Lemizh.

Etymology

simplification and voicing assimilation (from the weekday), gender change of
NLem dznis‑a
LMLem dzingmès‑yr ‘Mother Earth’
MLem dzingmees‑yr, haplology of
OLem dzingmēsir‑
PLem *dzeng‑māser‑, compound of
  PLem *dzeng‑ ‘?’, Narten present of
PIE *dʰég̑ʰ‑
 —and—
  PLem *māser‑ ‘mother’
PIE *méh₂ter‑s

The first part of the PLem compound *dzeng‑māser‑ is the (verbal) root of PLem *dzeng‑om‑ ‘earth’ and is of unclear meaning.

Cognates

Eng humus (via Lat humus ‘ground, earth, soil’); Eng mother

xnàt.

acc (poetically self-transporting): to blow (only of wind)

xnÌt. wind, breeze
xnèt. wind (poetic, personifying)

Connotations

Wind is associated with whistling and thus happiness and joy, usually of a fierce kind; compare wzrÌf. ‘rain’. (Whereas in the literal sense, the word tends to mean a light wind or breeze; i.e. galeÌ. is used for significantly lower wind speeds than the English word ‘gale’.)

Etymology

NLem xont‑a ‘breeze’
LMLem, MLem xuxont‑ar ‘wind’
OLem xuhont‑
PLem *xuhont‑
PIE *h₂uh₁‑ónt‑s, root present active participle of
  PIE *h₂u̯eh₁‑ ‘blow’

Cognates

Eng wind, Lat ventus

xnrà.

to make a spouse’s sibling, to marry someone’s acc sibling

Etymology

NLem xnir‑a ‘wife’s brother’
LMLem, MLem jinxter‑yr ‘brother-in-law’s wife’
OLem jinxter‑
PLem *jenxter‑
PIE *h₁i̯énh₂ter‑s ‘husband’s brother’s wife’
 —merged with—
LMLem, MLem xner‑yr ‘man’
OLem xner‑
PLem *xner‑
PIE *h₂nér‑s

The PIE word meant specifically ‘husband’s brother’s wife’, but by OLem it could also mean ‘wife’s brother’s wife’.

Cognates

Lat ianitrīcēs ‘brothers’ wives’

xmlàg.

to give milk, to nurse, suckle someone-dat;
dat, agentive: to suck milk from a woman-nom, to milk an animal-nom

xmlÌg. milk

Connotations

The verb is typically understood in the immediate sense of giving milk from one’s breasts (or in general, mammary glands). For translating ‘give someone milk (e.g. in a glass)’, it is safer to use xmlÌgy..

xmlìg. ‘the recipient of milking, the receiver of milk’ refers to someone receiving a benefit or favour since Early New Lemizh.

Etymology

NLem xmylg‑a
LMLem, MLem xmalg‑a
OLem xmalg‑
PLem *xmalg‑, root present of
PIE *h₂melg̑‑

Cognates

Eng milk, Gk ἀμέλγω ‘I milk’

xmàj.

djUtxmÌj. Uranian day, the Lemizh equivalent of Sunday (see appendix, Date)

Connotations

The planet Uranus is called niftnÌj. in Modern Lemizh. (See there for an explanation of the Uranus/Neptune confusion.)

Etymology

NLem xmun‑a
LMLem, MLem nefton‑yr ‘Nephew of the Waters’
OLem nifton‑
PLem *nefton‑
PIE *népton‑os

Cognates

Lat Neptune, Ir Nechtan

xmàs.

to make babies, infants (very joung human or other living beings) of a parent-nom

Etymology

NLem xmus‑a
LMLem, MLem nefos‑yr ‘descendant’
OLem nifos‑ ‘ancestor’ [sic]
PLem *nefos‑ ‘grandson, nephew’
PIE *népot‑s

Cognates

Eng nephew (via Lat nepōs ‘nephew, grandson’), Ger Neffe ‘nephew’

xtà.

to make eight individuals

Connotations

Eight is the number of the Far North (possibly because of the eight stars of the Plough or Big Dipper, including Alcor) and other cold and icy places, such as frozen lakes and other bodies of water. This association can be traced back to Old Lemizh times.

In Late Middle Lemizh, the number also acquired an edgy quality. A possible explanation is that the number 8 looks like a sickle or scythe.

Etymology

NLem xtO‑a
LMLem xtÒ‑yl
MLem xtOU‑yl
OLem çtöü‑, inflected form of
PLem *oçtōw
PIE *ok̑tṓu̯

Cognates

Eng eight, Gk ὀκτώ

xtràj.

to make planets

Etymology

gender change of
NLem xter‑a
LMLem, MLem xter‑yr
OLem xter‑
PLem *xter‑
PIE *h₂stér‑s ‘star’

Cognates

Eng star, Gk ἀστήρ

xpàj.

to make almost every, nearly all (relative weight 7⁄8; see unit 7, Weighting numerals – usually with partitive bracket; see unit 8, Cardinal numerals)

Etymology

gender change of
NLem xp‑a
LMLem, MLem xp‑yr
Ghe xp‑ə /χpə/

Gender change was triggered by the similar-sounding numeral xtà.. See Ràbv. for more on Ghean weighting numerals.

xwàx.

dat: to follow someone-nom in something-acc (intellectually or spiritually), agree with someone-nom on something-acc

Etymology

NLem, LMLem xwyx‑a
MLem xwyxU‑a ‘follow, pursue’
OLem xwyxü‑
PLem *xwaxū‑, e-reduplicated athematic present of
PIE *h₂u̯ei̯‑ ‘run’

Cognates

Hit huwāi ‘run’

xsrà.

djUtxsrÌ. Venerian day, the Lemizh equivalent of Friday (see appendix, Date)

Connotations

The planet Venus, as well as the goddess, is called usrÌ. in Modern Lemizh.

Etymology

NLem xsor‑a
LMLem, MLem uxsor‑yr ‘Lady Love’
OLem huhsor‑
PLem *huh‑sor‑, feminine of
  PLem *huh‑ ‘be comfortable with, love’, root aorist of
PIE *h₁eu̯k‑ ‘get used to, learn’

Cognates

Ved ucyasi ‘[you] are used to’; the PLem feminine suffix is related to the second components of Eng sister and probably Lat uxor ‘wife’

xfàft.

to make manganese

Etymology

NLem xfaftf‑a
LMLem, MLem yxxfaftf‑yr ‘pyrolusite’
Ghe əxxfⁿafᴛf‑ə /əχχɸaɸt̠ɸə/

hà.

relative pronoun type II level n−4: see unit 6, Relative pronouns

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem h‑a, formed after the Ghean relative pronouns
a f‑a s‑a sh‑a x‑a / fˇ‑a sˇ‑a shˇ‑a xˇ‑a
/a ɸa s̟a ʃa χa / βa z̟a ʒa ʁa/

habà.

to make Shabar (the capital of Lemaria)

Connotations

There is of course an elaboate founding myth dating back to Late Middle Lemizh times, which this space is too narrow to contain.

Etymology

NLem haba‑a
LMLem hàbà‑yr
MLem haebaa‑yr ‘Shabar (kingdom)’

The further etymology is doubtful; the word is possibly related to Ar سبأ, Heb שבא ‘Sheba’;
or else to a Proto-Turkic word meaning ‘low’ and OPers bāğ ‘garden, orchard’ (i.e. ‘lower vineyards’);
or maybe both.

hàhs.

to make an energy-per-mass unit, an energy per mass of 4.872 millijoules per kilogram or milligrays (see appendix, Units of measurement)

Etymology

NLem hahs‑a, academic loan of
Ghe öshashssⁿ‑ə /œʃaʃs̟s̟ə/ ‘power’

This is the only unit with a Ghean etymology. It was introduced to measure the heat of combustion and food energy, but is now also used for the dose of ionising radiation.

hlà.

to make salt

This word refers to the substance, as opposed to the taste. àhp. ‘give something a salty taste’ is used for the latter purpose.

Etymology

NLem hel‑a
LMLem hèl‑yr
MLem heel‑yr
OLem shēl‑
PLem *sāl‑
PIE *séh₂l‑s

Cognates

Eng salt, Gk ἅλς

hràk.

to make gravel, pebbles

hrèk. ‘gravel-maker’, a legendary, ogre-like creature

Etymology

NLem hark‑a
LMLem, MLem hark‑yr
OLem shark‑
PWald *šárkh‑a
PIE *k̑órk‑eh₂

Cognates

Gk κρόκη ‘pebble’, Eng sugar (see also srÌx. ‘sugar’)

hnàxt.

to happen by fate

hnàxt., hnàlxt. fate

Etymology

NLem hnunt‑a ‘healer (one mixing potions)’
LMLem, MLem mihkont‑ar
OLem mishkont‑
PLem *mishkont‑
PIE *mik̑sk̑‑ónt‑s ‘mixing’, sk̑é-present active participle of
  PIE *mei̯k̑‑ ‘mix’

Cognates

Eng mix, Lat misceō ‘mix’

htenà.

to make flerovium

Etymology

named for L. Šthenu, an Ethiynic physicist

htrà.

to make an older sibling of someone-nom; in Lemizh grammar: to make an earlier (left) sibling object of a later (right) one-nom

htrè. jounger sibling of someone-acc

Connotations

This word, in its changing meanings, has always symbolised the (real or imagined) strength of Lemizh family bonds.

Etymology

NLem htir‑a ‘jounger sibling’
LMLem, MLem cUtir‑yr ‘daughter’
OLem zhütir‑ ‘mother, daughter?’
PLem *dzuɦter‑ ‘daughter’
PIE *dʰugh₂tér‑s

Cognates

Eng daughter, Gk θυγάτηρ ‘daughter, maid-servant’

hhà.

to make a ‘shh’ sound, to go ‘shh’

hh: shh!

Etymology

Variants of ‘sh’ and ‘s’ are used in many languages to request silence.

sà.

relative pronoun type II level n−3: see unit 6, Relative pronouns

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem s‑a, formed after the Ghean relative pronouns
a f‑a s‑a sh‑a x‑a / fˇ‑a sˇ‑a shˇ‑a xˇ‑a
/a ɸa s̟a ʃa χa / βa z̟a ʒa ʁa/

saxàf.

to play/sound a trumpet

saxèf. trumpet player
saxùf. (with outer partitive) trumpet

This term is often erroneously used for a kind of single-reed instrument made of brass, which looks somewhat similar but has a quite different method of sound production.

Etymology

irregular development of
NLem salpn‑a
LMLem sàlpink‑yr ‘war-trumpet’
Koi σάλπιγξ, of unknown origin

The expected modern form would be **sàxp.. The additional vowel and fricativisation of p is somewhat of a mystery. It has been variously attributed to folk etymology or contamination with the names of other instruments, but no conclusive explanation exists.

selà.

to make an angle unit, an angle of 28′ 7.5″ (see appendix, Units of measurement)

Etymology

gender change of
NLem selen‑a, academic loan of
Koi Σελήν‑η ‘moon (goddess), Selene’, from
  Koi σέλα‑ς ‘light, ray, spark’
SHell *swéla‑s
PIE *su̯el‑ ‘smoulder, burn’

The moon has an apparent diameter of about an angle unit. Gender change occurred because the moon is mythologically and poetically seen as female (in Lemizh as well as in Greek).

Cognates

Eng sultry, Lit svįlù ‘smoulder’

sràb.

to write something-acc to someone-dat

srÌb. text

Etymology

irregular development of
NLem esr‑a
LMLem èsr‑a
MLem eesr‑a
Ghe eestʳ‑a /ɛːr̥ra/

The elision of e- and addition of the poststem -b is probably a contamination with psràb. ‘to father’, interpreting the author of a text as its father. This development is fortunate because the uncontaminated esr‑a is pretty awkward.

sràwd.

to make adequate, functional, okay

srìlwd: okay!

Connotations

Ghe əsʳəffᴛˡə /ər̥əββd̠ˡə/ seems to have been an all-purpose confirmation or approval. The Early New Lemizh and modern meaning is rather weak: as an interjection, it corresponds to a pretty half-hearted ‘okay’.

Etymology

NLem sruwdl‑a
LMLem, MLem ysrywwdl‑a
Ghe əsʳəffᴛˡ‑a /ər̥əββd̠ˡa/

sràx.

to make sugar

Etymology

NLem sarx‑a
LMLem, MLem sarx‑yr
OTroy σαρχ‑α /ˈsarxa/
SHell *sárkh‑ā
PWald *šárkh‑a ‘gravel’
PIE *k̑órk‑eh₂

Cognates

Eng sugar, Gk κρόκη ‘pebble’ (see also hrÌk. ‘gravel, pebble’)

sràq.

to make queues;
dat: to queue, to form a queue

srÌq. a queue
srìq. a queuing person / queuing people

nà srÙlqi. to jump the queue

Etymology

NLem sreq‑a
Br sreþ ‘row, series’
PCelt *srit‑ā, of unknown origin

Cognates

Gael sreath ‘row, queue’

snàw.

to snow

snèw. snow cloud
snÌw. the snow

Etymology

NLem sningw‑a
LMLem, MLem snengw‑yr ‘snow cloud’
OLem sningw‑ ‘snow’
PLem *sningw‑
PIE *snígʷʰ‑os, deverbal noun of
  PIE *snei̯gʷʰ‑

Cognates

Eng snow, Lat nix

skràp.

to divide, break, split, crush something-dat into something-acc [e.g. in two, into dust];
dat: to break, split, crush

skrÌp. part, scrap, fragment

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem skarp‑a
OLem skarp‑
PLem *skarf‑ ‘divide, separate’, root present of
PIE *skerh₃‑

Cognates

Lit skiriù ‘divide, separate, distinguish’

According to the Lexikon der indogermanischen Verben, this PIE verb has to be separated from *sker‑ ‘cut’ > Eng shear; PIE *skreb‑ ‘scrape’ > Eng scrap, scrape is also unrelated.

skràj.

to prick, sting (someone-dat)

Etymology

possibly dialect borrowing of
NLem skerdz‑a
LMLem, MLem skerdz‑yr
OLem skerdz‑
PLem *skerdz‑ ‘cut, sting (?)’, Narten present of
PIE *skerdʰ‑

The regular ModLem outcome would be **skràdj.

Cognates

Lit skerdžiù ‘stab, slaughter’

skmà.

to make 256 individuals

Etymology

NLem skam‑a
LMLem, MLem tkam‑yl
OLem tkamt‑ ‘hundred’, inflected form of
PLem *tkamtom
PIE *dk̑m̥tóm

The numeric value of this word was adapted to the Ghean hexadecimal system in Middle Lemizh.

Cognates

Eng hundred, Lat centum

strà.

to make cattle, cows, bulls

stryÌx. bull; also the constellation Taurus (see appendix, Constellations)

Etymology

NLem star‑a ‘bull’
LMLem stàr‑yr
MLem stayr‑yr
OLem stayr‑
PLem *stawr‑
PIE *stáu̯r‑os

Cognates

Ger Stier ‘bull’, Lat taurus ‘bull’

stràz.

to make Crimean

stràrz. Crimea

Etymology

gender change of
NLem star‑a ‘bull’
LMLem stàr‑yr
MLem stayr‑yr
OLem stayr‑
PLem *stawr‑
PIE *stáu̯r‑os

This is a (folk etymological) calque from the Gk Ταυρική, which is actually derived from the name of the Tauroi, who lived there in the first millennium BC.

Cognates

Ger Stier ‘bull’, Lat taurus ‘bull’

stnàg.

self-transporting (nom for the hobbling action, acc for walking in a hobbling fashion, for hobbling along): to hobble, limp, totter somewhere-dat etc.

Connotations

This verb is somewhat less negative than the translations given above; it can just mean ‘walk in an awkward fashion’.

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem skeng‑a
OLem skeng‑
PLem *skeng‑, Narten present of
PIE *skeng‑

Cognates

Ger hinken, Gk σκάζω

stnàt.

to make sparrows (also a constellation in the region of Camelopardalis’, the Giraffe’s, head)

Connotations

In modern usage, this word is also loosely applied to other small birds.

Etymology

NLem skont‑a
LMLem, MLem skont‑yr
OLem skont‑
PLem *skont‑ ‘little bird, sparrow’
PIE *skₔk‑ónt‑s ‘jumping’, Narten present active participle of
  PIE *skek‑ ‘move quickly, jump’

Cognates

Ger ge‑schehen ‘happen’, Eng chic (via Fr chic and Ger schick ‘elegant’)

spàz.

to be happy about something-acc/causal-transporting (also dat/causal-receiving, see Ambiguous usage);
agentive caus, causal-reflexive: to please someone-nom

spèz stnÌtem. happy as a lark, lit. ‘happy as a sparrow’

Connotations

The word formerly meant ‘warm, hot’ (see below). It has been noted that causes for being happy and causes for getting warm often coincide; they include sun, food, drink, jumping about, and even friction.

Etymology

gender change of
NLem sp‑a
LMLem tp‑yr ‘warm, hot’
MLem tpu‑yr
OLem tpu‑
PLem *tpu‑, u-stem adjective of
PIE *tep‑ ‘be warm, hot’

For some strange reason, masculinisation is common in verbs of emotion; see pqàb. ‘be angry’.

Cognates

Lat tepeō ‘be warm’, Ved tāpáyati ‘heats, pains’

swàh.

to make six individuals

Etymology

NLem sweh‑a
LMLem, MLem sweh‑yl
OLem swesh‑, inflected form of
PLem *sweshs
PIE *su̯ék̑s

Cognates

Eng six, Gk ἕξ

sxnàz.

to shine (only of the Sun)

sxnèz. Sun; Sol, Helios (god) (symbol: 🞼)
sxnÌz. sunlight, sunshine; sunbeam, sunray

sxnyzrÌ. sunbeam, sunray

Connotations

The Sun is mythologically and poetically seen as the male and strong counterpart of the Moon, as in most Indo-European languages. This is the source of the ‘male’ (non-zero) poststem in Modern Lemizh.

Etymology

gender change of
NLem sxun‑a
LMLem, MLem sxun‑ar
OLem sxun‑
PLem *sxun‑, zero grade of
PIE *sh₂u̯én‑s, genitive/weak stem of
  PIE *séh₂u̯l̥

Cognates

Eng Sun (generalised weak stem), Lat sōl (generalised strong stem)

qà.

relative pronoun type II level n−2: see unit 6, Relative pronouns

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem q‑a, formed after the Ghean relative pronouns
a f‑a s‑a sh‑a x‑a / fˇ‑a sˇ‑a shˇ‑a xˇ‑a
/a ɸa s̟a ʃa χa / βa z̟a ʒa ʁa/

qàc.

to make a temperature unit, a temperature of 1.138 kelvins (see appendix, Units of measurement)

Etymology

NLem qerm‑a, academic loan of
Koi θερμ‑ός ‘warm’
SHell *qherm‑ós
PIE *gʷʰer‑m‑ós, m-stem noun of
  PIE *gʷʰer‑ ‘get warm’

Cognates

Eng thermo-meter (via Gk θερμ‑ός), but perhaps not warm

qàxk.

self-transporting: to fly somewhere-dat etc.;
nom: to beat one’s wings, turn one’s propeller or rotor, etc.

Connotations

The sense of ‘beating one’s wings’, attested from Old Lemizh, typically implies doing so effectively, powerfully (as opposed to, say, fluttering feebly).

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem qexk‑a
OLem thexk‑
PLem *sexk‑, intensive of
PIE *skek‑ ‘move quickly, jump’

Cognates

Ger ge‑schehen ‘happen’, Eng chic (via Fr chic and Ger schick ‘elegant’)

qàf.

to make seven individuals

‘make seven’, a version of an old language game for seven players, focusing on abstract thought. Other versions of this game are for four, five or ten players, and named accordingly. The cover term for the game is dmàj. ‘fill (up), make full’.

Etymology

NLem qif‑a
LMLem, MLem qif‑yl
OLem thift‑, inflected form of
PLem *seftam
PIE *septḿ̥

Cognates

Eng seven, Gk ἑπτά

qlàp.

to make tar

Etymology

NLem qelp‑a
LMLem, MLem qelp‑yr
OLem thelp‑
PLem *selp‑ ‘oil, fat’
PIE *sélp‑s

Cognates

Eng salve, possibly Gk ἔλπος ‘olive oil, fat’

qmà.

to group something-dat into something-acc (see unit 7, Grouping numerals)

qmyhrìk. silicon

Etymology

NLem qem‑a
LMLem, MLem qem‑yr
OLem them‑
PLem *sem‑ ‘one, together’
PIE *sém‑s

Cognates

Eng same, similar (the latter via Lat similis)

qkràdj.

to make artichokes (the vegetable)

qkrèdj. artichoke plant

Etymology

NLem qkerdz‑a, contraction of
LMLem ev‑skerdz‑yr ‘artichoke, cardoon’, compound of
  LMLem, MLem ev‑a ‘eat’
OLem hedh‑
PLem *hedh‑, Narten present of
PIE *h₁ed‑
 —and—
  LMLem, MLem skerdz‑yr ‘prick, sting’
OLem skerdz‑
PLem *skerdz‑ ‘cut, sting (?)’, Narten present of
PIE *skerdʰ‑

This word etymologically means ‘stinging food’.

Cognates

Eng eat; Lit skerdžiù ‘stab, slaughter’

fà.

relative pronoun type II level n−1: see unit 6, Relative pronouns

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem f‑a, formed after the Ghean relative pronouns
a f‑a s‑a sh‑a x‑a / fˇ‑a sˇ‑a shˇ‑a xˇ‑a
/a ɸa s̟a ʃa χa / βa z̟a ʒa ʁa/

fàt.

to act/move fast, to make one’s actions/movements fast

Etymology

NLem fet‑a
LMLem, MLem fet‑yr
OLem fet‑
PLem *fesh‑ ‘be fast’, root present of
PIE *h₃eh₁k̑‑

Cognates

Gk ὠκύς

fàps.

to make it midwinter

djUtfÌps. Neptunian day, the Lemizh equivalent of New Year’s Eve (see appendix, Date)
djUtfÙlps. lit. ‘the [four] purposes of the Neptunian day / of New Year’s Eve’, referring to food, gifts, charity, and the return of the sun

psrèb fÌpse. Midwinter God (roughly corresponding to Father Christmas, Santa Claus)

filpskà. to make it midsummer

Connotations

Children generally call the Midwinter God psrèb fÌpse.. His formal (scholarly, religious) name is fOpysrÌf. (as is the name of the planet Neptune in Modern Lemizh).

New Year’s Eve, and the associated festivities, have been called that since Late Middle Lemizh. From Early New Lemizh times onwards, a number of parallels to Father Christmas have sprung up in popular belief – e.g., the Midwinter God is said to find out whether children have been naughty or nice, and brings presents only to the good ones. His sledge, though, is drawn by four porpoises swimming through the air.

Etymology

NLem fOps‑a
LMLem fÒpys‑yr ‘Father Midwinter’
MLem fOOpys‑yr, haplology of
OLem föpysir‑
PLem *foɦ‑paser‑, compound of
  PLem *foɦ‑ ‘?’, Narten present of
PIE *h₃eg‑
 —and—
  PLem *paser‑ ‘father’
PIE *ph̥₂tér‑s

The first part of the compound is based on a root of unknown meaning.

Cognates

Eng father

fàw.

to make points / an area far (away) from something-nom (see unit 12, Temporal and spatial verbs)

Connotations

See the connotations section of ràc for some context on gender change in spatial verbs.

Etymology

gender change of
NLem fo‑a, inflected form of
LMLem, MLem afo ‘from’
OLem afo
PLem *afo
PIE *apo

Gender change occurred to avoid homophony with the pronoun fà..

Cognates

Eng of, off, Lat ab ‘from’; unrelated to Eng far, even in non-rhotic dialects

fàsk.

to peck at something-dat

fùsk. (with outer partitive) beak

Etymology

NLem fOsk‑a
LMLem fÒotk‑yr
MLem fOO‑otk‑yr ‘beak’, compound of
  MLem fOO‑yr ‘mouth’
OLem fö‑
PLem *fō‑
PIE *h₃óh₁‑s
 —and—
  MLem otk‑yr ‘chicken’
Ghe otq‑ə /ɔtqə/

Cognates

Lat ōs ‘mouth’

fesàx.

to make/write poems

Etymology

NLem fesex‑a
Besk fesex
PCelt *wāt‑os, of unknown origin

fisà.

to make pears

fisè. pear tree
fisÌ. pear

Etymology

NLem fis‑a
LMLem, MLem fis‑yr
OLem fis‑
PLem *afis‑
PIE *h̥́₂pis‑om, probably from a Mediterranean substrate language

No poststem was formed — expected would be ModLem **fàs. — likely for rhythmic analogy with xalà. ‘make apples’.

Cognates

Eng pear

fOà.

to kiss someone-dat

Etymology

NLem fO‑a
LMLem fÒ‑a, verbalisation of
MLem fOO‑yr ‘mouth’
OLem fö‑
PLem *fō‑
PIE *h₃óh₁‑s

Cognates

Lat ōs ‘mouth’, Hit ais ‘mouth’

fOpysràf.

to make the Midwinter God (roughly corresponding to Father Christmas, Santa Claus);
to make the planet Neptune

Connotations

The Midwinter God has been said to be a bringer of gifts, and live in the Far North, since Old Lemizh times.

See djeipysràd. for more information on Lemizh polytheism.

This is the formal (scholarly, religious) term. Children generally call him psrèb fÌpse.. (See there for information on popular beliefs, and on the associated weekday.)

Etymology

gender change of
NLem fOpysir‑a, academic loan of
OLem föpysir‑ ‘Father Midwinter’
PLem *foɦ‑paser‑, compound of
  PLem *foɦ‑ ‘?’, Narten present of
PIE *h₃eg‑
 —and—
  PLem *paser‑ ‘father’
PIE *ph̥₂tér‑s

The first part of the compound is based on a root of unknown meaning.

Cognates

Eng father

flàc.

to make blue, to blue

flàRc. ‘blue hour’, especially regarding the colours, sounds and smells associated with it

flicvnè. caesium

Etymology

NLem flOr‑a
LMLem, MLem fler‑yr
OLem fler‑
PLem *pfler‑ ‘grey, blue(?)’, r-stem adjective of
PIE *bʰleh₁‑ ‘shine, flash’

Most basic colour terms in Lemizh are r-stem Caland adjectives, perhaps motivated by the word for ‘red’. The similarity with Eng flash is purely incidental.

Cognates

Eng blue, Lat flāvus ‘yellow’

frà.

to make twelve individuals

Etymology

NLem fr‑a
LMLem, MLem fr‑yl
Ghe fʳ‑i /ʙ̥ɪ/

fràg.

djUtfrÌg. Martian day, the Lemizh equivalent of Tuesday (see appendix, Date)

Connotations

The planet Mars, as well as the god, is called frekrÌf. in Modern Lemizh.

Etymology

NLem frOgr‑a
LMLem frèkur‑yr ‘Brother (in) War’
MLem freekur‑yr
OLem frēkur‑
PLem *pfrā‑kor‑, compound of
  PLem *pfrā‑ ‘brother’, suffixless from of
PIE *bʰréh₂ter‑s
 —and—
  PLem *kor‑ ‘war’
PIE *kór‑os

Cognates

Eng brother; Ger Heer ‘army’

fragmà.

to make an electric resistance unit, a resistance of 1.472 ohms (see appendix, Units of measurement)

Etymology

shortened form, academic loan of
Koi φράγμα ‘dam, barrier’
  Koi φράσσω ‘fence in, fortify’, of unknown origin

Most electric units use the electricity is water metaphor, which relates electric resistance to a water barrier, such as a dam.

Cognates

Eng dia‑phragm

fràdj.

dat: to perceive something-nom

Etymology

NLem frodj‑a
LMLem fràtj‑a
MLem fraatj‑a
PCelt *φrā́ty‑ū, i̯e-causative of
PIE *pret‑ ‘realise’

Cognates

Lit prantù ‘understand, grasp’

fràw.

self-transporting: to amble, stroll, walk without a specific aim

Etymology

NLem frOm‑a
LMLem frèm‑a
MLem freem‑a ‘move aimlessly’
OLem frēm‑
PLem *pfrēm‑ ‘stray, go wrong’, Narten present of
PIE *bʰremH‑ ‘be unsteady, restless’

Cognates

Ved bhrámasi ‘flicker, flare’

fràx.

to be astonished, surprised about something-acc/causal-transporting (also dat/causal-receiving, see Ambiguous usage);
agentive caus, causal-reflexive: to astonish, surprise someone-nom

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem frux‑a
OLem fruh‑
PLem *pfruh‑ ‘look grim, be troubled’
PIE *bʰrúh₁‑eh₂ ‘brow’

Cognates

Eng brow, Gk ὀφρῡ́ς ‘eyebrow, brow of a hill’

fràxk.

to make/produce fruit

frèxk. fruiting plant, flowering plant

Connotations

Fruit, especially strawberries, have been a highly valued food since Old Lemizh times. fràRxk. or fròRxk. ‘the time of producing fruit [i.e. strawberries]’ refers to early summer, especially its colours and smells (whereas xalàR. and xalòR. refer to the end of summer).

Etymology

NLem frOnk‑a
LMLem, MLem frenk‑a
OLem frenk‑
PLem *pfrenk‑, Narten present of
PIE *bʰrenk‑ ‘swell’

Cognates

ON bringa ‘breast, chest’, PSl bręče ‘swelled’

fràs.

to make an uncle or aunt of someone-nom (related by blood)

frès. nephew, niece of someone-acc

Etymology

NLem frOs‑a
LMLem frès‑yr ‘uncle (father’s brother)’
MLem frees‑yr, haplology of
OLem frēsir‑
PLem *pfrāser‑ ‘nephew, grandson (?)’
PIE *bʰréh₂ter‑s ‘brother’

Cognates

Eng brother

frekràf.

to make the god or the planet Mars/Ares

Connotations

See djeipysràd. for more information on Lemizh polytheism, and fràg. for the weekday associated with this god.

Etymology

gender change of
NLem frekur‑a, academic loan of
OLem frēkur‑ ‘Brother (in) War’
PLem *pfrā‑kor‑, compound of
  PLem *pfrā‑ ‘brother’, suffixless from of
PIE *bʰréh₂ter‑s
 —and—
  PLem *kor‑ ‘war’
PIE *kór‑os

Cognates

Eng brother; Ger Heer ‘army’

fnà.

to try (to do) something-acc

fnÙl., fnÌ. achieve, manage (to do) something-acc

Etymology

gender change of
NLem fing‑a
LMLem, MLem fifing‑a ‘desire’
OLem fifing‑
PLem *fifing‑, i-reduplicated athematic present of
PIE *h₃ei̯g̑ʰ‑

Cognates

Gk ἰχανάω ‘crave, yearn’

fnàwb.

to make an older relative of someone-nom, to make related to someone-nom

fnèwb. jounger relative of someone-acc

Etymology

NLem fnumb‑a
LMLem, MLem fnomb‑yr ‘navel, hub’
OLem fnomb‑
PLem *fnomb‑
PIE *h₃nóbʰ‑s

Cognates

Eng navel, Gk ὀμφαλός ‘navel’

fmàxk.

to pour, spill something-acc somewhere-dat etc.

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem fmink‑a
OLem fmink‑
PLem *fmink‑, sk̑-present of
PIE *h₃mei̯g̑ʰ‑ ‘urinate’

Cognates

Lat mingō ‘urinate’, Ved mehati ‘urinate’

fkràj.

to make tortoises, turtles

Etymology

NLem fkrongj‑a
LMLem, MLem repkongj‑ar
OLem rep‑konggh‑, compound of
  OLem rep‑ ‘creep’
PLem *ref‑, root present of
PIE *reh₁p‑
 —and—
  OLem konggh‑ ‘shell, mussel’
PLem *konggh‑
PIE *kóngʰ‑eh₂

The name of this irritating animal literally means ‘shell(ed) creeper’.

Cognates

Eng reptile (via Lat rēpō ‘creep’); Eng, Lat cochlea

ftnàk.

to make eagles (also the constellation Aquila; see appendix, Constellations)

Etymology

NLem ftank‑a
LMLem, MLem ptank‑yr ‘bird of prey’
OLem ptank‑ ‘fly’
PLem *ptanx‑ ‘fly (up)’, nasal-infix present of
PIE *peth₂‑

Cognates

Eng feather, Gk πέτομαι ‘fly’

fxàc.

to make dragons (also the constellation consisting of Draco and most of Ursa Minor; see appendix, Constellations)

Etymology

NLem fxurm‑a
LMLem, MLem fxurm‑yr
OLem fxurm‑
PLem *fxurm‑, of unknown origin

fxyrcrà.

to make lizards

Etymology

simplification, compound of
  ModLem fxàc. ‘dragon’
NLem fxurm‑a
LMLem, MLem fxurm‑yr
OLem fxurm‑
PLem *fxurm‑, of unknown origin
 —and—
  ModLem crà. ‘1/4’, gender change of
NLem crumbw‑a ‘2/6’
LMLem crumbw‑yr, contamination of
MLem srumbw‑yr ‘few, little’
OLem srumbw‑
PLem *tsrumbw‑ ‘trifle’, u-stem adjective of
PIE *dʰreu̯bʰ‑ ‘break’ [intr.], crumble’
 —with—
MLem cambr‑yr ‘negligible’
OLem zhambr‑
PLem *dzambr‑ ‘few, little’, r-stem adjective of
PIE *dʰebʰ‑ ‘reduce’

Okay, this is just a simplification of a modern compound meaning ‘little dragon’.