lemÌc. Lemizh grammar and dictionary

Complete Lemizh / English dictionary with 213 lemmata

à.

relative pronoun type II level n: see unit 6, Relative pronouns

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem a, formed after the Ghean relative pronouns
a f‑a s‑a sh‑a x‑a / fˇ‑a sˇ‑a shˇ‑a xˇ‑a
/a ɸa s̟a ʃa χa / βa z̟a ʒa ʁa/

aràc.

to make a pressure unit, a pressure of 4.759 pascals (see appendix, Units of measurement)

Etymology

gender change of
NLem aer‑a, academic loan of
Koi ἀήρ ‘air, wind’
SHell *awḗr
PIE *h₂u̯éh₁‑r, r-stem noun of
  PIE *h₂u̯eh₁‑ ‘blow’

Like the momentum unit, this word was probably masculinised to show some vigour.

Cognates

Eng wi‑nd, Ger wehen ‘blow (wind)’

àd.

to give someone/something an identity (see unit 16, wh-questions)

Etymology

NLem yd‑a
LMLem, MLem yd‑yr
Ghe ətˇ‑ə /ədə/

àb.

to make fourteen individuals

Etymology

NLem ob‑a
LMLem, MLem ob‑yl
Ghe opˇ‑i /ɔbɪ/

àtx.

to make sour, acidic, to give a sour taste to something-dat, to make an acid

Etymology

NLem Otx‑a
LMLem, MLem Otxx‑yr
Ghe ötxx‑ə /œtχχə/

àc.

to make thirteen individuals

Etymology

NLem yc‑a
LMLem, MLem yc‑yl
Ghe əshˡ‑i /əʒɪ/

àv.

to feed someone-dat with something-acc;
self-receiving: to eat something-acc, to feed on something-acc

ilvnà. to vomit

Connotations

While being the standard word for eating, àv. has a tendency to mean ‘gobble, eat noisily’. Avoid it when talking, for example, about a state banquet; àqsk. is better suited for that purpose. Unless of course you want to say what the banquet was really like.

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem ev‑a
OLem hedh‑
PLem *hedh‑, Narten present of
PIE *h₁ed‑

Cognates

Eng eat, Lat edō

axileàs.

to make Achilles (a hero of the Troyan War)

Etymology

academic loan of
Koi Ἀχιλλεύ‑ς, probably meaning ‘grief of the people’

àhp.

to make salty, to give a salty taste to something-dat

This word refers to the taste, as opposed to the substance salt. hlà. ‘make salt’ is used for the latter purpose.

Etymology

NLem yhph‑a
LMLem, MLem yhph‑yr
Ghe əshpshⁿ‑ə /əʃpʃə/

àhw.

to make horses

Connotations

Since Middle Lemizh times this word emphasises the nobility the Lemizh have traditionally seen in this animal; i.e. it connotes ‘steed’ rather than ‘nag’.

Etymology

NLem ehw‑a
LMLem, MLem ehw‑yr
OLem heshw‑
PLem *heshw‑
PIE *h₁ék̑u̯‑os

Cognates

Lat equus, Gk ἵππος

àst.

to make the most, to make the largest amount (often with partitive; often compounded; see unit 11, Verbs of comparison and Superlative)

Connotations

The absence of causes for most things has been a common theme in Lemizh literature and other arts since Late Middle Lemizh times, well before quantum physics was devloped. Compare tàcd..

Etymology

NLem, LMLem ist‑a
MLem istu‑a, back formation of
OLem superlative suffix ‑istu‑
PLem *‑isto‑
PIE *‑isto‑s

Cognates

Eng superlative suffix ‑est, probably fir‑st

àqsk.

to feed someone-dat (daintily) with something-acc;
self-receiving: to eat something-acc (daintily)

Connotations

The standard word for eating is àv., which however has a tendency to mean ‘gobble, eat noisily’. Use àqsk. when this is undesirable.

Etymology

contamination of
NLem, LMLem, MLem isk‑a
Ghe isq‑a /ɪs̟qa/
 —with—
NLem, LMLem, MLem ev‑a
OLem hedh‑
PLem *hedh‑, Narten present of
PIE *h₁ed‑

àf.

to make points / an area up(wards), above (of) something-nom (see unit 12, Temporal and spatial verbs)

Etymology

NLem uf‑a, inflected form of
LMLem, MLem uf ‘above’
OLem uf, shortened form of
PLem *ufer
PIE *uper

Cognates

Eng over, Gk ὑπέρ ‘above, over’

elefà.

to make elephants

Etymology

NLem elefa‑a, academic loan of
Koi ἐλέφᾱ‑ς, probably from an Afro-Asiatic language

Cognates

Eng elephant

emblà.

to make a force unit, a force of 40.30 millinewtons (see appendix, Units of measurement)

Etymology

NLem embol‑a, academic loan of
Koi ἐμβολ‑ή ‘thrust, battering ram’
SHell *en‑q̌ol‑ā́ ‘thrust’, nominalisation, compound of
  SHell, PIE *en ‘in’
 —and—
  SHell *q̌él‑mi ‘hit, throw’, root present of
PIE *gʷelh₁‑

Actually, this is a very low force for a battering ram.

Cognates

Eng embolism, ballistic (via Gk βάλλω ‘throw’)

epikuràs.

to make Epicurus (an Ancient Greek philosopher)

Etymology

academic loan of
Koi Ἐπίκουρ‑ος, meaning ‘ally’

esfàs.

to hide something-acc, or self-transporting: somewhere-dat etc. (perfect: describing the state, otherwise the action)

Connotations

This verb is only used for hiding things or people (including oneself), not for facts or feelings. This was different until Middle Lemizh.

Etymology

postradix from perfect of
NLem esf‑a
LMLem èsf‑a
MLem eisf‑a
Ghe eisf‑a /ɛ͜ɪs̟ɸa/

eqinà.

to make Ethiynic

eqinàr. the federation of Ethiyn in northeastern Europe

Etymology

Eth Eþījnu, of unknown origin

ylàs.

to make vain, to do something-acc in vain

Etymology

NLem ylas‑a
Besk ɨlas /h‑/, of unknown origin

ytàs.

to make an electric inductance unit, an inductance of 1.940 henries (see appendix, Units of measurement)

Etymology

allegedly academic loan of the name of some Ἔττις, a moor where giants were supposed to dwell; to match the capacitance unit and the large value of this unit

The spelling with y was adopted because this was one of the few letters still available for unit symbols.

yphà.

to make (colour) orange

yphilkà. to make (colour) cerulean (blue-green, a colour between blue and cyan/turquoise)

Connotations

While the Gheans applied the term əpshqⁿ‑ə only to a specific hue of orange, which they despised, the range of meaning was somewhat widened in Early New Lemizh. Modern Lemizh views the complete range between red and yellow as yphÌ.; and any negative connotations are obsolete.

Being the only ‘female’ of the basic spectral colour words (see the etymology section), orange is perceived as overwhelmingly girly.

Etymology

gender change of
NLem yphakn‑a
LMLem, MLem yphkn‑yr
Ghe əpshqⁿ‑ə /əpʃqⁿə/

Gender change was caused by simplification of yphilk-kÌ. ‘cerulean’ to yphil-kÌ..

yzàj.

to crush something-dat into something-acc [e.g. dust];
dat: to crush

Etymology

postradix from plural of
NLem, LMLem, MLem yz‑a
Ghe əsˇ‑a /əz̟a/

The ‘plural’ postradix, atypical for a non-nominal verb, probably stems from the fact that crushing usually results in multiple fragments (yzÌj.).

iotà.

to make an energy unit, an energy of 3.708 millijoules (see appendix, Units of measurement)

nÌ iotìly. not the slightest amount, lit. ‘not a iotỳ’

Etymology

NLem iote‑a, academic loan of
Koi ἰότη‑ς ‘wish’, of unknown origin

The idea behind this unit is that the (potential, kinetic, etc.) energy contained in an object represents its ‘wish’ to perform work.

The phrase ‘not a iotỳ’ comes from the fact that this is a pretty small unit of energy.

ihkà.

to shine (only of the moon)

ihkè. moon
ihkÌ. moonlight, moonshine; moonbeam

sxnyrÌ. moonbeam

Connotations

See the word for sun.

Etymology

NLem ihk‑a
LMLem, MLem ihk‑ar
Ghe ishq‑ə /ɪʃqə/

oàs.

to make an electric charge or flux unit, a charge/flux of 57.64 millicoulombs (see appendix, Units of measurement)

Etymology

academic loan of
Koi οἶ‑ς ‘sheep’
SHell *ówi‑s
PIE *h₂óu̯i‑s

A way of creating static electricity is to rub amber against sheep’s wool. As e (for Koi ἤλεκτρον ‘amber’) was already used as the symbol for the force unit, it was decided to name the charge unit for the sheep.

See also Oàs..

Cognates

Eng ewe, Lat ovis

oRwxàf.

to make poodles 🐩

Poodles make a sound rather like this.

Etymology

NLem oRw‑xaf‑a, compound of
  NLem oRw‑a ‘hound’
LMLem, MLem oRw‑yr
Ghe oxfˇ‑ə /ɔʁβə/ ‘dog’, an onomatopoeia
 —and—
  NLem xaf‑a ‘water’
LMLem, MLem xaf‑yr
OLem xaf‑ ‘water, stream’
PLem *xaf‑ ‘water’ [animate], ‘stream’
PIE *h₂ép‑s

The poodle is named ‘water-hound’ for its qualities in waterfowl hunting. (Compare the English name, which is related to puddle.)

Cognates

Ved ā́p ‘water’, Ir abhainn ‘river’

oranutnà.

to make orangutans

Etymology

NLem oranutan‑a
< Malay orang hutan lit. ‘forest person’

It is not clear whether orang hutan referred to the ape, or whether this was a misunderstanding between Europeans and Malays. The term might actually have meant ‘forest people’ or ‘librarians’ (i.e. ‘free people’).

omàj.

to make eleven individuals

Connotations

The number eleven is associated with a sense of ‘too much, more than one’s fill’, as seen in such phrases as omàj. ‘make eleven = do more than really necessary’ or làxt omÌjy. ‘want eleven = want more than one’s share’. This is often thought to be a remnant of the old decimal system (11 = more than 10), but has only been attested by Late Middle Lemizh times, about 700 years after the adoption of the Ghean hexadecimal numbers.

Etymology

postradix from plural of
NLem om‑a
LMLem òm‑yl
MLem oum‑yl
Ghe oəfʱ‑i /ɔ͜əmɪ/

Oàs.

to make a magnetic charge or flux unit, a charge/flux of 84.82 milliwebers (see appendix, Units of measurement)

Etymology

named in analogy to the electric charge/flux unit oàs.

udreà.

to make an electric flux density unit, a flux density of 6.807 coulombs per square metre (see appendix, Units of measurement)

Etymology

named in analogy to the magnetic flux density unit Udreà., following the example of oàs. and Oàs.

usrà.

to make the goddess or the planet Venus/Aphrodite

Etymology

NLem usor‑a, academic loan of
OLem huhsor‑ ‘Lady Love’
PLem *huh‑sor‑, feminine of
  PLem *huh‑ ‘be comfortable with, love’, root aorist of
PIE *h₁eu̯k‑ ‘get used to, learn’

See xsrà. for the associated weekday.

Cognates

Ved ucyasi ‘[you] are used to’; the PLem feminine suffix is related to the second components of Eng sister and probably Lat uxor ‘wife’

Udreà.

to make a magnetic flux density unit, a flux density of 10.02 teslas (see appendix, Units of measurement)

Etymology

shortened form, academic loan of
Koi ὑδρεί‑ᾱ ‘irrigation, water supply’, abstract noun of
  Koi ὕδωρ ‘water’, contamination from plural, ‘voiceless’ initial of
SHell *wódr̥
PIE *u̯ódr̥ ‘water’ [inanimate], deverbal noun of
  PIE *u̯ed‑ ‘well, gush’

Like most electromagnetic units, Udreà. uses the electricity is water metaphor. Physicists were running out of letters for unit symbols, which explains the omission of initial x that would be expected here.

See also udreà..

là.

to do something-fact, to act;
fact: to happen

lè. source, sender; other case descriptors analogous

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem l‑a
Ghe ᴛˡ‑a /d̠ˡa/

làgc.

self-receiving, mainly dat: to go to rest, perfect: to rest;
agentive caus or nom: to put someone-dat to rest

Connotations

Going to rest usually implies lying down (unless of course you are a parrot); but to primarily express the change of orientation as opposed to the goal of resting, we use constructions with spatial verbs (see unit 12, Orientation).

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem algj‑a ‘lay’
OLem alggh‑ ‘lie’
PLem *alggh‑, root aorist of
PIE *legʰ‑ ‘lie down’

Cognates

Eng lie (position), Ir luigh

làbv.

to make white, to make a light/pale colour (as in ‘to go white’), to whiten, to brighten up (referring to colour, not to light intensity)

lilbvjnà. to make (pure) white
lilbvnà. to make black, to blacken (non-white, ‘passive’ black, as in ‘blackened by age, dark/black night’; compare wàcg.)

Etymology

NLem albw‑a
LMLem, MLem albw‑yr
OLem albw‑, dialect borrowing of
PLem *xalbw‑, o-stem adjective of
PIE *h₂elbʰ‑

Proto-Lemizh *(x)albw‑ could also be a u-stem. The o-stem is assumed on semantic grounds.

Cognates

Eng elf, Lat albus

làj.

to make/build houses

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem lingj‑a
OLem lingj‑
PLem *lingj‑ ‘house, hive’, back formation of
  PLem *melidhlingj‑ ‘beehive’
PIE *melidlíg̑ʰ‑i‑eh₂ ‘bee’, nominalisation of
  PIE *mélid‑lei̯g̑ʰ‑ ‘’, compound of
  PIE *mélid ‘honey’
 —and—
  PIE *lei̯g̑ʰ‑ ‘lick’

Cognates

Eng lick, Gk λείχω ‘lick’

làjg.

to apply a bending force, to bend something-dat; to break something-dat into something-acc [e.g. into parts, in two] by bending;
dat: to bend, to break into something-acc by being bent

lajgskràp. to break (as opposed to just deform) by bending (often expressed more simply with the uncompounded word and an acc object)

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem lung‑a ‘break by bending’
OLem lung‑
PLem *lung‑, nasal-infix present of
PIE *leu̯g̑‑ or *leu̯g‑

Cognates

Eng lock

làw.

to make lions (also the constellation Leo)

Etymology

NLem lew‑a
LMLem, MLem lew‑yr
OLem lew‑
SHell *leũ‑on
PIE *léu̯‑om

PIE *léu̯‑om might be a borrowing from PSem *labiʾ‑ (compare Heb לביא). Or it might be the other way round.

Cognates

Eng lion, Gk λέων

làxt.

want, wish something-acc [from someone-dat]; [someone-dat] to do something-acc (see unit 13, Overview of the modals)

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem lint‑a ‘touch’
OLem lint‑
PLem *lint‑, nasal-infix present of
PIE *lei̯t‑

The modern meaning has developed from the notion ‘touch with one’s mind’.

Cognates

Gk λιτέσθαι ‘beg, implore’

The word is said to mean ‘laugh’ (semantic development perhaps via ‘tickle’) in an obscure central European language, but this has never been confirmed.

làxw.

to make green, to green

lilxwkà. to make (colour) magenta

Etymology

NLem alxw‑a
LMLem, MLem alxw‑yr
OLem alxw‑
PLem *alxw‑, u-present of
PIE *leh₂‑ ‘pour, water’

In Proto-Lemizh the meaning is probably only ‘to green’ as a metonymy of ‘to water’. Cross-linguistically, many words for ‘green’ are derived from terms relating to plants and their growth.

Cognates

Lat lāma ‘puddle’, Hit lāhui ‘pour’

làq.

to make a mass unit, a mass of 761.1 grams (see appendix, Units of measurement)

Etymology

NLem liq‑a, academic loan of
Koi λίθ‑ος ‘stone’, of uncertain origin

Obviously, the Lemizh have quite a different idea than the English of how heavy a stone should be.

Cognates

Eng litho-graphy

lemàc.

to make Lemizh

lemàrc. the country of Lemaria

Etymology

NLem lem‑a (inner acc collective sg: lem‑yr)
LMLem lèmin‑yr
MLem leemin‑yr
OLem lēmin‑
PLem *lēmen‑
PIE *lei̯Hmh̥́₁n‑os ‘from the bay’ (vrddhi derivation of the mediopassive participle *liH‑mh̥₁n‑ós ‘snuggling oneself [against]’ > ‘bay’)

The Lemizh language is called ‘Lemurian’ or ‘Lemurean’ in older texts; these terms are derived from NLem lem‑yr.

Cognates

Ved láyate ‘[he] snuggles [against], sticks [to]’

Rà.

to make each individual separately/respectively (see unit 7, Indefinite numerals);
(mathematics) to divide (see Fractions)

Etymology

NLem R‑a
LMLem, MLem R‑yr
Ghe xˇ‑ə /ʁə/

Ràdj.

to prosper, thrive

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem Randz‑a
OLem xandz‑ ‘sprout, bloom’
PLem *xandz‑, root present of
PIE *h₂endʰ‑

Cognates

Eng antho‑logy (via Gk ἄνθος ‘flower’)

Ràbv.

to make some, a fairly small number/amount (relative weight 3⁄8; see unit 7, Weighting numerals – usually with partitive bracket; see unit 8, Cardinal numerals)

Etymology

NLem yRbw‑a ‘a medium amount’
LMLem, MLem yRbw‑yr
Ghe xpˡ‑ə /ʁbʷə/

The Ghean weighting numerals were (sorted from ‘few, little’ to ‘all, the whole’)
xpʳ‑ə pʳ‑ə xpˡ‑ə pˡ‑ə xp‑ə p‑ə
/ʀ̥ʙə ʙə ʁbʷə bʷə χpə pə/

Only xpˡə, pˡə (> bvà.) and xpə (> xpàj.) have survived until today. The first two were fairly recently diminished in meaning, when the six-degree system was extended to an eight-degree one by inserting two new words between bvà. and xpàj., namely dmàj. and dmà..

xpʳə was replaced with a native word originally meaning ‘negligible’ (modern càwb.) in Late Middle Lemizh. pʳə and never made their way into Lemizh; already Middle Lemizh had dropped them in favour of native words (modern crà. and jnà., respectively).

Ràks.

should do something-acc, shall we do something-acc?, recommend, suggest someone-dat [to do] something-acc (see unit 13, Overview of the modals)

Etymology

NLem Ranks‑a
LMLem, MLem Rankt‑a ‘command’
OLem xankt‑ ‘force, compel’
PLem *xanks‑ ‘want’, s-desiderative of
PIE *h₂nek̑‑ ‘reach’

Cognates

Eng e‑nough, Lat nancīscor ‘stumble on, obtain, reach, find’

Ràj.

to make geese

Connotations

The familiar pejorative sense ‘(mentally) weak, stupid person’ is ancient. However, since Middle Lemizh times, calling someone a goose can also compliment them on their firm, resolute stance.

Etymology

NLem Ran‑a
LMLem, MLem Ran‑yr
OLem xan‑
PLem *kxan‑
PIE *g̑ʰh₂én‑s

Cognates

Eng goose, Lat ānser ‘goose’

Ràjg.

to live, a/the life

làxt (viì) RajgÌ Ràdjy. ‘Live and prosper!’

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem Reng‑a
OLem xing‑ ‘move’
PLem *xing‑, nasal-infix present of
PIE *h₂ei̯g‑ ‘move (violently?)’

Cognates

Ved éjati ‘stir’

Ràw.

to make hounds, hunting dogs (also the constellation Canis Major)

— RÌnwe RÌnje. hunter and hunted (used figuratively), lit. ‘hounds and geese’

Etymology

NLem oRw‑a
LMLem, MLem oRw‑yr
Ghe oxfˇ‑ə /ɔʁβə/ ‘dog’, an onomatopoeia like axʱ‑ə /aɴə/ ‘cat’ and otq‑ə /ɔtqə/ ‘chicken’

rà.

to make one individual

to make an angle unit, an angle of one radian or any other dimensionless unit (see appendix, Units of measurement)

Etymology

NLem r‑a
LMLem, MLem r‑yr
Ghe ᴛʳ‑ə /r̠ə/

ràt.

to drive a vehicle-acc, to steer something/someone-acc (for the thing moved) or dat (for the thing manoeuvred, also metaphorically)

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem ret‑a
OLem ret‑
PLem *reth‑ ‘run’, Narten present of
PIE *ret‑

The verb may have meant ‘go on wheels’ already in PIE, as *rot‑eh₂ is the source of Lat rota ‘wheel’ and *rot‑h₂‑ós that of Ved rátha ‘chariot’.

Cognates

Ger Rad ‘wheel’, Ir rith ‘run’; likely unrelated to Eng rattle and Ger rattern

ràj.

to make sixteen individuals

Etymology

NLem ran‑a
LMLem, MLem ran‑yl
Ghe ᴛʳ‑asʱ‑i /r̠anɪ/ ‘sixteen’, lit. ‘one-zero’ [hexadeximal], compound of
  Ghe ᴛʳ‑ə /r̠ə/ ‘one’
 —and—
  Ghe asʱ‑i /anɪ/ ‘zero’

ràjd.

to make red, to redden (with embarrassment-caus, -psu)

riljdkà. to make cyan or turquoise

Connotations

rÌjd. is more likely to denote the focal colour (‘bright red’) than other colour terms, as attested since Middle Lemizh. (Conversely, ‘reddish’, i.e. a compound with a weakening numeral, is more likely to be used for hues that are not quite focal red.)

Etymology

NLem rundr‑a
LMLem, MLem rundr‑yr
OLem hrundr‑
PLem *hrundr‑, r-stem adjective of
PIE *h₁reu̯dʰ‑

This is the word for ‘red’ in most Indo-European languages.

Cognates

Eng red, Gk ἐρυθρός

ràc.

to make points / an area to the right of something-nom (see unit 12, Temporal and spatial verbs)

recxnÌ., rÌc. south
rilckexnÌ., rilckÌ. north

Connotations

Right-handed men used to carry their swords on the left, which gave rise to the custom of letting the lady walk on the right-hand side so as not to ruin her dress when drawing. Curiously, the ‘male’ poststem of rÌc. and the ‘female’ one of the opposite rilckÌ. have not been able to change this tradition.

Likewise, it is not socially acceptable for the man to walk too far away from the lady, nor to walk between two ladies, despite the gender change of these words.

Etymology

gender change of
NLem Ur‑a
LMLem, MLem Ur‑yr
OLem ür‑
PLem *ūr‑, r-stem adjective of
PIE *u̯eg̑‑ ‘lively, strong’

Many languages derive their words for the direction ‘right’ from the idea that the right hand is the ‘correct’ or the ‘strong’ one. Gender change occurred to avoid homophony with the numeral rà..

Cognates

Eng wake, vigour (via Lat vigeō ‘thrive, flourish’); however, none of the original sounds is left in the present-day word: both r and c come from the PIE adjectival suffix -r-.

ràzg.

to braid, plait something-dat

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem arzg‑a
OLem arzg‑
PLem *arzg‑, root present of
PIE *resg‑

Cognates

Lat restis ‘rope’, Lit rezgù ‘braid, knit’

ràwb.

to push something-acc somewhere-dat etc.; to push, press against something-dat; also non-sending

Connotations

Since Old Lemizh, this verb is connoted positively. Don’t use it to translate hostile kinds of pushing such as ‘shove, jostle’.

Etymology

contamination of
NLem srUmb‑a
LMLem, MLem srimb‑a
OLem srimb‑
PLem *tsrimb‑, root present of
PIE *dʰrei̯bʰ‑ ‘drive’
 —with—
NLem, LMLem, MLem runp‑a ‘break, snap’
OLem runp‑ ‘break, snap’ [intr.]
PLem *runp‑, nasal-infix present of
PIE *reu̯p‑

ràwb. (for expected **sràwb.) was contaminated with ràxp., the modern word for ‘pull’.

Cognates

Eng drive

ràxp.

to pull something-acc somewhere-dat etc.; at something-dat; also non-sending

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem runp‑a ‘break, snap’
OLem runp‑ ‘break, snap’ [intr.]
PLem *runp‑, nasal-infix present of
PIE *reu̯p‑

Cognates

Eng rupture (via Lat rumpō ‘break, burst, tear’ [tr.]), Ved lumpáti ‘break’ [tr.]

nà.

nonexistence (‘zero’) negator (see unit 6, Negators): do not do something-acc;
to make something-dat nonexistent, to undo, annul, destroy something-dat (all: also with inner cons for the object, see unit 6, ‘unknot’);
to make zero individuals, none, nothing

Connotations

Interestingly, the proverbial entities ‘doing nothing’ are various types of poisonous or inedible mushroom, as in speakanà agaricÌem. ‘be as silent as a fly agaric’ or toadstoolÌem. ‘do nothing, like a toadstool’. Such phrases have been recorded since Late Middle Lemizh times.

Etymology

NLem, LMLem n‑a
MLem ne‑a
OLem ne‑, inflected form of
PLem, PIE *ne ‘not’

Cognates

Eng no, Lat ne

nàwb.

to burst, tear something-dat into something-acc [e.g. dust; in two];
dat to burst, tear

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem nemb‑a
OLem nemb‑
PLem *nemb‑ ‘burst, shatter’, Narten present of
PIE *nebʰ‑

Cognates

Ved nábhate ‘bursts, shatters’

natlà.

to make a angular power density unit, an angular power density of 2.813 milliwatts per steradian (see appendix, Units of measurement)

Etymology

shortened form, academic loan of
Koi ναυτιλί‑ᾱ ‘seafaring’, nominal derivation of
  Koi ναῦ‑ς ‘ship’
SHell *nāú‑s, u-stem noun of
PIE *(s)neh₂‑ ‘swim, bathe’

Having been invented together with the unit of power density, this unit too has a naval name.

Cognates

Eng navy (via Lat nāvis ‘ship’)

nàj.

to make points / an area between objects-nom (see unit 12, Temporal and spatial verbs)

Connotations

See the connotations section of ràc. for some context on gender change in spatial verbs.

Etymology

gender change of
NLem en‑a, inflected form of
LMLem, MLem en
OLem hen ‘in’
PLem *hen
PIE *h₁en

Gender change occurred to avoid homophony with the negator nà..

Cognates

Eng in, Gk ἐν ‘in’

nàzd.

to make birds

Etymology

NLem nezd‑a
LMLem, MLem nezd‑yr
OLem nizd‑ ‘nest’
PLem *nizd‑
PIE *nisd‑ós

The meaning ‘bird’ developed from MLem nezd‑ar, lit. ‘nest-builder’, which is attested in a few instances.

Cognates

Eng nest, Lat nīdus ‘nest’

nàh.

to make nine individuals

Connotations

The number nine has been associated with art since classical times (corresponding to Late Middle Lemizh), as can be seen in the number of the Muses, sources of the knowledge contained in art. Without doubt, Terpsichore is the fairest one of them.

Much earlier, in Old Lemizh, nine was the number of healers. In Middle Lemizh, it has come to denote placebo effects: if I give you nine pills, I am helping you but not because of any pharmacologic effect of the pills. Counseling someone nine times generates something close to a self-fulfilling prophecy.

Etymology

NLem neh‑a
LMLem nèh‑yl, contamination of
MLem nee‑yl
OLem hnē‑, inflected form of
PLem *hnewan
PIE *h₁néu̯n̥
 —with—
MLem dih‑yl ‘ten’
OLem dish‑, inflected form of
PLem *deshamt
PIE *dék̑m̥t

Cognates

Eng nine, Gk ἐννέα

nàs.

dat: to smell something-nom; nom: to smell of something-acc

nùs. (with outer partitive) nose

Etymology

NLem nas‑a ‘nose’
LMLem, MLem nas‑yr
OLem nas‑
PLem *nas‑
PIE *nás‑os

Cognates

Eng nose, Lat nāsus

nenà.

self-transporting: to run somewhere-dat etc.;
acc: to drift or float quickly somewhere ditto in water etc.-nom [or agentive caus]

Etymology

NLem neni‑a
LMLem nènì‑a
MLem neenii‑a
OLem nēnī‑
PLem *nēnī‑ ‘be driven > run’, intensive of
PIE *nei̯H‑ ‘lead, guide’

The secondary meaning ‘to drift quickly’ is attested from Late Middle Lemizh, in a song about 255 toy balloons made from pig bladders.

Cognates

Ved náyati ‘lead’

nexwaklà.

to work manually, to do a blue-collar job

nexwaklè. blue-collar worker

Etymology

NLem nexwatal‑a ‘Nechwatal’ (prototypical blue-collar worker)
Gl Nechwatal, of unknown origin

niftnàj.

to make the god Neptune/Poseidon; to make the planet Uranus

Etymology

gender change of
NLem nifton‑a, academic loan of
OLem nifton‑ ‘Nephew of the Waters’
PLem *nefton‑
PIE *népton‑os

Confusingly, the planet Uranus, known to the Lemizh since ancient times, was named by them after the water god – corresponding to the god Neptune/Poseidon in our tradition. The planet Neptune, discovered in modern times, has the Midwinter God, fOpysrÌf., as its patron.

See xmàj. for the associated weekday.

Cognates

Lat Neptune, Ir Nechtan

mà.

to make or build something-acc from something-dat, to turn something-dat into something-acc;
dat: to turn into something-acc, to become something-acc

mÌ. entity, thing

Connotations

The chicken is proverbial for ‘making’ something, namely eggs. chickenÌem. ‘make/build something, like a chicken’, (where mà. can absorb an accusative object) in the sense of ‘make/build something thoroughly, consistently’ (not necessarily at high speed) is attested since Late Middle Lemizh.

Etymology

NLem me‑a
LMLem mè‑a
MLem mee‑a ‘change’
OLem mē‑ ‘change’ [intr.]
PLem *mē‑, Narten present of
PIE *mei̯‑ ‘(ex)change’

Cognates

Ved ví mayante ‘take turns (?)’, TochB mäsk‑ ‘exchange’; unrelated to Eng make

màc.

to make full, to fill [something-dat] with something-acc, to fill something-acc into something-dat

Etymology

NLem mec‑a
LMLem, MLem mec‑yr
OLem mezhk‑ ‘large’
PLem *mezhx‑
PIE *még̑h₂‑s

Cognates

Eng much, Gk μέγας ‘large’

màs.

to make mice (also computer mice)

Etymology

NLem mUs‑a
LMLem, MLem mUs‑yr
OLem müs‑
PLem *mūs‑
PIE *múh₂s

The meaning ‘computer mouse’ is calqued from Br lač.

Cognates

Eng mouse, Lat mūs

melàs.

to make a power unit, a power of 2.813 milliwatts (see appendix, Units of measurement)

Etymology

NLem meliss‑a, academic loan of
Koi μέλισσ‑α ‘bee’
SHell *melilíkhi‑ā
PIE *melidlíg̑ʰ‑i‑eh₂, nominalisation of
  PIE *mélid‑lei̯g̑ʰ‑, compound of
  PIE *mélid ‘honey’
 —and—
  PIE *lei̯g̑ʰ‑ ‘lick’

An old unit of power was named after the more impressive horse (Koi ἵππος), but (1) the symbol x was needed for the length unit, (2) 2.8 milliwatts are closer to a bee’s than to a horse’s power output, and (3) one of the physicists who devised the modern unit system had a wife called Μέλισσα.

Cognates

Eng mil‑dew, Lat mel ‘honey’

mesà.

to give birth to a child-acc

mesè. mother of someone-acc
mesÌ. child (son, daughter) of a mother-nom

Etymology

NLem mes‑a
LMLem mès‑yr ‘child (of someone)’
MLem mees‑yr, haplology of
OLem mēsir‑
PLem *māser‑ ‘mother’
PIE *méh₂ter‑s

Cognates

Eng mother, Gk μήτηρ

mlà.

to make several individuals

mlÌ. part, component

Etymology

NLem mal‑a
LMLem, MLem mimal‑yl ‘separate’
OLem mimalk‑ ‘crush, separate’
PLem *memalx‑ ‘grind’, e-reduplicated athematic present of
PIE *melh₂‑

Cognates

Ger mahlen ‘grind’, Eng molar [tooth] (via Lat molō ‘grind’)

mlàv.

to make sweet, to sweeten

mlùv. (with outer partitive) sweetener

Etymology

NLem mliv‑a
LMLem, MLem miliv‑yr
OLem milidh‑
PLem *melidh‑ ‘honey’
PIE *mélid

Cognates

Eng mil‑dew, Lat mel ‘honey’

mràj.

to make 65,536 individuals

Etymology

shortening, postradix from plural of
NLem mra‑a
LMLem mUrià‑yr
Koi μυριά‑ς ‘ten thousand, countless numbers’, nominalisation of
  Koi μυρί‑ος ‘countless’, of uncertain origin

This is a (probably academic) loan from the Greek word for 10,000, modelled after skmà. ‘256’, originally ‘100’.

Cognates

Eng myriad

gà.

to informally greet someone-dat, to say goodbye to someone-dat; an informal greeting, ‘Hello! Hi! Bye!’ etc.

Etymology

originally spelt g–à., this is a shortened form of gcrà., the more formal variant of greeting

gomàs.

to make a power density unit, a power density of 0.3322 watts per square metre (see appendix, Units of measurement)

Etymology

academic loan of
Koi γόμ‑ος ‘cargo’
SHell *góm‑os, nominalisation of
  SHell *gém‑ō ‘be full(y loaded)’, full-grade thematic present of
PIE *gem‑ ‘seize, grab’

Cognates

TochB kamāte ‘carried’

glàst.

to make (colour) violet, purple (any hue between magenta and blue)

glilstkà. to make lime green, yellow-green

Connotations

There is an enzyme called GLAST in the Müller glia of the eye’s retina.

A gamma-ray space observatory has been termed GLAST, after the short wavelengths of violet light. And of course there is EGRET.

Etymology

NLem dlost‑a ‘lavender’ [a painter’s term for the specific hue of a valued type of lavender]
LMLem ydlàstt‑yr ‘lavender’ [colour]
MLem ydlaystt‑yr
Ghe əᴛˡaəstt‑ə /əd̠ˡa͜əs̟ttə/

gmà.

to make points / an area outside something-nom (see unit 12, Temporal and spatial verbs)

Etymology

NLem gom‑a, inflected form of
LMLem, MLem gom
OLem kom ‘with’
PLem, PIE *kom

Cognates

Lat cum ‘with’

gcà.

to make fifteen individuals

Connotations

Historically, 15 was the number of councillors or ministers in the Lemizh monarchy. gcÌ. ‘the Fifteen’ is still used pars pro toto for the (or any) government.

Etymology

NLem gj‑a
LMLem, MLem gj‑yl
Ghe qˡ‑i /ɢˠɪ/

gcrà.

to greet, welcome someone-dat, to say farewell, goodbye to someone-dat; a greeting or farewell, ‘How do you do? Good morning/afternoon/evening/night! Goodbye!’ etc.

Connotations

While this verb used to be reserved for welcome greetings until recent times, it is now used as a fairly universal greeting, also for farewells. The informal variant is gà..

Etymology

NLem gjor‑a, syncope of
LMLem, MLem gjisor‑a ‘welcome, show respect’
OLem gjisor‑
PLem *gjesor‑ ‘hand’
PIE *g̑ʰés‑or‑s, r-stem noun of
  PIE *g̑ʰes‑ ‘grip’

Cognates

Eng chiro‑practic (via Koi), TochB ṣar ‘hand’

gwà.

indefinite pronoun: see unit 6, Demonstrative pronouns

gwÌ. someone/anyone, somebody/anybody, something/anything;
with outer causative/persuasive: for some/any reason;
with outer temporal: some/any time;
with outer locative: somewhere/anywhere;
etc.

Etymology

NLem gw‑a
LMLem, MLem gw‑yr ‘someone, anyone’
OLem gw‑
PLem *gw‑
PIE *kʷ‑ós ‘who?’

Cognates

Eng who, what, Lat quis, quid

gwàt.

to teach someone-dat something-acc; something-acc to someone-dat (the latter could be translated as a progressive aspect);
dat: to learn (perfect: to know) about something-acc (with inner non-fact, e.g. aff for actions); dat: doing something-acc (with inner fact)

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem gwet‑a
OLem gwet‑
PLem *gwesh‑ ‘know’, Narten present of
PIE *kʷek̑‑ ‘see’

Cognates

Ved ákhyat ‘has seen, has looked’, OCS kažǫ ‘show, admonish’

gwàq.

to make four individuals

‘make four’, a version of an old language game for four players, focusing on abstract thought. Other versions of this game are for five, seven or ten players, and named accordingly. The cover term for the game is dmàj. ‘fill (up), make full’.

Connotations

As in other traditions, four is the number of the physical world (Earth, or the cosmos). This metaphor, which is probably based on the four cardinal points of the compass, the four classical elements, and other concepts, is attested from Proto-Lemizh. As far as we know, the Lemizh always have had a positive attitude towards this world (and thus to the number four) and identified more with their bodies than with their psyches, similar to the Greeks.

Etymology

NLem gwiq‑a
LMLem, MLem gwiq‑yl
OLem gwith‑, inflected form of
PLem *gwethwores
PIE *kʷétu̯ores

Cognates

Eng four, Gk τέτταρες

gwrà.

to cut something-dat into something-acc [e.g. pieces, in two] with a knife

gwrù. (with outer partitive) knife

Connotations

The knife is a metaphor for nourishing and supporting fellow humans, for example children (based on the idea of cutting bread or meat).

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem gwer‑a
OLem gwer‑
PLem *gwer‑, Narten present of
PIE *kʷer‑

Cognates

Ved kr̥ṇóti ‘do’, Lit kuriù ‘build, create; kindle’

gwràjd.

to make roses

Etymology

contamination of
NLem gword‑a
LMLem, MLem gword‑yr
OLem gword‑
PWald *gvórd‑a
PIE *u̯ŕ̥d‑om ‘flower’
 —with—
NLem rundr‑a ‘red’
LMLem, MLem rundr‑yr
OLem hrundr‑
PLem *hrundr‑, r-stem adjective of
PIE *h₁reu̯dʰ‑

Cognates

Eng rose (via Gk ῥόδον and an Indo-Iranian language)

dà.

to give something-acc to someone-dat;
dat: to get, receive (agentive: take) something-acc from someone-nom

dyxàf. to water something-dat

Connotations

Giving at the ‘right’ time was an important issue in Late Middle Lemizh times, governed by rather complicated rules. Today, we still have phrases such as dà nÌjaR. ‘give between times = commit a social blunder’ and dà gmÌaR. ‘give outside times = ditto’; and dàR. ‘the time of giving’ can mean ‘exactly the right moment’.

Etymology

NLem dO‑a
LMLem dÒ‑a
MLem dOO‑a
OLem dö‑
PLem *dō‑, Narten present of
PIE *deh₃‑

Cognates

Gk δίδωμι, Lat

dàv.

to make yellow, to yellow

Etymology

NLem devr‑a
LMLem dèqur‑yr ‘shiny, yellow’
MLem deequr‑yr
OLem dēthur‑
PLem *dēthor‑ ‘light-giver’
PIE *déi̯h₂‑tor‑s, event agent of
  PIE *dei̯h₂‑ ‘light up’

Old Lemizh ‘shiny, yellow [one]’ is a metonymy of the earlier meaning ‘light-giver’.

Cognates

Gk δέατο ‘it seemed, appeared’, Ved dīdā́ya ‘shines’

dàh.

to make ten individuals

‘make ten’, a version of an old language game for ten players, focusing on abstract thought. Other versions of this game are for four, five or seven players, and named accordingly. The cover term for the game is dmàj. ‘fill (up), make full’.

Etymology

NLem dih‑a
LMLem, MLem dih‑yl
OLem dish‑, inflected form of
PLem *deshamt
PIE *dék̑m̥t

Cognates

Eng ten, Gk δέκα

disfàk.

to make a voltage or magnetic current unit, a voltage of 64.34 millivolts (see appendix, Units of measurement)

Etymology

shortened form, academic loan of
Koi δια‑σφάξ ‘gorge’, lit. ‘hewn through’, compound of
  Koi σφάζω ‘slaughter, kill’, of unknown origin
 —and—
  Koi δια‑ ‘through, across, by, over’
SHell *dwisa‑, prefix derivation of
  SHell *dwis ‘twice’
PIE *du̯is, multiplicative of
  PIE *du̯óh₁ ‘two’

Most electric units use the electricity is water metaphor, which relates voltage to an altitude difference.

dràph.

to make bitter, to give a bitter taste to something-dat

Etymology

contamination of
NLem drOp‑a ‘acrid, pungent’
LMLem, MLem drep‑ir ‘midge biting season’
OLem drep‑ ‘tear, bite off’ [especially said of small animals]
PLem *dref‑ ‘cut, tear (off)’, Narten present of
PIE *drep‑
 —with—
NLem abc‑a ‘bitter’
LMLem, MLem abgc‑yr
Ghe apqshˇ‑ə /abɢʒə/

Cognates

Gk δρέπτω ‘pluck, pick’, Slov dȓpljem ‘pluck, tear’

dràj.

to make citrus fruits

drèj. citrus tree or shrub (especially those with edible fruit)
drÌj. citrus fruit

dryjyphà. to make oranges
dryjlàbv. to make white grapefriuts
dryjlàxw. to make limes
dryjglàst. to make (red) grapefruits
dryjdàv. to make lemons
(all with inner nom for the tree and inner acc for the fruit)

Connotations

Citrus trees have been personified since Early New Lemizh times. Prominent is the idea that they purposefully produce their fruit for its colour, smell and taste.

Etymology

NLem drun‑a
LMLem dryn‑a
OCh  /*[d]ˤrəŋ/ ‘citrus tree’, of unknown origin

dràw.

to dance with someone-dat (In partner dances, the man is usually in the nom and the lady in the dat; in group dances, we use the nom, or possibly the acc if seen as self-transporting, with a partitive ‘and’.);
a dance (action of dancing)

drèw., drìw. dance partner (in a partner dance)
dròrw. dance floor

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem darw‑a
OLem darw‑
PLem *darw‑, u-present of
PIE *dreu̯‑ ‘run’

For NLem darw‑in ‘dance partners, among others’, see Nature 462, 288: Bird behaviour, Darwin and dance.

Cognates

Ved drávati ‘run’, Cro Drava and other European river names. Although Eng draw is unrelated, partner dancing is really a draw in at least three senses of the word.

droà.

to make Troyan

droàr. the country of Troy (modern endonym: ηλψσό /l̩pˈsu/ ) in Asia Minor

droÌ wrÌdjU. droUwrÌdj. Turkish Delight, lit. ‘Troyan thing (beneficient) for the throat’

Etymology

NLem dro‑a
LMLem drò‑yr
MLem drou‑yr
OTroy Τροι‑α /ˈdroia/, from an Anatolian word, ultimately
PIE *trḗb‑s ‘dwelling’

The term for Turkish Delight is calqued from Ar رَاحَة الْحُلْقُوم ‘throat comfort’.

Cognates

Ger Dorf ‘village’, Eng place names such as Weaver‑thorpe, OIr treb ‘house, farm’

dnà.

self-transporting: to walk somewhere-dat etc.;
(maths) a vector

dnù. (with outer partitive) leg

Connotations

This word is used to express walking somewhere for a purpose, as opposed to just going for a walk, which is expressed by fràw..

Etymology

NLem dn‑a
LMLem drn‑a ‘run’
MLem drnu‑a
OLem drnu‑
PLem *drnu‑, nasal-infix present of
PIE *dreu̯‑

Cognates

Ved drávati ‘run’, Cro Drava and other European river names; Eng dromedary is from a related PIE root

dmà.

to make many, much (relative weight 3⁄4; see unit 7, Weighting numerals – usually with partitive bracket; see unit 8, Cardinal numerals)

also an alternative name for the language game mentioned under dmàj.

Etymology

gender change of
NLem bmin‑a ‘full’
LMLem, MLem pylmen‑yr
OLem pylhmen‑
PLem *palhmen‑
PIE *pl̥h₁‑mh̥₁n‑ós ‘filled’, root present mediopassive participle of
  PIE *pleh₁‑ ‘fill, become full’

See Ràbv. for information on Ghean weighting numerals.

Cognates

Eng full, Lat plēnus

dmàj.

to make quite a lot (relative weight 5⁄8; see unit 7, Weighting numerals – usually with partitive bracket; see unit 8, Cardinal numerals)

also an old language game for four, five, seven or ten players, focusing on abstract thought. Although the game is 4000 years old, this cover term only came into use by Early New Lemizh times when it still meant ‘make full’.

Etymology

NLem bmin‑a ‘full’
LMLem, MLem pylmen‑yr
OLem pylhmen‑
PLem *palhmen‑
PIE *pl̥h₁‑mh̥₁n‑ós ‘filled’, root present mediopassive participle of
  PIE *pleh₁‑ ‘fill, become full’

See Ràbv. for information on Ghean weighting numerals.

Cognates

Eng full, Lat plēnus

djàt.

to make (it) daytime

For compounds denoting weekdays, see the appendix, Date.

Connotations

Daytime, like the sun, is mythologically and poetically seen as male. This is the source of the ‘male’ (non-zero) poststem.

Etymology

gender change of
NLem dje‑a
LMLem djè‑yr
MLem djei‑yr ‘day’
OLem djei‑
PLem *djēw‑
PIE *di̯ḗu‑s ‘sky’

Cognates

Gk Ζεύς ‘Zeus’, Lat diēs ‘day’

djeipysràd.

to make the god or the planet Jupiter/Zeus

Etymology

gender change of
NLem djeipysir‑a, academic loan of
OLem djeipysir‑ ‘Father Sky’
PLem *djēw‑paser‑, compound of
  PLem *djēw‑ ‘sky’
PIE *di̯ḗu‑s
 —and—
  PLem *paser‑ ‘father’
PIE *ph̥₂tér‑s

See xàps. for the associated weekday.

Cognates

Gk Ζεύς Πατήρ ‘Father Zeus’, Lat Jupiter

djingmesrà.

to make the goddess Terra/Gaia, also the Earth when explicitly referred to as a planet among the others

Etymology

NLem dzingmesir‑a, academic loan of
OLem dzingmēsir‑ ‘Mother Earth’
PLem *dzeng‑māser‑, compound of
  PLem *dzeng‑ ‘?’, Narten present of
PIE *dʰég̑ʰ‑
 —and—
  PLem *māser‑ ‘mother’
PIE *méh₂ter‑s

The first part of the PLem compound *dzeng‑māser‑ is the (verbal) root of PLem *dzeng‑om‑ ‘earth’ and is of unclear meaning.

See xnà. for the associated weekday.

Cognates

Eng humus (via Lat humus ‘ground, earth, soil’); Eng mother

dwà.

to make two individuals

Connotations

The number two conjures up teatime. The traditional Lemizh teatime ritual is more akin to the English than to the Chinese one – homely, without much fuss, and ideally for two people.

Etymology

NLem dwO‑a
LMLem dwÒ‑yl
MLem dwOO‑yl
OLem dwö‑, inflected form of
PLem *dwō
PIE *du̯óh₁

Cognates

Eng two, Gk δύο

dwàw.

to make bottles

Etymology

NLem dwOwr‑a
LMLem dwÒ‑wer‑yr ‘amphora, bottle’, nominalisation, compound of
  LMLem dwÒ‑yl ‘two’
MLem dwOO‑yl
OLem dwö‑, inflected form of
PLem *dwō
PIE *du̯óh₁
 —and—
  LMLem, MLem wer‑a ‘carry, bear’
OLem wer‑
PLem *bwer‑, Narten present of
PIE *bʰer‑

This is a LMLem calque from Koi ἀμφορεύς ‘amphora’

Cognates

Eng two; Eng bear

dwnàt.

to hit something-dat, to smash, shatter something-dat into something-acc [e.g. shards] by hitting it;
dat: to shatter

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem dwant‑a ‘shatter’
OLem dwant‑
PLem *dwans‑ ‘crumble’, nasal-infix present of
PIE *dʰu̯ens‑ ‘crumble, dissipate’

Cognates

Ved dhváṁsate ‘crumbles, dissipates’, arguably Eng dust

bà.

to make female, to make women

Etymology

NLem b‑a
LMLem, MLem b‑yr
Ghe pˇ‑ə /bə/

Cognates

Claims that the Ghe word is loaned from PCelt *bén‑ā < PIE *gʷén‑eh₂ ‘woman’ are purely hypothetical.

blà.

to make strong, to strengthen

Connotations

The Lemizh have never taken strength quite seriously. This can be exemplified with a Late Middle Lemizh author who wrote ‘Any reason for strength is just idle talk’. Incidentally, he was killed by a disoriented wrestler.

Etymology

NLem bl‑a
LMLem bl‑yr
MLem blu‑yr
OLem blu‑
PLem *blu‑, u-stem adjective of
PIE *bel‑

Cognates

Gk βελτίων ‘better’, Lat de‑bīlis ‘weak’

blàp.

to make a momentum unit, a momentum of 53.13 millinewton-seconds (see appendix, Units of measurement)

Etymology

gender change of
NLem bel‑a, academic loan of
Koi βέλ‑ος ‘missile, arrow’, levelling of
SHell *q̌él‑os
PIE *gʷélh₁‑os, zero-affix noun of
  PIE *gʷelh₁‑ ‘hit, throw’

Gender change occurred to avoid homophony with blà. ‘strong’, and also because physicists wanted to be taken seriously.

Cognates

Eng ballistic (via Gk βάλλω ‘throw’) and probably ball (dancing party) (via Gk βαλλίζω ‘dance’)

bvà.

to make a medium number/amount (relative weight 1⁄2; see unit 7, Weighting numerals – usually with partitive bracket; see unit 8, Cardinal numerals)

Etymology

NLem bw‑a ‘much’
LMLem, MLem bw‑yr
Ghe pˡ‑ə /bʷə/

See Ràbv. for more on Ghean weighting numerals.

kà.

opposition (‘minus’) negator (see unit 6, Negators): to turn something-dat into the opposite;
to make minus one individual

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem k‑a
Ghe q‑a /qa/

Development of the minus sign

k →  → _

kardà.

to make a time unit, a time span of 1.318 seconds (see appendix, Time and Units of measurement)

kardilskmÌ. 256 time units, a time span of 90 minutes
kardilmrÌj. 65,536 time units, a time span of 24 hours

Etymology

NLem kardi‑a, academic loan of
Koi καρδί‑ᾱ ‘heart’
SHell *kr̥dí‑ā
PIE *k̑r̥dí‑eh₂, i̯-extension, feminine of
  PIE *k̑érd‑s

The name of the basic time unit was chosen for its length of (very roughly) a heartbeat.

Cognates

Eng heart, Lat cor

kamlà.

to make camels

Etymology

NLem kaml‑a
LMLem kàmel‑yr
Koi κάμηλ‑ος
SHell *kámēl‑os
PSem *gamal-

Cognates

Eng camel, Ar جَمَل

kamlàj.

to make two-humped or Bactrian camels

Etymology

postradix from plural of
NLem kaml‑a ‘camel’ (see kamlà.)

kamlàc.

to make one-humped camels or dromedaries (also a constellation in the region of Carina and Vela, the Ship’s keel and sails)

Etymology

postradix from singular of
NLem kaml‑a ‘camel’ (see kamlà.)

kàt.

to make cats

Connotations

Cats, being regarded as somewhat mysterious creatures as in many cultures, have a whole host of associations, a common theme being causality and its absence. A good synopsis is:

Etymology

NLem kat‑a
LMLem kàt‑yr
MLem kaut‑yr
Egy ṯaute ‘jungle cat’, female form of
  Egy ṯaus

Cognates

Eng cat, Ital gatto

kàx.

to make a speed (actually a rapidity) unit, a speed of 6.980 centimetres per second (see appendix, Units of measurement)

Etymology

NLem koxl‑a ‘unit of velocity’, academic loan of
Koi κόχλ‑ος ‘snail (shell)’, probably related to
  Koi κόγχ‑η ‘mussel’
SHell *kónkh‑ā
PIE *kóngʰ‑eh₂ ‘shell, mussel’

The name of the basic speed unit was chosen for its slowness. It was redefined from a unit of speed to one of rapidity upon the discovery of Lorentz symmetry.

Cognates

Eng, Lat cochlea

klàj.

to cope (agentive: deal) with, handle something-dat

Connotations

This word, in its Early New Lemizh form, is the title of the Tlöngö̀l, which many Lemizh refuse to recognise as their national epic.

Etymology

NLem tlOn‑a ‘endure, pluck up courage’
LMLem tlèn‑a
Koi τλῆναι, nasal-infix present of
PIE *telh₂‑ ‘lift up, take upon oneself’

Cognates

Eng thole, tolerate (via Lat tolerō ‘endure’), Lat tollō ‘lift up, take away’

kràd.

to beat (only of the heart)

krèd. heart

Etymology

NLem kerd‑a
LMLem, MLem kerd‑ar
OLem kerd‑ ‘heart’
PLem *kerd‑
PIE *k̑érd‑s

Cognates

Eng heart, Gk καρδία

kràt.

to hunt, to chase someone/something-acc

krÙlt. to catch (up with) someone/something-dat

kratylàs. to hunt in vain; a vain hunt, a wild-goose chase (often used with inner ten: to intend / be about to go on a wild-goose chase)

kràt happyày. the pursuit of happiness

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem kart‑a
OLem kart‑
PLem *kars‑ ‘run’, root present of
PIE *k̑ers‑ or *kers‑

Cognates

Gk Ἐπί‑κουρος (Epicurus) ‘ally’ (lit. ‘one rushing to help’), Lat currō ‘run’

kràj.

to form an ensemble (see unit 7, Grouping numerals)

krÌj. ensemble

Etymology

NLem korj‑a
LMLem, MLem korj‑yr ‘male association’
OLem korj‑
PLem *korj‑
PIE *kór‑i̯‑os, derivative of
  PIE *kór‑os ‘war’

Cognates

Ger Heer ‘army’, Gk Κοιρό‑μαχος and other proper names; unrelated to Ger Krieg ‘war’

ksrà.

to make grey

Etymology

NLem ksr‑a
LMLem, MLem ksr‑yr
OLem ksr‑
PLem *ksr‑, r-stem adjective of
PIE *k̑as‑

Most basic colour terms in Lemizh are r-stem Caland adjectives, perhaps motivated by the word for ‘red’.

Cognates

Eng hare (lit. ‘the grey one’), Lat cānus ‘grey, old’

ksmàs.

to make squirrels

Connotations

Calling someone a squirrel refers to their thrift or stinginess, often combined with a tendency to come up with unexpected presents (especially in winter). This use is only attested from Early New Lemizh.

Etymology

NLem ksmUs‑a
LMLem, MLem kesmUs‑yr
OLem kes‑müs‑, clarifying compound of
  OLem kes‑
PLem *kes‑, of unknown origin
 —and—
  OLem müs‑ ‘mouse’
PLem *mūs‑
PIE *múh₂s

Cognates

Eng mouse, Lat mūs

tà.

definite pronoun: see unit 6, Demonstrative pronouns

tÌ. this/that (one);
with outer causative/persuasive: therefore;
with outer temporal: at this/that time;
with outer locative: here/there;
etc.

Etymology

NLem t‑a
LMLem, MLem t‑yr ‘this, that’
OLem t‑
PLem *t‑
PIE *t‑ód

Cognates

Eng that, the, Gk τό

taà.

to measure the circle

taù., τ = 2π = 6.28318530717958647692528676655900…

Connotations

The Lemizh got it right. Yes, really.

Etymology

academic loan, back formation of
Koi ταῦ ‘the letter τ’, either from τόρνος ‘lathe, compass (drawing tool)’ or from Τερψιχόρη ‘the muse of dancing’

Cognates

either Eng turn, or Lit tarpstù ‘thrive, prosper’ and probably Ger dürfen ‘may, be allowed’

tamgà.

to tango with someone-dat (the man is usually in the nom and the lady in the dat); a tango (action of dancing)

tamgè. male tango partner
tamgì. female tango partner

Etymology

NLem tamgu‑a
< Ibibio tamgu ‘to dance’

tàcd.

to make more, to make a larger amount (often with qualitative; often compounded; see unit 11, Verbs of comparison and Comparative)

Connotations

The difficulty of locating more of something (such as knowledge, wisdom) has been a common theme in literature and other arts since Late Middle Lemizh times; e.g. thinkà tìlcdy gwÌar. in the well-known song (‘Won’t you dance for me cos I just don’t care / What’s going on today, I think there’s something more…’). Compare àst..

Etymology

gender change, anomalous poststem formation (under the influence of àst. ‘make the most’) of
NLem, LMLem tir‑a
MLem tiro‑a, back formation of
OLem superlative suffix ‑tiro‑
PLem *‑tero‑
PIE *‑tero‑s

Cognates

Eng far‑ther, Gk comparative suffix ‑τερος

telmà.

to make an electric capacitance unit, a capacitance of 0.8959 farads (see appendix, Units of measurement)

telmàr. (jocular, nerdy) location of a treasure

Etymology

shortened form, academic loan of
Koi τέλμα ‘swamp’, possibly from
  Koi τέλλω ‘perform, accomplish’
PIE *kʷelh₁‑ ‘turn (around)’

Most electric units use the electricity is water metaphor, which relates electric capacitance to a water reservoir. A lake (Koi λίμνη) would have been the obvious choice, but the symbol l was already used for the mass unit.

The jocular meaning of the inner locative is based on viewing stored electricity as a treasure.

Cognates

possibly Ger dulden ‘tolerate, endure’

telmàx.

to (ride a) bicycle

telmÌx. a bicycle

Etymology

named for its inventor, one Τηλέμαχος (not the classical one)

trà.

to make three individuals

Etymology

NLem trO‑a
LMLem trè‑yl
MLem tree‑yl
OLem trē‑
PLem *trē‑
PIE *tréi̯‑es

Cognates

Eng three, Gk τρεῖς

tràd.

to apply torsion, to twist something-dat; to break something-dat into something-acc [e.g. into parts, in two] by torsion;
dat: to twist; to break into something-acc by torsion

tradskràp. to break (as opposed to just deform) by torsion (often expressed more simply with the uncompounded word and an acc object)

Etymology

gender change of
NLem, LMLem, MLem tar‑a
OLem tarh‑ ‘drill, rub’
PLem *tarh‑, root present of
PIE *terh₁‑

Cognates

Lat terō ‘rub’, possibly Eng throw

tmà.

to lead to the opposite expectation; be unexpected [given previous information]

tmè. but, even (typically in a bracket or compound with the ‘unexpected’ object, the one that gives rise to the perceived contrast; for ‘even’, this object has an inner partitive),
— tmèil. (ditto, for adjectives)

Etymology

NLem tam‑a ‘(unpleasant) surprise’
LMLem, MLem tamn‑yr ‘(surprise) attack’
OLem tamnh‑ ‘cut’
PLem *tamnh‑, nasal-infix present of
PIE *temh₁‑

Cognates

Eng contempt (via Lat con‑temnō ‘despise’), Gk τέμνω ‘cut’

txà.

to make/prepare (black) tea from Camellia sinensis or other plants (see connotations)

txÌ. tea (drink)
txì. tea ([dried] leaves)

txilàbv. to make/prepare white tea
txilàxw. to make green tea
txiwrà. to make black tea
txiflàc. to make oolong
(all with inner acc for the drink and inner dat for the leaves)

Connotations

This is the word for tea from the plant Camellia sinensis and, by extension, for other strongly aromatic sorts of tea, especially spiced teas.

Etymology

NLem tha‑a ‘black tea’
Man
OCh  /*rlaː, laː, ɦlja/ ‘a bitter tasting plant, tea’
PST *s-la ‘leaf, tea?, flat object’

Cognates

Eng tea, chai

pàf.

to place a person-acc upright somewhere-dat etc.;
self-transporting: to stand up, get up, perfect: to stand somewhere ditto;

This verb is not used for objects whose position can be determined with spatial verbs alone (see ‘stand’ in the English / Lemizh dictionary). It is only needed to distinguish a standing from a sitting or squatting person, whose coordinate systems share the same orientation.

Etymology

NLem, LMLem pifn‑a
MLem pif‑ne‑a ‘stand (still)’, compound of
  MLem pif‑a ‘move (purposefully)’
OLem pifh‑ ‘move’ [intr.]
PLem *pifh‑, i-reduplicated athematic present of
PIE *peh₁‑
 —and—
  MLem ne‑a ‘not’
OLem ne‑, inflected form of
PLem *ne
PIE *ne ‘no, not’

Cognates

Ved vi-pipāná- ‘sorting out’, probably Hit pippanzi ‘overturn’

potmàs.

to make an electric current or magnetomotive force (‘magnetic voltage’) unit, a current of 43.72 milliamperes (see appendix, Units of measurement)

Etymology

shortened form, academic loan of
Koi ποταμ‑ός ‘river’, probably related to
Koi πῑ́πτ‑ω ‘fall’
SHell *pī́pt‑ō, i-reduplicated thematic present of
PIE *peth₂‑ ‘fly (up)’

Most electric units use the electricity is water metaphor, which relates an electric current to running water.

Cognates

Eng hippo‑potamus; probably feather, petition (via Lat petō ‘ask, request’)

prà.

to make points / an area in front of something-nom (see unit 12, Temporal and spatial verbs)

prexnÌ., prÌ. east
prilkexnÌ., prilkÌ. west

Etymology

NLem prO‑a, inflected form of
LMLem prÒ ‘in front of’
MLem prOO
OLem prö
PLem *prō
PIE *prō ‘forth’

Cognates

Lat prō ‘for, in front of’

pràt.

to barely/just do something-acc;
acc: to barely/just happen

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem part‑a
OLem part‑
PLem *pars‑ ‘try’, s-desiderative of
PIE *per‑ ‘traverse’

Cognates

Eng fare, Gk πείρω ‘pierce, run through’

pnà.

to make five individuals

‘make five’, a version of an old language game for five players, focusing on abstract thought. Other versions of this game are for four, seven or ten players, and named accordingly. The cover term for the game is dmàj. ‘fill (up), make full’.

Etymology

NLem pin‑a
LMLem, MLem pin‑yl
OLem ping‑, inflected form of
PLem *pengwe
PIE *pénkʷe

Cognates

Eng five, Gk πέντε

pslà.

to cut something-dat into something-acc [e.g. pieces, in two] with scissors

pslù. (with outer partitive) scissors; a kind of steel used for making high-quality scissors

Etymology

NLem pslU‑a
LMLem psalì‑yr
Koi ψαλί‑ς, of unknown origin

psràb.

to father a child-acc;
dat: to conceive a child-acc

psrèb. father of someone-acc
psrìb. mother of someone-acc (rare)
psrÌb. child (son, daughter) of a father-nom and a mother-dat

Connotations

Metaphoric use of ‘child’ for younger people who are not the speaker’s sons or daughters, either affectionate or patronising, has been common at least since Early New Lemizh.

Etymology

gender change of
NLem pser‑a
LMLem, MLem pyser‑yr ‘someone’s child, son’
OLem pyser‑
PLem *paser‑ ‘father’
PIE *ph̥₂tér‑s

Cognates

Eng father, Gk πατήρ

jà.

relative pronoun type I level n−5: see unit 6, Relative pronouns

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem j‑a, formed after the Ghean relative pronouns
a f‑a s‑a sh‑a x‑a / fˇ‑a sˇ‑a shˇ‑a xˇ‑a
/a ɸa s̟a ʃa χa / βa z̟a ʒa ʁa/

jàx.

to move something-acc somewhere-dat etc., also non-sending; a body part-acc;
self-transporting: to move (a distance), to go somewhere ditto by train etc.-ins

jìrx. to put something-acc somewhere ditto; self-transporting: to arrive;
jèrx. self-transporting: to leave, depart

jyxhlà. to salt something-dat
jyxsràx. to sugar something-dat
etc.

jixdwàw. to bottle something-acc
etc.

Etymology

gender change of
NLem, LMLem, MLem j‑a
OLem j‑
PLem *j‑, root present of
PIE *h₁ei̯‑

Gender change occurred to avoid homophony with the pronoun jà., as pronouns referring to verbs were becoming more common during the last centuries.

Cognates

Gk εἶμι, Lat

jàs.

to make 4096 individuals

Connotations

The number 1000 has traditionally been seen as unlucky, attested from Old Lemizh. Fortunately, it is no longer a round number (1000dec = 3E8hex) and can easily be avoided.

Etymology

NLem jesl‑a
LMLem, MLem jesl‑yl
OLem jesl‑ ‘thousand’
PLem *gjesl‑
PIE *g̑ʰés‑l‑os lit. ‘a hand full (of corn?)’, l-stem noun of
  PIE *g̑ʰes‑ ‘grip’

Following the example of skmà., the numeric value of this word was adapted to the Ghean hexadecimal system in Middle Lemizh.

Cognates

Eng kilo- (via Gk χίλιοι ‘thousand’), probably Lat mille (< PIE *sm̥‑g̑ʰésl‑os ‘one thousand’)

jnà.

to make every, all, the whole (relative weight 1; see unit 7, Weighting numerals – usually with partitive bracket; see unit 8, Cardinal numerals), the Universe

Connotations

This word has pejorative connotations when used with certain words (mainly flat things, but also faces), dating from Middle Lemizh:

This list is far from complete.

The meaning ‘Universe’ is probably influenced by the unrelated but similar sounding xnàr. ‘land, (inhabited) world’.

Etymology

irregular development of
NLem can‑a ‘complete, all’
LMLem, MLem can‑yr
OLem shand‑ ‘win’
PLem *sand‑ ‘succeed’, root aorist of
PIE *seh₂dʰ‑

The idiosyncratic development from NLem c to modern j could be a contamination from the neighbouring xpàj.. (It also avoids confusion with the near-antonym crà..)

See Ràbv. for information on Ghean weighting numerals.

Cognates

Gk ἰθῡ́ς ‘straight, fair’, Ved sídhyati ‘succeed’

jsrà.

to make bile

jsrè. liver

Etymology

NLem jsar‑a
LMLem, MLem jixwar‑yr
OLem jixwar‑
PLem *jexwar‑ ‘liver’
PIE *i̯ékʷr̥

Cognates

Gk ἧπαρ ‘liver’, Lat iecur ‘liver’

cà.

relative pronoun type I level n−4: see unit 6, Relative pronouns

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem c‑a, formed after the Ghean relative pronouns
a f‑a s‑a sh‑a x‑a / fˇ‑a sˇ‑a shˇ‑a xˇ‑a
/a ɸa s̟a ʃa χa / βa z̟a ʒa ʁa/

càwb.

to make hardly any(thing) (relative weight 1⁄8; see unit 7, Weighting numerals – usually with partitive bracket; see unit 8, Cardinal numerals)

Connotations

The Middle and Old Lemizh sense of ‘negligible, trivial, not worth mentioning’ is still palpable today.

Etymology

NLem cambr‑a
LMLem cambr‑yr
MLem cambr‑yr ‘negligible’
OLem zhambr‑
PLem *dzambr‑ ‘few, little’, r-stem adjective of
PIE *dʰebʰ‑ ‘reduce’

See Ràbv. for information on Ghean weighting numerals.

Cognates

Ved dabhnóti ‘deceive’, Lv dâbt ‘strike, beat’

crà.

to make few, little, a bit (relative weight 1⁄4; see unit 7, Weighting numerals – usually with partitive bracket; see unit 8, Cardinal numerals)

Etymology

gender change of
NLem crumbw‑a
LMLem crumbw‑yr, contamination of
MLem srumbw‑yr ‘few, little’
OLem srumbw‑
PLem *tsrumbw‑ ‘trifle’, u-stem adjective of
PIE *dʰreu̯bʰ‑ ‘break’ [intr.], crumble’
 —with—
MLem cambr‑yr ‘negligible’
OLem zhambr‑
PLem *dzambr‑ ‘few, little’, r-stem adjective of
PIE *dʰebʰ‑ ‘reduce’

See Ràbv. for information on Ghean weighting numerals.

Cognates

Gk θρύπτω ‘crush, grind’

cnàk.

self-transporting: to (actively) swim somewhere-dat etc.

Connotations

In Old Lemizh, this verb apparently could also mean ‘drown’; and there is a classical if gruesome story about a man drowning after his lower legs were bitten off by a large fish. From Middle Lemizh onwards, swimming is mosty positively connoted, as seen in metaphors where it means ‘escape, get out of harm’s way’.

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem cank‑a
OLem shank‑ ‘swim through’
PLem *sanx‑ ‘swim, bathe’, root present of
PIE *(s)neh₂‑

Cognates

Eng navy (via Lat nāvis ‘ship’)

cnàw.

to make children (human or other living beings before puberty)

This word is not used to express ‘someone’s child’; see psràb. ‘father’ and mesà. ‘give birth’.

Etymology

NLem cUnw‑a
LMLem, MLem cUnw‑yr
OLem shünw‑ ‘(young) child’
PLem *sūnw‑ ‘son’
PIE *suh₁nú‑s

Cognates

Eng son, OCS synŭ ‘son’

cmàbv.

to hurt someone-dat

Connotations

In Modern Lemizh, this verb is also used to express hurting someone verbally and colloquially often just means ‘annoy, get on someone’s nerves’.

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem cambw‑a
OLem zhambw‑
PLem *dzambw‑ ‘hit, smash (?)’, root present of
PIE *dʰembʰ‑

Cognates

Ved dambháyati ‘smashes, destroys’

zà.

relative pronoun type I level n−3: see unit 6, Relative pronouns

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem z‑a, formed after the Ghean relative pronouns
a f‑a s‑a sh‑a x‑a / fˇ‑a sˇ‑a shˇ‑a xˇ‑a
/a ɸa s̟a ʃa χa / βa z̟a ʒa ʁa/

zaraqàht.

to make Zarathustra (an ancient philosopher and poet)

Etymology

NLem zaraquhtr‑a, academic loan of
OLem zarathushtr‑, from an Asian language

Cognates

To judge from context, Av Zaraθuštra seems to be related.

znàg.

to deform, bend, twist something-dat into something-acc

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem zing‑a, probably dialect borrowing of
OLem dhing‑
PLem *dzing‑ ‘knead, form’, root present of
PIE *dʰei̯g̑ʰ‑

Cognates

Eng dough, Lat fingō ‘to form’

zdàs.

to seat someone-acc somewhere-dat etc.;
self-transporting: to sit down, perfect: to sit somewhere ditto;
acc, perfect: to float, to be afloat in water etc.-nom (or agentive caus)

zdòrs. a seat

zdasgwìlt. to be capable of floating

Etymology

postradix from perfect of
NLem, LMLem, MLem zd‑a
OLem zd‑ ‘sit’
PLem *zd‑, root aorist of
PIE *sed‑ ‘sit down’

The secondary meaning ‘float’ was generalised from the earlier development of nenà. ‘run’ > also ‘float quickly’.

Cognates

Eng sit, Lat sedeō

zvrà.

to be friends with someone-dat; friendship

zvrè. friend

Connotations

Calling someone a friend is not to be taken lightly. Someone you just correspond with via a social platform is not a friend.

Etymology

NLem zvor‑a
LMLem, MLem swisor‑yr ‘sibling’
OLem swisor‑
PLem *swesor‑ ‘sister’
PIE *su̯ésor‑s

Cognates

Eng sister, Lat soror

và.

relative pronoun type I level n−2: see unit 6, Relative pronouns

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem v‑a, formed after the Ghean relative pronouns
a f‑a s‑a sh‑a x‑a / fˇ‑a sˇ‑a shˇ‑a xˇ‑a
/a ɸa s̟a ʃa χa / βa z̟a ʒa ʁa/

vàsk.

to err in something-dat (the thing made wrong) or -acc (the wrong thing);
an error, mistake

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem vesk‑a
OLem dhesk‑ ‘misplace > err’
PLem *dzesk‑ ‘put’, sk̑-present of
PIE *dʰeh₁‑ ‘put, make’

Cognates

Eng do, and funnily thesis (via Gk θέσις ‘placement, arrangement’) and Lat crē‑dō ‘trust, believe’

vnà.

to burn [intr.]
agentive caus: to burn something-nom, to set fire to something-nom

vnè. a burning object
vnÌ. a/the fire

vnajnà. agentive caus: to burn down something-nom

Connotations

Fire is mythologically and poetically seen as female, which is the source of the ‘female’ (zero) poststem in Modern Lemizh. George Lakoff did not comment on this fact. (xÌf. ‘water’, by comparison, is male, as for some reason is sxnèz. ‘sun’.)

Etymology

gender change of
NLem vengw‑a
LMLem, MLem vengw‑yr ‘fire’
OLem dhengw‑ ‘make fire’
PLem *dzengw‑ ‘burn’ [tr.], Narten present of
PIE *dʰegʷʰ‑

The Old Lemizh meaning ‘make fire’, which gave rise to the inner accusative of MLem vengw‑yr ‘fire’, is literally still a correct translation, as the burning object ‘makes’ the fire in the sense of the Modern Lemizh plot.

Cognates

Lat foveō ‘(keep) warm, foster’, Ved dáhati ‘burn’ [tr.]

wà.

relative pronoun type I level n−1: see unit 6, Relative pronouns

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem w‑a, formed after the Ghean relative pronouns
a f‑a s‑a sh‑a x‑a / fˇ‑a sˇ‑a shˇ‑a xˇ‑a
/a ɸa s̟a ʃa χa / βa z̟a ʒa ʁa/

wàgw.

to make dogs

Connotations

Dogs are, of course, famous for wagging their tails.

Etymology

NLem wagw‑a
LMLem, MLem wagw‑yr, dialect borrowing of
OLem walgw‑
PLem *walgw‑
PIE *u̯ĺ̥kʷ‑os ‘wolf’

Cognates

Eng wolf, Gk λύκος ‘wolf’

wàcg.

to make black, to blacken (‘active’ black, as in black fur or varnish; compare lilbvnà.)

Etymology

NLem wargr‑a
LMLem, MLem wargr‑yr
OLem wargr‑
PLem *bwargr‑ ‘dark, black’, r-stem adjective of
PIE *bʰerg̑‑ ‘roast’

Most basic colour terms in Lemizh are r-stem Caland adjectives, perhaps motivated by the word for ‘red’.

Cognates

Ved bhr̥jjáti ‘roasts’, Lat fer(c)tum ‘a sacrificial cake’

wàcz.

to make rice

Etymology

NLem warzn‑a
LMLem warndz‑yr
MLem warndzi‑yr
OLem warndzi‑
PWald *várnji‑s, probably from Austroasiatic

Cognates

Eng rice, Ved vrīhi ‘rice’

wrà.

to make brown, to brown, to tan

wrìl. a tan

Etymology

NLem war‑a
LMLem, MLem war‑yr
OLem war‑ ‘glossy brown’
PLem *bwar‑ ‘shiny, glossy’, r-stem adjective of
PIE *bʰeh₂‑ ‘shine’

Most basic colour terms in Lemizh are r-stem Caland adjectives, perhaps motivated by the word for ‘red’.

Cognates

Gk φαίνω ‘show, bring to light’, Ger bohnern ‘polish’

wràdj.

to make necks, throats

Etymology

NLem wardz‑a ‘beard’
LMLem, MLem wardz‑yr
OLem wardz‑
PLem *bwardz‑
PIE *bʰárdʰ‑os

From Old Lemizh onwards, this word described a bristly, untidy beard, then an unshaven throat, whence the modern meaning.

Cognates

Eng beard, Lat barba ‘beard’

wnàd.

to split something-dat into something-acc [e.g. pieces, in two] with an axe

wnùd. (with outer partitive) axe

Connotations

The axe has traditionally been seen as a lowly and despicable tool, as attested from Old Lemizh. The Winged Axe, however, is held in great esteem.

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem wind‑a
OLem wind‑
PLem *bwind‑ ‘split’, nasal-infix present of
PIE *bʰei̯d‑

Cognates

Eng bite, fissure (via Lat findō ‘split’)

wzràf.

to rain

wzrèf. rain cloud
wzrÌf. the rain

Connotations

Unsurprisingly, rain is associated with weeping and thus sadness. Together with xnÌt. ‘wind’, which can stand for happiness because of its whistling, this gives us metaphors such as — wzrynfÒ xnÌntO. ‘with (wildly) mixed feelings’, attested from Early New Lemizh.

Gender change is motivated by the mythologically male gender of water and probably also by the final -f of xÌf. ‘water’.

Etymology

gender change of
NLem wzar‑a
LMLem, MLem wuzar‑yr
OLem wuzar‑
PLem *wozar‑ ‘water’ [inanimate]
PIE *u̯ódr̥, deverbal noun of
  PIE *u̯ed‑ ‘well, gush’

PIE also had an animate word for water, *h₂ép‑s; see xàf..

Cognates

Eng water, undulate (via Lat unda ‘wave’), Gk ὕδωρ

xà.

relative pronoun type II level n−5: see unit 6, Relative pronouns

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem x‑a, formed after the Ghean relative pronouns
a f‑a s‑a sh‑a x‑a / fˇ‑a sˇ‑a shˇ‑a xˇ‑a
/a ɸa s̟a ʃa χa / βa z̟a ʒa ʁa/

xalà.

to make apples

xalè. apple tree
xalÌ. apple

Connotations

Apple trees are supposed to always be on time in producing their fruit. Since Late Middle Lemizh, you can praise a punctual person by calling them an apple tree; and xalàR. or xalòR. is the end of summer.

Etymology

NLem xaOl‑a
LMLem xàÒl‑yr
MLem xayOOl‑yr
OLem xayöl‑
PLem *xawōl‑
PIE *h₂ébōl

Cognates

Eng apple, Avalon (via a Celtic language)

xàps.

to make weather

djUtxÌps. Jovian day, the Lemizh equivalent of Thursday (see appendix, Date)

Connotations

The name of the Indo-European sky god, equivalent to Jupiter/Zeus, has been used metonymically to refer to the weather since Old Lemizh. From Early New Lemizh times onwards, this word is used exclusively to describe the weather (both fair and rough). It is also found compounded in the name of a weekday.

Etymology

simplification and voicing assimilation (from the weekday) of
NLem djeps‑a
LMLem djèpys‑yr ‘Father Sky’
MLem djeipys‑yr, haplology of
OLem djeipysir‑
PLem *djēw‑paser‑, compound of
  PLem *djēw‑ ‘day’
PIE *di̯ḗu‑s ‘sky’
 —and—
  PLem *paser‑ ‘father’
PIE *ph̥₂tér‑s

The planet Jupiter, as well as the god, is called djeipysrÌd. in Modern Lemizh.

Cognates

Gk Ζεύς Πατήρ ‘Father Zeus’, Lat Jupiter

xàc.

to ride a horse etc.-dat (focusing on the horse being directed) or -acc (focusing on the horse moving)

xìc., xÌc. mount (animal/device used to ride on)

Connotations

As this word implies steering, it is unsuitable for translating phrases such as ‘ride a train’; use jàx. with an instrumental object instead. Also compare ràt. which means steering without (necessarily) mounting up.

Etymology

NLem xic‑a
LMLem xìc‑a
MLem xiic‑a ‘drive’
OLem xīzh‑
PLem *xīzh‑, i-reduplicated athematic present of
PIE *h₂eg̑‑

Cognates

Eng act (via Lat agō ‘drive’)

xàxs.

to rotate, turn something-acc (continuously), to roll something-acc somewhere-dat etc., also non-sending;
self-transporting: to rotate, to roll somewhere ditto;
(maths) the curl of a vector field-acc (curl F = ∇[mFn] ≡ ∇m Fn − ∇n Fm)

xùxs. (with outer partitive) axis, axle

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem xaxs‑a
OLem xaçs‑ ‘axis, axle’
PLem *xaçs‑
PIE *h₂ék̑s‑os

Cognates

Eng axle, axis (via Lat axis)

xàsk.

to search, to look for something-acc;
agentive acc: to hide from someone-nom

xÙlsk. to find something-dat

Connotations

Since Middle Lemizh, this verb connotes that the searched-for thing or person is actively hiding or concealing itself. Conversely, with agentive accusative it can express ‘hide from someone (who is searching for you)’, literally ‘have someone looking for you’.

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem xesk‑a
OLem xisk‑
PLem *xisk‑, sk̑-present of
PIE *h₂ei̯s‑

Cognates

Eng ask, Lat qu‑aerō ‘ask’

xàf.

to make water

Connotations

Water is mythologically and poetically seen as male, matching the non-zero poststem; vnÌ. ‘fire’, by contrast, is female.

Etymology

NLem xaf‑a
LMLem, MLem xaf‑yr
OLem xaf‑ ‘water, stream’
PLem *xaf‑ ‘water’ [animate], ‘stream’
PIE *h₂ép‑s

PIE also had an inanimate word for water, *u̯ódr̥; see wzràf..

Cognates

Ved ā́p ‘water’, Ir abhainn ‘river’

xrà.

to make a length unit, a length of 92.023 millimetres (see appendix, Units of measurement)

Etymology

NLem xer‑a, academic loan of
Koi χείρ ‘hand’
SHell *kheī́r
PIE *g̑ʰés‑or‑s, r-stem noun of
  PIE *g̑ʰes‑ ‘grip’

The name of the basic length unit was chosen for the width of a hand.

Cognates

Eng chiro‑practic (via Koi), TochB ṣar ‘hand’

xnà.

to make earthly

xnàr. the (surface of the) earth, the land, the inhabited/habitable world as opposed to the sky or mythological/religious places

djUtxnÌ. Terrestrial day, the Lemizh equivalent of Saturday (see appendix, Date)

Etymology

simplification and voicing assimilation (from the weekday), gender change of
NLem dznis‑a
LMLem dzingmès‑yr ‘Mother Earth’
MLem dzingmees‑yr, haplology of
OLem dzingmēsir‑
PLem *dzeng‑māser‑, compound of
  PLem *dzeng‑ ‘?’, Narten present of
PIE *dʰég̑ʰ‑
 —and—
  PLem *māser‑ ‘mother’
PIE *méh₂ter‑s

The first part of the PLem compound *dzeng‑māser‑ is the (verbal) root of PLem *dzeng‑om‑ ‘earth’ and is of unclear meaning.

The Earth as a planet among the others, as well as the goddess, is called djingmesrÌ. in Modern Lemizh.

Cognates

Eng humus (via Lat humus ‘ground, earth, soil’); Eng mother

xnàt.

acc (poetically self-transporting): to blow (only of wind)

xnÌt. wind, breeze
xnèt. wind (poetic, personifying)

Connotations

Wind is associated with whistling and thus happiness and joy, usually of a fierce kind; compare wzrÌf. ‘rain’. (Whereas in the literal sense, the word tends to mean a light wind or breeze; i.e. galeÌ. is used for significantly lower wind speeds than the English word ‘gale’.)

Etymology

NLem xont‑a ‘breeze’
LMLem, MLem xuxont‑ar ‘wind’
OLem xuhont‑
PLem *xuhont‑
PIE *h₂uh₁‑ónt‑s, root present active participle of
  PIE *h₂u̯eh₁‑ ‘blow’

Cognates

Eng wind, Lat ventus

xnrà.

to make a spouse’s sibling, to marry someone’s acc sibling

Etymology

NLem xnir‑a ‘wife’s brother’
LMLem, MLem jinxter‑yr ‘brother-in-law’s wife’
OLem jinxter‑
PLem *jenxter‑
PIE *h₁i̯énh₂ter‑s ‘husband’s brother’s wife’
 —merged with—
LMLem, MLem xner‑yr ‘man’
OLem xner‑
PLem *xner‑
PIE *h₂nér‑s

The PIE word meant specifically ‘husband’s brother’s wife’, but by OLem it could also mean ‘wife’s brother’s wife’.

Cognates

Lat ianitrīcēs ‘brothers’ wives’

xmàj.

djUtxmÌj. Uranian day, the Lemizh equivalent of Sunday (see appendix, Date)

Etymology

NLem xmun‑a
LMLem, MLem nefton‑yr ‘Nephew of the Waters’
OLem nifton‑
PLem *nefton‑
PIE *népton‑os

The planet Uranus is called niftnÌj. in Modern Lemizh. (See there for an explanation of the Uranus/Neptune confusion.)

Cognates

Lat Neptune, Ir Nechtan

xtà.

to make eight individuals

Connotations

Eight is the number of the Far North (possibly because of the eight stars of the Plough or Big Dipper, including Alcor) and other cold and icy places, such as frozen lakes and other bodies of water. This association can be traced back to Old Lemizh times.

In Late Middle Lemizh, the number also acquired an edgy quality. A possible explanation is that the number 8 looks like a sickle or scythe.

Etymology

NLem xtO‑a
LMLem xtÒ‑yl
MLem xtOU‑yl
OLem çtöü‑, inflected form of
PLem *oçtōw
PIE *ok̑tṓu̯

Cognates

Eng eight, Gk ὀκτώ

xpàj.

to make almost every, nearly all (relative weight 7⁄8; see unit 7, Weighting numerals – usually with partitive bracket; see unit 8, Cardinal numerals)

Etymology

gender change of
NLem xp‑a
LMLem, MLem xp‑yr
Ghe xp‑ə /χpə/

Gender change was triggered by the similar-sounding numeral xtà.. See Ràbv. for more on Ghean weighting numerals.

xwàx.

dat: to follow someone-nom in something-acc (intellectually or spiritually), agree with someone-nom on something-acc

Etymology

NLem, LMLem xwyx‑a
MLem xwyxU‑a ‘follow, pursue’
OLem xwyxü‑
PLem *xwaxū‑, e-reduplicated athematic present of
PIE *h₂u̯ei̯‑ ‘run’

Cognates

Hit huwāi ‘run’

xsrà.

djUtxsrÌ. Venerian day, the Lemizh equivalent of Friday (see appendix, Date)

Etymology

NLem xsor‑a
LMLem, MLem uxsor‑yr ‘Lady Love’
OLem huhsor‑
PLem *huh‑sor‑, feminine of
  PLem *huh‑ ‘be comfortable with, love’, root aorist of
PIE *h₁eu̯k‑ ‘get used to, learn’

The planet Venus, as well as the goddess, is called usrÌ. in Modern Lemizh.

Cognates

Ved ucyasi ‘[you] are used to’; the PLem feminine suffix is related to the second components of Eng sister and probably Lat uxor ‘wife’

hà.

relative pronoun type II level n−4: see unit 6, Relative pronouns

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem h‑a, formed after the Ghean relative pronouns
a f‑a s‑a sh‑a x‑a / fˇ‑a sˇ‑a shˇ‑a xˇ‑a
/a ɸa s̟a ʃa χa / βa z̟a ʒa ʁa/

habà.

to make Shabar (the capital of Lemaria)

Connotations

There is of course an elaboate founding myth dating back to Late Middle Lemizh times, which this space is too narrow to contain.

Etymology

NLem haba‑a
LMLem hàbà‑yr
MLem haebaa‑yr ‘Shabar (kingdom)’

The further etymology is doubtful; the word is possibly related to Ar سبأ, Heb שבא ‘Sheba’;
or else to a Proto-Turkic word meaning ‘low’ and OPers bāğ ‘garden, orchard’ (i.e. ‘lower vineyards’);
or maybe both.

hlà.

to make salt

This word refers to the substance, as opposed to the taste. àhp. ‘give something a salty taste’ is used for the latter purpose.

Etymology

NLem hel‑a
LMLem hèl‑yr
MLem heel‑yr
OLem shēl‑
PLem *sāl‑
PIE *séh₂l‑s

Cognates

Eng salt, Gk ἅλς

hràk.

to make gravel, pebbles

hrèk. ‘gravel-maker’, a legendary, ogre-like creature

Etymology

NLem hark‑a
LMLem, MLem hark‑yr
OLem shark‑
PWald *šárkh‑a
PIE *k̑órk‑eh₂

Cognates

Gk κρόκη ‘pebble’, Eng sugar (see also srÌx. ‘sugar’)

hhà.

to make a ‘shh’ sound, to go ‘shh’

hh: shh!

Etymology

Variants of ‘sh’ and ‘s’ are used in many languages to request silence.

sà.

relative pronoun type II level n−3: see unit 6, Relative pronouns

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem s‑a, formed after the Ghean relative pronouns
a f‑a s‑a sh‑a x‑a / fˇ‑a sˇ‑a shˇ‑a xˇ‑a
/a ɸa s̟a ʃa χa / βa z̟a ʒa ʁa/

selà.

to make an angle unit, an angle of 28′ 7.5″ (see appendix, Units of measurement)

Etymology

gender change of
NLem selen‑a, academic loan of
Koi Σελήν‑η ‘moon (goddess), Selene’, from
  Koi σέλα‑ς ‘light, ray, spark’
SHell *swéla‑s
PIE *su̯el‑ ‘smoulder, burn’

The moon has an apparent diameter of about an angle unit. Gender change occurred because the moon is mythologically and poetically seen as female (in Lemizh as well as in Greek).

Cognates

Eng sultry, Lit svįlù ‘smoulder’

sràx.

to make sugar

Etymology

NLem sarx‑a
LMLem, MLem sarx‑yr
OTroy σαρχ‑α /ˈsarxa/
SHell *sárkh‑ā
PWald *šárkh‑a ‘gravel’
PIE *k̑órk‑eh₂

Cognates

Eng sugar, Gk κρόκη ‘pebble’ (see also hrÌk. ‘gravel, pebble’)

sràq.

to make queues;
dat: to queue, to form a queue

srÌq. a queue
srìq. a queuing person / queuing people

nà srÙlqi. to jump the queue

Etymology

NLem sreq‑a
Br sreþ ‘row, series’
PCelt *sritā‑, of unknown origin

Cognates

Gael sreath ‘row, queue’

snàw.

to snow

snèw. snow cloud
snÌw. the snow

Etymology

NLem sningw‑a
LMLem, MLem snengw‑yr ‘snow cloud’
OLem sningw‑ ‘snow’
PLem *sningw‑
PIE *snígʷʰ‑os, deverbal noun of
  PIE *snei̯gʷʰ‑

Cognates

Eng snow, Lat nix

skràp.

to divide, break, split something-dat into something-acc [e.g. in two];
dat: to break, split

skrÌp. part, scrap, fragment

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem skarp‑a
OLem skarp‑
PLem *skarf‑ ‘divide, separate’, root present of
PIE *skerh₃‑

Cognates

Lit skiriù ‘divide, separate, distinguish’

According to the Lexikon der indogermanischen Verben, this PIE verb has to be separated from *sker‑ ‘cut’ > Eng shear; PIE *skreb‑ ‘scrape’ > Eng scrap, scrape is also unrelated.

skmà.

to make 256 individuals

Etymology

NLem skam‑a
LMLem, MLem tkam‑yl
OLem tkamt‑ ‘hundred’, inflected form of
PLem *tkamtom
PIE *dk̑m̥tóm

The numeric value of this word was adapted to the Ghean hexadecimal system in Middle Lemizh.

Cognates

Eng hundred, Lat centum

stnàg.

self-transporting (nom for the hobbling action, acc for walking in a hobbling fashion): to hobble, limp, totter somewhere-dat etc.

Connotations

This verb is somewhat less negative than the translations given above; it can just mean ‘walk in an awkward fashion’.

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem skeng‑a
OLem skeng‑
PLem *skeng‑, Narten present of
PIE *skeng‑

Cognates

Ger hinken, Gk σκάζω

stnàt.

to make sparrows (also a constellation in the region of Camelopardalis’, the Giraffe’s, head)

Connotations

In modern usage, this word is also loosely applied to other small birds.

Etymology

NLem skont‑a
LMLem, MLem skont‑yr
OLem skont‑
PLem *skont‑ ‘little bird, sparrow’
PIE *skₔk‑ónt‑s ‘jumping’, Narten present active participle of
  PIE *skek‑ ‘move quickly, jump’

Cognates

Ger ge‑schehen ‘happen’, Eng chic (via Fr chic and Ger schick ‘elegant’)

swàh.

to make six individuals

Etymology

NLem sweh‑a
LMLem, MLem sweh‑yl
OLem swesh‑, inflected form of
PLem *sweshs
PIE *su̯ék̑s

Cognates

Eng six, Gk ἕξ

sxnàz.

to shine (only of the sun)

sxnèz. sun
sxnÌz. sunlight, sunshine; sunbeam, sunray

sxnyzrÌ. sunbeam, sunray

Connotations

The sun is mythologically and poetically seen as the male and strong counterpart of the moon, as in most Indo-European languages. This is the source of the ‘male’ (non-zero) poststem in Modern Lemizh.

Etymology

gender change of
NLem sxun‑a
LMLem, MLem sxun‑ar
OLem sxun‑
PLem *sxun‑, zero grade of
PIE *sh₂u̯én‑s, genitive/weak stem of
  PIE *séh₂u̯l̥

Cognates

Eng sun (generalised weak stem), Lat sōl (generalised strong stem)

qà.

relative pronoun type II level n−2: see unit 6, Relative pronouns

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem q‑a, formed after the Ghean relative pronouns
a f‑a s‑a sh‑a x‑a / fˇ‑a sˇ‑a shˇ‑a xˇ‑a
/a ɸa s̟a ʃa χa / βa z̟a ʒa ʁa/

qàc.

to make a temperature unit, a temperature of 1.138 kelvins (see appendix, Units of measurement)

Etymology

NLem qerm‑a, academic loan of
Koi θερμ‑ός ‘warm’
SHell *qherm‑ós
PIE *gʷʰer‑m‑ós, m-stem noun of
  PIE *gʷʰer‑ ‘get warm’

Cognates

Eng thermo-meter (via Gk θερμ‑ός), but perhaps not warm

qàxk.

self-transporting: to fly somewhere-dat etc.;
nom: to beat one’s wings, turn one’s propeller or rotor, etc.

Connotations

The sense of ‘beating one’s wings’, attested from Old Lemizh, typically implies doing so effectively, powerfully (as opposed to, say, fluttering feebly).

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem qexk‑a
OLem thexk‑
PLem *sexk‑, intensive of
PIE *skek‑ ‘move quickly, jump’

Cognates

Ger ge‑schehen ‘happen’, Eng chic (via Fr chic and Ger schick ‘elegant’)

qàf.

to make seven individuals

‘make seven’, a version of an old language game for seven players, focusing on abstract thought. Other versions of this game are for four, five or ten players, and named accordingly. The cover term for the game is dmàj. ‘fill (up), make full’.

Etymology

NLem qif‑a
LMLem, MLem qif‑yl
OLem thift‑, inflected form of
PLem *seftam
PIE *septḿ̥

Cognates

Eng seven, Gk ἑπτά

fà.

relative pronoun type II level n−1: see unit 6, Relative pronouns

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem f‑a, formed after the Ghean relative pronouns
a f‑a s‑a sh‑a x‑a / fˇ‑a sˇ‑a shˇ‑a xˇ‑a
/a ɸa s̟a ʃa χa / βa z̟a ʒa ʁa/

fàps.

djUtfÌps. Neptunian day, the Lemizh equivalent of New Year’s Eve (see appendix, Date)
djUtfÙlps. lit. ‘the [four] purposes of the Neptunian day / of New Year’s Eve’, referring to food, gifts, charity, and the return of the sun

psrèb fÌpse. Midwinter God (roughly corresponding to Father Christmas, Santa Claus)

Connotations

Children generally call the Midwinter God psrèb fÌpse.. His formal (scholarly, religious) name is fOpysrÌf. (as is the name of the planet Neptune in Modern Lemizh).

New Year’s Eve, and the associated festivities, have been called that since Late Middle Lemizh. From Early New Lemizh times onwards, a number of parallels to Father Christmas have sprung up in popular belief – e.g., the Midwinter God is said to find out whether children have been naughty or nice, and brings presents only to the good ones. His sledge, though, is drawn by four porpoises swimming through the air.

Etymology

NLem fOps‑a
LMLem fÒpys‑yr ‘Father Midwinter’
MLem fOOpys‑yr, haplology of
OLem föpysir‑
PLem *foɦ‑paser‑, compound of
  PLem *foɦ‑ ‘?’, Narten present of
PIE *h₃eg‑
 —and—
  PLem *paser‑ ‘father’
PIE *ph̥₂tér‑s

The first part of the compound is based on a root of unknown meaning.

Cognates

Eng father

fàw.

to make points / an area far (away) from something-nom (see unit 12, Temporal and spatial verbs)

Connotations

See the connotations section of ràc for some context on gender change in spatial verbs.

Etymology

gender change of
NLem fo‑a, inflected form of
LMLem, MLem afo ‘from’
OLem afo
PLem *afo
PIE *apo

Gender change occurred to avoid homophony with the pronoun fà..

Cognates

Eng of, off, Lat ab ‘from’; unrelated to Eng far, even in non-rhotic dialects

fisà.

to make pears

fisè. pear tree
fisÌ. pear

Etymology

NLem fis‑a
LMLem, MLem fis‑yr
OLem fis‑
PLem *afis‑
PIE *h̥́₂pis‑om, probably from a Mediterranean substrate language

No postradix was formed — expected would be ModLem **fàs. — likely for rhythmic analogy with xalà. ‘make apples’.

Cognates

Eng pear

fOpysràf.

to make the Midwinter God (roughly corresponding to Father Christmas, Santa Claus);
to make the planet Neptune

Connotations

The Midwinter God has been said to be a bringer of gifts, and live in the Far North, since Old Lemizh times.

This is the formal (scholarly, religious) term. Children generally call him psrèb fÌpse.. (See there for information on popular beliefs, and on the associated weekday.)

Etymology

gender change of
NLem fOpysir‑a, academic loan of
OLem föpysir‑ ‘Father Midwinter’
PLem *foɦ‑paser‑, compound of
  PLem *foɦ‑ ‘?’, Narten present of
PIE *h₃eg‑
 —and—
  PLem *paser‑ ‘father’
PIE *ph̥₂tér‑s

The first part of the compound is based on a root of unknown meaning.

Cognates

Eng father

flàc.

to make blue, to blue

flàRc. ‘blue hour’, especially regarding the colours, sounds and smells associated with it

Etymology

NLem flOr‑a
LMLem, MLem fler‑yr
OLem fler‑
PLem *pfler‑ ‘grey, blue(?)’, r-stem adjective of
PIE *bʰleh₁‑ ‘shine, flash’

Most basic colour terms in Lemizh are r-stem Caland adjectives, perhaps motivated by the word for ‘red’. The similarity with Eng flash is purely incidental.

Cognates

Eng blue, Lat flāvus ‘yellow’

frà.

to make twelve individuals

Etymology

NLem fr‑a
LMLem, MLem fr‑yl
Ghe fʳ‑i /ʙ̥ɪ/

fràg.

djUtfrÌg. Martian day, the Lemizh equivalent of Tuesday (see appendix, Date)

Etymology

NLem frOgr‑a
LMLem frèkur‑yr ‘Brother (in) War’
MLem freekur‑yr
OLem frēkur‑
PLem *pfrā‑kor‑, compound of
  PLem *pfrā‑ ‘brother’, suffixless from of
PIE *bʰréh₂ter‑s
 —and—
  PLem *kor‑ ‘war’
PIE *kór‑os

The planet Mars, as well as the god, is called frekrÌf. in Modern Lemizh.

Cognates

Eng brother; Ger Heer ‘army’

fragmà.

to make an electric resistance unit, a resistance of 1.472 ohms (see appendix, Units of measurement)

Etymology

shortened form, academic loan of
Koi φράγμα ‘dam, barrier’
  Koi φράσσω ‘fence in, fortify’, of unknown origin

Most electric units use the electricity is water metaphor, which relates electric resistance to a water barrier, such as a dam.

Cognates

Eng dia‑phragm

fràw.

self-transporting: to amble, stroll, walk without a specific aim

Etymology

NLem frOm‑a
LMLem frèm‑a
MLem freem‑a ‘move aimlessly’
OLem frēm‑
PLem *pfrēm‑ ‘stray, go wrong’, Narten present of
PIE *bʰremH‑ ‘be unsteady, restless’

Cognates

Ved bhrámasi ‘flicker, flare’

fràs.

to make an uncle or aunt of someone-nom (related by blood)

frès. nephew, niece of someone-acc

Etymology

NLem frOs‑a
LMLem frès‑yr ‘uncle (father’s brother)’
MLem frees‑yr, haplology of
OLem frēsir‑
PLem *pfrāser‑ ‘nephew, grandson (?)’
PIE *bʰréh₂ter‑s ‘brother’

Cognates

Eng brother

frekràf.

to make the god or the planet Mars/Ares

Etymology

gender change of
NLem frekur‑a, academic loan of
OLem frēkur‑ ‘Brother (in) War’
PLem *pfrā‑kor‑, compound of
  PLem *pfrā‑ ‘brother’, suffixless from of
PIE *bʰréh₂ter‑s
 —and—
  PLem *kor‑ ‘war’
PIE *kór‑os

See fràg. for the associated weekday.

Cognates

Eng brother; Ger Heer ‘army’

ftnàk.

to make eagles (also the constellation Aquila)

Etymology

NLem ftank‑a
LMLem, MLem ptank‑yr ‘bird of prey’
OLem ptank‑ ‘fly’
PLem *ptanx‑ ‘fly (up)’, nasal-infix present of
PIE *peth₂‑

Cognates

Eng feather, Gk πέτομαι ‘fly’

Last significant change to this page: 26 Aug 2015
Last significant change to the database: 24 Jul 2017

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