lemÌc. Lemizh grammar and dictionary

Complete Lemizh / English dictionary with 524 lemmata

à.

relative pronoun type II level n: see unit 6, Relative pronouns

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem a, formed after the Ghean relative pronouns
a f‑a s‑a sh‑a x‑a / fˇ‑a sˇ‑a shˇ‑a xˇ‑a
/a ɸa s̟a ʃa χa / βa z̟a ʒa ʁa/

aràc.

to make a pressure unit, a pressure of 4.759 pascals (see appendix, Units of measurement)

Etymology

gender change of
NLem aer‑a, academic loan of
Koi ἀήρ ‘air, wind’
SHell *awḗr
PIE *h₂u̯éh₁‑r, r-stem noun of
  PIE *h₂u̯eh₁‑ ‘blow’

Like the momentum unit, this word was probably masculinised to show some vigour.

Cognates

Eng wi‑nd, Ger wehen ‘blow (wind)’

argà.

to make rivers

Etymology

NLem arg‑a
LMLem, MLem arg‑ar
OLem arg‑ ‘flow, drip’
PLem *arg‑, root present of
PIE *reg̑‑

Expected would be ModLem **ràg., but poststem formation was inhibited by the fact that rivers are mythologically female, as in other PIE languages.

Cognates

Ice raki ‘moisture, dampness’

antà.

technically: to make glacial lakes, informally: to make large lakes

Etymology

academic back formation from
antÌ àrxy. Ìx antàry. antarÌx. ‘Attersee’
Dan Ανταροχ

antaràx.

to make Attersee (a glacial lake in Danubia)

Etymology

Dan Ανταροχ

agmà.

to make/build statues

Usage notes

Unsurprisingly, statues are commonly used as metaphors for slowness and immobility, as in lìl agmÌem. ‘be still like a statue’.

Etymology

NLem agm‑a
LMLem àgalma‑yr ‘statue, bust’
Koi ἄγαλμα
Koi ἀγάλλομαι ‘be proud, exult in’, of unknown origin

àd.

to give someone/something an identity (see unit 16, wh-questions)

Etymology

NLem yd‑a
LMLem, MLem yd‑yr
Ghe ətˇ‑ə /ədə/

àb.

to make fourteen individuals

Etymology

NLem ob‑a
LMLem, MLem ob‑yl
Ghe opˇ‑i /ɔbɪ/

àk.

to make air

Etymology

NLem akn‑a
LMLem, MLem akn‑yr
Ghe aqⁿ‑ə /aqⁿə/

àkh.

to make/build ships

Etymology

NLem akx‑a
LMLem, MLem akx‑yr
Ghe aqx‑ə /aqχə/

àtx.

to make sour, acidic, to give a sour taste to something-dat, to make an acid

ètx. hydrogen

Usage notes

If not qualified with a weakening numeral, this word usually describes something as having a really sour taste (up to and including strong acids in the chemical sense). This is attested from Early New Lemizh.

Etymology

NLem Otx‑a
LMLem, MLem Otxx‑yr
Ghe ötxx‑ə /œtχχə/

àpq.

to make gold

Usage notes

Gold is highly valued among artists, who have frequently been gold-plating all kinds of their work since Early New Lemizh times. This leaves the rest of the Lemizh population at a loss. In Modern Lemizh, Ìpq. is used metonymically to denote such gilded works.

Etymology

NLem apf‑a
LMLem, MLem aptf‑yr
Ghe aptf‑ə /aptɸə/

àc.

to make thirteen individuals

Etymology

NLem yc‑a
LMLem, MLem yc‑yl
Ghe əshˡ‑i /əʒɪ/

acRàd.

to do duty as an admiral, general

acRèd. admiral, general

Usage notes

Based on the idea that officers are not always promoted for their capability, acRèd. has been used to refer to people of other professions who are promoted for dubious reasons since Early New Lemizh (and probably earlier, behind closed doors).

Etymology

NLem acoRd‑a
LMLem àcòRdd‑yr
MLem aacouRdd‑yr
Ghe āshˇoəxᴛᴛˇ‑ə /ʌːʒɔ͜əʁd̠d̠ə/

àzw.

to make erratic, random

Usage notes

This word is a common compound modifier, as exemplified by xacgàzw. ‘shine erratically = twinkle’ and RacjÌzw. ‘erratically coloured = speckled’.

Etymology

NLem eRwR‑a
LMLem, MLem eRwR‑yr
Ghe exfxˇ‑ə /ɛʁβʁə/

àv.

to feed someone-dat with something-acc;
self-receiving: to eat something-acc, to feed on something-acc

ilvnà. to vomit

àv djèRtaR. to have breakfast
àv djìRtaR. to have dinner

Usage notes

While being the standard word for eating, àv. has a tendency to mean ‘gobble, eat noisily’. Avoid it when talking, for example, about a state banquet; àqsk. is better suited for that purpose. Unless of course you want to say what the banquet was really like.

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem ev‑a
OLem hedh‑
PLem *hedh‑, Narten present of
PIE *h₁ed‑

doublet of àvd.

Cognates

Eng eat, Lat edō ‘eat’

àvd.

to host someone-dat

Etymology

NLem evdj‑a
LMLem, MLem eqdj‑ar
OLem hethdj‑
PLem *hethdj‑
PIE *h₁éd‑ti‑s ‘banquet’, abstract noun of
  PIE *h₁ed‑ ‘eat’

doublet of àv.

Cognates

Eng eat, Lat edō ‘eat’

àwd.

to make tables

Etymology

NLem ewd‑a
LMLem èbd‑yr
MLem eObd‑yr
Ghe eöpᴛʱ‑ə /ɛ͜œbʱd̠ʱə/

àx.

to make male(s), to make men (males; symbol: ↯)

Etymology

NLem axr‑a
LMLem, MLem axr‑yr
OLem axr‑
PLem *axr‑, unclear derivation of
  PLem *xner‑ ‘man’
PIE *h₂nér‑s

Cognates

Gk ἀνήρ ‘man’, Ir neart ‘strength’

axileàs.

to make Achilles (a hero of the Troyan War)

Etymology

academic loan of
Koi Ἀχιλλεύ‑ς, probably meaning ‘grief of the people’

àxk.

djUtÌxk. Mercurian day, the Lemizh equivalent of Wednesday (symbol: ; see appendix, Date)

Usage notes

The planet Mercury, as well as the god, is called OnkrÌt. in Modern Lemizh.

Etymology

NLem Onkr‑a
LMLem Ònkyrt‑ar ‘Lone Runner (the God of trade)’
MLem OOnkyrt‑ar
OLem hönkyrt‑
PLem *hōn‑kars‑, compound of
  PLem *hōn‑ ‘single, alone’
PIE *h₁ói̯‑n‑os ‘one, single’, adjectival form of
  PIE *h₁ei̯ ‘he, she, it’
 —and—
  PLem *kars‑ ‘run’, root present of
PIE *k̑ers‑

The sound shift from stem-final *s to t in OLem is unexplained; this development is only expected in verbs and adjectives, not in nouns.

Cognates

Eng one; Gk Ἐπί‑κουρος (Epicurus) ‘ally’ (lit. ‘one running with [someone]’), Lat currō ‘run’

àhp.

to make salty, to give a salty taste to something-dat

This word refers to the taste, as opposed to the substance salt. hlà. ‘make salt’ is used for the latter purpose.

èhp. sodium

Etymology

NLem yhph‑a
LMLem, MLem yhph‑yr
Ghe əshpshⁿ‑ə /əʃpʃə/

àhw.

to make horses (also chess knights)

Usage notes

Since Middle Lemizh times this word emphasises the nobility the Lemizh have traditionally seen in this animal; i.e. it connotes ‘steed’ rather than ‘nag’.

Etymology

NLem ehw‑a
LMLem, MLem ehw‑yr
OLem heshw‑
PLem *heshw‑
PIE *h₁ék̑u̯‑os

doublet of ehwà.

Cognates

Lat equus ‘horse’, Gk ἵππος ‘horse’

àst.

to make the most, to make the largest amount (often with partitive; often compounded; see unit 11, Verbs of comparison and Superlative)

Usage notes

The absence of causes for most things has been a common theme in Lemizh literature and other arts since Late Middle Lemizh times, well before quantum physics was devloped. Compare tàcd..

Etymology

NLem, LMLem ist‑a
MLem istu‑a, back formation of
OLem superlative suffix ‑istu‑
PLem *‑isto‑
PIE *‑isto‑s

Cognates

Eng superlative suffix ‑est, probably fir‑st

àsw.

to enjoy something-acc/dat

Usage notes

This word usually refers to enthusiastic and thorough enjoyment.

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem usw‑a
OLem husw‑ ‘enjoyable’
PLem *husw‑, u-stem adjective of
PIE *h₁u̯es‑ ‘good’

Cognates

Ved vásu- ‘good, magnificent’, OCS veselŭ ‘merry’

àsh.

to read (about) something-acc to someone-dat;
or non-sending, ins: something-nom about something-acc to someone-dat (see unit 14, Language related objects)

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem Osh‑a
Ghe össhⁿ‑a /œs̟ʃa/

àqsk.

to feed someone-dat (daintily) with something-acc;
self-receiving: to eat something-acc (daintily)

Usage notes

The standard word for eating is àv., which however has a tendency to mean ‘gobble, eat noisily’. Use àqsk. when this is undesirable.

Etymology

contamination of
NLem, LMLem, MLem isk‑a
Ghe isq‑a /ɪs̟qa/
 —with—
NLem, LMLem, MLem ev‑a
OLem hedh‑
PLem *hedh‑, Narten present of
PIE *h₁ed‑

àf.

to make points / an area up(wards), above (of) something-nom (see unit 12, Temporal and spatial verbs)

Etymology

NLem uf‑a, inflected form of
LMLem, MLem uf ‘above’
OLem uf, shortened form of
PLem *ufer
PIE *uper

Cognates

Eng over, Gk ὑπέρ ‘above, over’

àfx.

to make dense, to condense

Etymology

NLem ef‑xp‑a, clarifying compound of
  NLem ef‑a
LMLem ef‑yr
MLem efi‑yr, nominalisation of
OLem hefi ‘upon, near’
PLem *hefi
PIE *h₁epi
 —and—
  NLem xp‑a ‘5/6’
LMLem, MLem xp‑yr
Ghe xp‑ə /χpə/

Cognates

Gk ἐπί ‘upon, near’

eà.

to laugh (aloud) at someone-dat/psu

Etymology

NLem e‑a
LMLem è‑a
MLem ee‑a, verbalisation of
OLem hē! ‘ha!’
PLem *hā!
PIE *h₁eh₂!

Cognates

Eng (and many other languages) ha! (laughter)

eàfs.

to make uranium

Etymology

NLem eafst‑a
LMLem èàfst‑yr
MLem eiayfst‑yr ‘uranium, pitchblende (?)’
Ghe eiaəfst‑ə /ɛ͜ɪa͜əɸs̟tə/

elefà.

to make elephants

Etymology

NLem elefa‑a, academic loan of
Koi ἐλέφᾱ‑ς, probably from an Afro-Asiatic language

replaced the inherited LMLem elèfa‑yr > NLem **lew‑a, from the same source, which would have been homophonous with the word for ‘lion’

Cognates

Eng elephant

emblà.

to make a force unit, a force of 40.30 millinewtons (see appendix, Units of measurement)

Etymology

NLem embol‑a, academic loan of
Koi ἐμβολ‑ή ‘thrust, battering ram’, nominalisation of
  Koi ἐμβάλλ‑ω ‘throw in’
SHell *en‑q̌ĺ̥l‑ō, compound of
  SHell *en ‘in’
PIE *h₁en
 —and—
  SHell *q̌ĺ̥l‑ō ‘throw’, nasal-infix present of
PIE *gʷelh₁‑ ‘hit, throw’

Actually, this is a very low force for a battering ram.

Cognates

Eng embolism, ballistic (via Gk βάλλω ‘throw’)

etxàt.

to make silver

Usage notes

The word is used metonymically for metal-made works of art such as figurines or tableware, even if they are not made of silver.

Etymology

NLem etsat‑a
LMLem, MLem etst‑yr
Ghe etsᴛ‑ə /ɛts̟t̠ə/

epikuràs.

to make Epicurus (an Ancient Greek philosopher)

Etymology

academic loan of
Koi Ἐπίκουρ‑ος, meaning ‘ally’

ehwà.

to make unicorns

Etymology

NLem ehw‑a ‘horse’
LMLem, MLem ehw‑yr
OLem heshw‑
PLem *heshw‑
PIE *h₁ék̑u̯‑os

doublet of àhw.

This word replaced the bahuvrihi NLem karxn‑r‑U lit. ‘one-horn’; the regular ModLem outcome would have been homophonic with kÌcx. ‘horn’.

Cognates

Lat equus ‘horse’, Gk ἵππος ‘horse’

esfàs.

to hide something-acc, or self-transporting: somewhere-dat etc. (perfect: describing the state, otherwise the action)

Usage notes

This verb is only used for hiding things or people (including oneself), not for facts or feelings. This was different in Middle Lemizh.

Etymology

poststem from perfect of
NLem esf‑a
LMLem èsf‑a
MLem eisf‑a
Ghe eisf‑a /ɛ͜ɪs̟ɸa/

eqinà.

to make Ethiynic

eqinàr. the federation of Ethiyn in northeastern Europe

Etymology

Eth Eþījnu, of unknown origin

ylàs.

to make futile, vain, to do something-acc in vain

Etymology

NLem ylas‑a
Besk ɨlas /h‑/, of unknown origin

ytàs.

to make an electric inductance unit, an inductance of 1.940 henries (see appendix, Units of measurement)

Etymology

allegedly academic loan of the name of some Ἔττις, a moor where giants were supposed to dwell; to match the capacitance unit and the large value of this unit

The spelling with y was adopted because this was one of the few letters still available for unit symbols.

ytfà.

to make (it) night(time)

Usage notes

As the counterpart of the ‘male’ day, the word for the night kept its ‘female’ (i.e. zero) poststem.

Etymology

NLem ytf‑a
LMLem, MLem ytf‑yr
Ghe əᴛf‑ə /ət̠ɸə/

yphà.

to make (colour) orange

yphilkà. to make (colour) cerulean (blue-green, a colour between blue and cyan/turquoise)

Usage notes

While the Gheans applied the term əpshqⁿ‑ə only to a specific hue of orange, which they despised, the range of meaning was somewhat widened in Early New Lemizh. Modern Lemizh views the complete range between red and yellow as yphÌ.; and any negative connotations are obsolete.

Being the only ‘female’ of the basic spectral colour words (see the etymology section), orange is perceived as overwhelmingly girly.

Etymology

gender change of
NLem yphakn‑a
LMLem, MLem yphkn‑yr
Ghe əpshqⁿ‑ə /əpʃqⁿə/

Gender change was caused by simplification of yphilk-kÌ. ‘cerulean’ to yphil-kÌ..

yzàj.

to (com)press, squeeze something-dat into some shape-acc [e.g. flat]; to crush something-dat to something-acc [e.g. parts, dust];
dat: to contract; to crush to something-acc

The deforming and destroying meanings are distinguished by the acc object or – often simpler – by instead using a nominal verb expressing a shape, versus nominal verbs such as skràp. ‘split, turn into parts’, cnàxw. ‘turn into dust’, etc.

Etymology

poststem from plural of
NLem, LMLem, MLem yz‑a ‘crush’
Ghe əsˇ‑a /əz̟a/

The ‘plural’ poststem probably stems from the fact that crushing usually results in multiple fragments (yzÌj.).

ysrà.

to make goats

Etymology

NLem ysr‑a
LMLem Ìassr‑yr
MLem yyassr‑yr
Ghe ə̄asspʳ‑ə /ɯː͜ar̥r̥ʙə/

ià.

to love someone-acc/dat

Etymology

NLem i‑a
LMLem ì‑a
MLem ii‑a ‘ask for, strive’
OLem ī‑
PLem *ī‑, root present of
PIE *i̯eh₂‑

Cognates

Ved yā́mi ‘ask for’, Gk δίζημαι ‘seek’

iotà.

to make an energy unit, an energy of 3.708 millijoules (see appendix, Units of measurement)

nÌ iotìly. not the slightest amount, lit. ‘not a iotỳ’

Etymology

NLem iote‑a, academic loan of
Koi ἰότη‑ς ‘wish’, of unknown origin

The idea behind this unit is that the (potential, kinetic, etc.) energy contained in an object represents its ‘wish’ to perform work.

The phrase ‘not a iotỳ’ comes from the fact that this is a pretty small unit of energy.

igcàd.

to lead someone-dat (as a master)

igcèd. master; Lord (title of the monotheistic deity)

Usage notes

This term is used for higher ranks in a hierarchy than nàd., and/or more formally. Adherents of monotheism reserve it as a title for their god. (Funnily, the word can be traced to the Gheans, who had an atheistic religion.)

Etymology

NLem igjadl‑a
LMLem, MLem igjdl‑yr ‘lord’
Ghe iqᴛˡ‑ə /ɪɢˠd̠ˡə/

itràh.

to make nickel

Etymology

NLem itarh‑a
LMLem ìtàrh‑yr
MLem iitayrh‑yr ‘nickel (mineral?)’
Ghe ītaəpshʳ‑ə /iːta͜əʙr̠̥ə/

ihkà.

to shine at something-dat (only of the Moon)

ihkè. Moon; Luna, Selene (goddess) (symbol: ☾)
ihkÌ. moonlight, moonshine; moonbeam

sxnyrÌ. moonbeam

Usage notes

See the word for the Sun.

Etymology

NLem ihk‑a
LMLem, MLem ihk‑ar
Ghe ishq‑ə /ɪʃqə/

oàs.

to make an electric charge or flux unit, a charge/flux of 57.64 millicoulombs (see appendix, Units of measurement)

Etymology

academic loan of
Koi οἶ‑ς ‘sheep’
SHell *ówi‑s
PIE *h₂óu̯i‑s

A way of creating static electricity is to rub amber against sheep’s wool. As e (for Koi ἤλεκτρον ‘amber’) was already used as the symbol for the force unit, it was decided to name the charge unit for the sheep.

See also Oàs..

Cognates

Eng ewe, Lat ovis ‘sheep’

oRwxàf.

to make poodles

Poodles make a sound rather like this.

Etymology

NLem oRw‑xaf‑a, compound of
  NLem oRw‑a ‘hound’
LMLem, MLem oRw‑yr
Ghe oxfˇ‑ə /ɔʁβə/ ‘dog’, an onomatopoeia
 —and—
  NLem xaf‑a ‘water’
LMLem, MLem xaf‑yr
OLem xaf‑ ‘water, stream’
PLem *xaf‑ ‘water’ [animate], ‘stream’
PIE *h₂ép‑s

The poodle is named ‘water-hound’ for its qualities in waterfowl hunting. (Compare the English name, which is related to puddle.)

Cognates

Ved ā́p ‘water’, Ir abhainn ‘river’

oranutnà.

to make orangutans

Etymology

NLem oranutan‑a
< Malay orang hutan lit. ‘forest person’

It is not clear whether orang hutan referred to the ape, or whether this was a misunderstanding between Europeans and Malays. The term might actually have meant ‘forest people’ or ‘librarians’ (i.e. ‘free people’).

omàj.

to make eleven individuals

Usage notes

The number eleven is associated with a sense of ‘too much, more than one’s fill’, as seen in such phrases as omàj. ‘make eleven = do more than really necessary’ or làxt omÌjy. ‘want eleven = want more than one’s share’. This is often thought to be a remnant of the old decimal system (11 = more than 10), but has only been attested by Late Middle Lemizh times, about 700 years after the adoption of the Ghean hexadecimal numbers.

Etymology

poststem from plural of
NLem om‑a
LMLem òm‑yl
MLem oum‑yl
Ghe oəfʱ‑i /ɔ͜əmɪ/

osàsh.

to make poems

osàsh wàxy / sràby. to make poems about something-acc (object of wàx. / sràb.; see unit 14, Language related objects)

Etymology

NLem os‑Osh‑a ‘poem’, clarifying compound of
  NLem os‑a
Besk os /h‑/
PCelt *wā́t‑os, of unknown origin
 —and—
  NLem, LMLem, MLem Osh‑a ‘read’
Ghe össhⁿ‑a /œs̟ʃa/

oshàc.

to do duty as a sergeant

oshèc. sergeant

Etymology

poststem from singular of
NLem osh‑a
LMLem òyshs‑yr
MLem oayshs‑yr
Ghe oaəsshs‑ə /ɔa͜əs̟ʃs̟ə/

Oàs.

to make a magnetic charge or flux unit, a charge/flux of 84.82 milliwebers (see appendix, Units of measurement)

Etymology

named in analogy to the electric charge/flux unit oàs.

Onkràt.

to make the god or the planet Mercury/Hermes (symbol: )

Usage notes

See djeipysràd. for more information on Lemizh polytheism, and àxk. for the weekday associated with this god.

Etymology

NLem Onkyrt‑a, academic loan of
OLem hönkyrt‑ ‘Lone Runner (the God of trade)’
PLem *hōn‑kars‑, compound of
  PLem *hōn‑ ‘single, alone’
PIE *h₁ói̯‑n‑os ‘one, single’, adjectival form of
  PIE *h₁ei̯ ‘he, she, it’
 —and—
  PLem *kars‑ ‘run’, root present of
PIE *k̑ers‑

The sound shift from stem-final *s to t in OLem is unexplained; this development is only expected in verbs and adjectives, not in nouns.

Cognates

Eng one; Gk Ἐπί‑κουρος (Epicurus) ‘ally’ (lit. ‘one running with [someone]’), Lat currō ‘run’

Otà.

to make a (solar) year (see appendix, Date and Units of measurement for usage)

OteihkÌ. lunar year (see appendix, Moon calendar)

Etymology

NLem Ot‑a
LMLem Òytkt‑yr ‘year’
MLem OOytkt‑yr ‘saros (a time span of about 18 years)’
Ghe ȫətqᴛ‑ə /øː͜ətqt̠ə/

The meaning in LMLem is somewhat unclear, as jixar‑yr also seems to have meant ‘year’. It is possible that one of the two words was used for the Ghean lunar year and one for the native solar year.

udreà.

to make an electric flux density unit, a flux density of 6.807 coulombs per square metre (see appendix, Units of measurement)

Etymology

named in analogy to the magnetic flux density unit Udreà., following the example of oàs. and Oàs.

ujrà.

to roar

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem ujr‑a, an onomatopoeia

usrà.

to make the goddess or the planet Venus/Aphrodite (symbol: ⚲)

Usage notes

See djeipysràd. for more information on Lemizh polytheism, and xsrà. for the weekday associated with this goddess.

Etymology

NLem usor‑a, academic loan of
OLem huhsor‑ ‘Lady Love’
PLem *huh‑sor‑, feminine of
  PLem *huh‑ ‘be comfortable with, love’, root aorist of
PIE *h₁eu̯k‑ ‘get used to, learn’

Cognates

Ved ucyasi ‘[you] are used to’; the PLem feminine suffix is related to the second components of Eng sister and probably Lat uxor ‘wife’

Udreà.

to make a magnetic flux density unit, a flux density of 10.02 teslas (see appendix, Units of measurement)

Etymology

shortened form, academic loan of
Koi ὑδρεί‑ᾱ ‘irrigation, water supply’, abstract noun of
  Koi ὕδωρ ‘water’, contamination from plural, ‘voiceless’ initial of
SHell *wódr̥
PIE *u̯ódr̥ ‘water’ [inanimate], deverbal noun of
  PIE *u̯ed‑ ‘well, gush’

Like most electromagnetic units, Udreà. uses the electricity is water metaphor. Physicists were running out of letters for unit symbols, which explains the omission of initial x that would be expected here.

See also udreà..

là.

to do something-fact, to act;
fact: to happen

lè. source, sender; other case descriptors analogous

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem l‑a
Ghe ᴛˡ‑a /d̠ˡa/

làgc.

self-receiving, mainly dat: to go to rest, perfect: to rest;
agentive caus or nom: to put someone-dat to rest

Usage notes

Going to rest usually implies lying down (unless of course you are a parrot); but to primarily express the change of orientation as opposed to the goal of resting, we use constructions with spatial verbs (see unit 12, Orientation).

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem algj‑a ‘lay’
OLem alggh‑ ‘lie’
PLem *alggh‑, root aorist of
PIE *legʰ‑ ‘lie down’

Cognates

Eng lie (position), Ir luigh ‘lie’

làb.

to make flowers (small, herbaceous flowering plants)

Usage notes

lèb. ‘one producing flowers’ and lìb. ‘one turned into a flower’ are popular pet names becaus of the phonetical similarity with lèwb., lìwb. ‘girlfriend’.

Etymology

NLem leb‑a
LMLem lèb‑ar
MLem leeb‑ar ‘flower(ing plant)’
OLem lēb‑ ‘facinate, charm’
PLem *lewb‑ ‘confuse’, Narten present of
PIE *leu̯bʰ‑ ‘love; infatuate, confuse’

doublet of làwb.

Cognates

Eng love, Lat libet ‘it is pleasing’

làbv.

to make white, to make a light/pale colour (as in ‘to go white’), to whiten, to brighten up (referring to colour, not to light intensity)

lilbvjnà. to make (pure) white
lilbvnà. to make black, to blacken (non-white, ‘passive’ black, as in ‘blackened by age, dark/black night’; compare wàcg.)

lybvnÌs. fluorine

Etymology

NLem albw‑a
LMLem, MLem albw‑yr
OLem albw‑, dialect borrowing of
PLem *xalbw‑, o-stem adjective of
PIE *h₂elbʰ‑

Proto-Lemizh *xalbw‑ could also be a u-stem. The o-stem is assumed on semantic grounds.

Cognates

Eng elf, Lat albus ‘white’

làk.

self-transporting: to jump

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem lek‑a
OLem lek‑
PLem *lex‑ ‘move one’s limbs’, Narten present of
PIE *lek‑

Cognates

Lit lekiù ‘fly, run’

làt.

to make heavy

Etymology

NLem alt‑a
LMLem, MLem alt‑yr
OLem alt‑
PLem *als‑ ‘gather, pick up’, root present of
PIE *les‑

Cognates

Ger lesen ‘gather, read’, Lit lesù ‘pick (up)’

làj.

to make/build houses

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem lingj‑a
OLem lingj‑
PLem *lingj‑ ‘house, hive’, back formation of
  PLem *melidhlingj‑ ‘beehive’
PIE *melidlíg̑ʰ‑i‑eh₂ ‘bee’, nominalisation of
  PIE *mélid‑lei̯g̑ʰ‑ ‘lick honey’, compound of
  PIE *mélid ‘honey’
 —and—
  PIE *lei̯g̑ʰ‑ ‘lick’

Cognates

Eng lick, Gk λείχω ‘lick’

làjg.

to bend something-dat into some shape-acc [e.g. into a z]; to break something-dat into something-acc [e.g. into parts, in two] by bending;
dat: to bend; to break into something-acc by being bent

The ‘deforming’ and ‘destroying’ meanings are distinguished by the acc object or – often simpler – by instead using a nominal verb expressing a shape, versus nominal verbs such as skràp. ‘split, turn into parts’, dwà. ‘turn into two [parts]’, etc.

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem lung‑a ‘break by bending’
OLem lung‑
PLem *lung‑, nasal-infix present of
PIE *leu̯g̑‑ or *leu̯g‑

Cognates

Eng lock

làcw.

to help someone-dat with something-acc

Etymology

NLem lorw‑a
LMLem alòrw‑yl
MLem al‑oerw‑yl ‘help’, lit. ‘foster for some amount of time, foster to some extent’, compound of
  MLem al‑a ‘nourish, foster’
OLem al‑
PLem *al‑, root present of
PIE *h₂el‑
 —and—
  MLem oerw‑yl ‘amount’
Ghe oeᴛpʳ‑i /ɔ͜ɛr̠ʙɪ/

Cognates

Eng ad‑olescent (via Lat ad‑olēscō ‘grow up’)

làw.

to make lions (also the constellation Leo; see appendix, Constellations)

Etymology

NLem lew‑a
LMLem, MLem lew‑yr
OLem lew‑
SHell *leũ‑on
PIE *léu̯‑om

PIE *léu̯‑om might be a borrowing from PSem *labiʾ‑ (compare Heb לביא). Or it might be the other way round.

Cognates

Eng lion, Gk λέων ‘lion’

làwb.

to be one’s-dat boyfriend, girlfriend (partner in a romantic relationship); a romantic relationship

lèwb.(, lìwb.) boyfriend, girlfriend

Usage notes

This word is typically used for unmarried couples, as we have the verb dwàc. ‘marry’ and its various inner cases for ‘marriage’ (cons) and ‘spouse’ (nom/dat). Using làwb. for a married couple focuses on their love and their relationship rather than on the institution of marriage.

Etymology

NLem lumb‑a
LMLem, MLem lumb‑yr
OLem lumb‑ ‘love’
PLem *lumb‑, zero-grade root stative of
PIE *leu̯bʰ‑ ‘love; infatuate, confuse’

doublet of làb.

Cognates

Eng love, Lat libet ‘it is pleasing’

làxt.

want, wish something-acc [from someone-dat]; [someone-dat] to do something-acc (see unit 13, Overview of the modals)

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem lint‑a ‘touch’
OLem lint‑
PLem *lint‑, nasal-infix present of
PIE *lei̯t‑

The modern meaning has developed from the notion ‘touch with one’s mind’. The similarity with dàxt. ‘must’ is pure coincidence.

Cognates

Gk λιτέσθαι ‘beg, implore’

The word is said to mean ‘laugh’ (semantic development perhaps via ‘tickle’) in an obscure central European language, but this has never been confirmed.

làxw.

to make green, to green

lilxwkà. to make (colour) magenta

Etymology

NLem alxw‑a
LMLem, MLem alxw‑yr
OLem alxw‑
PLem *alxw‑, u-present of
PIE *leh₂‑ ‘pour, water’

In Proto-Lemizh the meaning is probably only ‘to green’ as a metonymy of ‘to water’. Cross-linguistically, many words for ‘green’ are derived from terms relating to plants and their growth.

Cognates

Lat lāma ‘puddle’, Hit lāhui ‘pour’

làq.

to make a mass unit, a mass of 761.1 grams (see appendix, Units of measurement)

Etymology

NLem liq‑a, academic loan of
Koi λίθ‑ος ‘stone’, of uncertain origin

Obviously, the Lemizh have quite a different idea than the English of how heavy a stone should be.

Cognates

Eng litho-graphy

làf.

to make a peel, to make a skin

Etymology

NLem lufr‑a
LMLem, MLem lufr‑yr
OLem lufr‑
PLem *lufr‑, r-stem adjective of
PIE *leu̯p‑ ‘peel (off)’

Cognates

Lit lupù ‘peel (off)’

làqk.

self-transporting: to race someone-dat/com, a race

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem liqk‑a
OLem lithk‑
PLem *lithk‑, sk̑-present of
PIE *lei̯t‑ ‘go, move (away)’

Cognates

Eng lead, TochB lita ‘went (away)’

leàg.

to spoon something-acc somewhere-dat etc., to scoop something-acc somewhere-dat etc. with a spoon

leùg. (with outer partitive) spoon

Etymology

NLem leig‑a
Besk leig
PCelt *leig‑ā, of unknown origin

lemàc.

to make Lemizh

lemàrc. the country of Lemaria

Etymology

poststem from collective singular of
NLem lem‑a
LMLem lèmin‑yr
MLem leemin‑yr
OLem lēmin‑
PLem *lēmen‑
PIE *lei̯h₁mh̥́₁n‑os ‘from the bay’, vrddhi derivation of
  PIE *lih₁‑mh̥₁n‑ós ‘bay’, lit. ‘snuggling oneself against’, root present mediopassive participle of
  PIE *lei̯h₁‑ ‘snuggle’

Cognates

Ved láyate ‘snuggles [against], sticks [to]’

liwà.

to make lead

Etymology

NLem liw‑a
LMLem, MLem oliw‑yr, of unknown origin

Cognates

possibly OCS olovo ‘lead’, Gk ἀλφός ‘white rash’

lrà.

mot/caus: to exponentiate something-dat by something-nom to give some result-acc (see unit 7, Mathematical functions)

lrè. logarithm of some value-acc to some base-dat
lrì. nth-nom root of some value-acc

Etymology

This is an academic derivation of lÙr. ‘spatial aim; (geometric) dimension’. It notably violates Lemizh phonotactics, probably because mathematicians aren’t linguists.

Rà.

to make each individual separately/respectively (see unit 7, Indefinite numerals);

Etymology

NLem R‑a
LMLem, MLem R‑yr
Ghe xˇ‑ə /ʁə/

Ràdj.

to prosper, thrive

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem Randz‑a
OLem xandz‑ ‘sprout, bloom’
PLem *xandz‑, root present of
PIE *h₂endʰ‑

doublet of nàxt.

Cognates

Eng antho‑logy (via Gk ἄνθος ‘flower’)

Ràbv.

to make some, a fairly small number/amount (relative weight 3⁄8; see unit 7, Weighting numerals – usually with partitive bracket; see unit 8, Cardinal numerals)

Etymology

NLem yRbw‑a ‘a medium amount’
LMLem, MLem yRbw‑yr
Ghe xpˡ‑ə /ʁbʷə/

The Ghean weighting numerals were (sorted from ‘few, little’ to ‘all, the whole’)
xpʳ‑ə pʳ‑ə xpˡ‑ə pˡ‑ə xp‑ə p‑ə
/ʀ̥ʙə ʙə ʁbʷə bʷə χpə pə/

Only xpˡə, pˡə (> bvà.) and xpə (> xpàj.) have survived until today. The first two were fairly recently diminished in meaning, when the six-degree system was extended to an eight-degree one by inserting two new words between bvà. and xpàj., namely dmàj. and dmà..

xpʳə was replaced with a native word originally meaning ‘negligible’ (modern càwb.) in Late Middle Lemizh. pʳə and never made their way into Lemizh; already Middle Lemizh had dropped them in favour of native words (modern crà. and jnà., respectively).

Ràks.

dat: should do something-acc, shall we do something-acc?;
recommend, suggest someone-dat [to do] something-acc (see unit 13, Overview of the modals)

Etymology

NLem Ranks‑a
LMLem, MLem Rankt‑a ‘command’
OLem xankt‑ ‘force, compel’
PLem *xanks‑ ‘want’, s-desiderative of
PIE *h₂nek̑‑ ‘reach’

Cognates

Eng e‑nough, Lat nancīscor ‘stumble on, obtain, reach, find’

Ràj.

to make geese

Usage notes

The familiar pejorative sense ‘(mentally) weak, stupid person’ is ancient. However, since Middle Lemizh times, calling someone a goose can also compliment them on their firm, resolute stance.

Etymology

NLem Ran‑a
LMLem, MLem Ran‑yr
OLem xan‑
PLem *kxan‑
PIE *g̑ʰh₂én‑s

Cognates

Eng goose, Lat ānser ‘goose’

Ràjg.

to live, a/the life

Rèjg. creature, living being

làxt (viì) RajgÌ Ràdjy. ‘Live and prosper!’

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem Reng‑a
OLem xing‑ ‘move’
PLem *xing‑, nasal-infix present of
PIE *h₂ei̯g‑ ‘move (violently?)’

Cognates

Ved éjati ‘stirs’

Ràc.

to rule as a monarch over someone-dat; in grammar: to act as a predicate of an object-dat

Rèc. monarch; king, queen; also the constellation roughly corresponding to Cepheus (see appendix, Constellations)

Recwìx. (grammar) sentence

Usage notes

The Ghean monarch likely was an absolute ruler, possibly something like a god-king. After the Ghean rule, by Late Middle Lemizh times, the word was applied to the Lemizh king, and by extension to monarchs of other countries. During Early New Lemizh times, Lemaria became a constitutional monarchy, which it remains today. Ràc. in modern contexts therefore mainly refers to representative and administrative tasks.

Etymology

NLem aRc‑a
LMLem àRcc‑yr
MLem ayRcc‑yr
Ghe aəxshshˡ‑ə /a͜əʁʒʒə/

Cognates

unrelated to Lat rex ‘king’, Ved rājan ‘king, prince’

Ràcj.

to colour something-dat

RacjÌzw. speckled
RycjnÌs. halogen

Etymology

NLem Rarj‑a
LMLem, MLem Rarj‑ar
OLem gharj‑
PLem *ggharj‑ ‘paint, anoint’, root present of
PIE *gʰrei̯‑

Cognates

Eng grimace, Gk χρίω ‘paint, anoint’

Ràw.

to make hounds, hunting dogs (also the constellation Canis Major; see appendix, Constellations)

— Rynwè RÌnje. hunter and hunted (used figuratively), lit. ‘hounds and geese’

Etymology

NLem oRw‑a
LMLem, MLem oRw‑yr
Ghe oxfˇ‑ə /ɔʁβə/ ‘dog’, an onomatopoeia like axʱ‑ə /aɴə/ ‘cat’ and otq‑ə /ɔtqə/ ‘chicken’

Ràxt. [1]

to make shoulders

Etymology

NLem Rant‑a
LMLem, MLem Rant‑yr
OLem xanht‑ ‘doorpost’
PLem *xanht‑
PIE *h₂ń̥h₁t‑eh₂

Cognates

Lat antae ‘pillars on either side of a doorway’

Ràxt. [2]

to make ducks

Etymology

NLem Ranxt‑a
LMLem, MLem Ranxt‑yr
OLem xanxt‑
PLem *xanxt‑
PIE *h₂énh₂t‑s

Cognates

Lat anas ‘duck’, Ger Ente ‘duck’

Ràst.

self-receiving: to dream (of) something-acc

Resthràk. to have a nightmare ( hrèk Rèste.)

Etymology

NLem Rostx‑a
LMLem, MLem Rostxj‑er ‘strange lands’
OLem ghostxj‑
PLem *gghostxj‑ ‘foreign parts, abroad’
PIE *gʰósth₂i‑s ‘stranger, foreigner’

Cognates

Eng host, guest (via Lat hospes ‘host, guest’)

rà.

to make one individual

to make an angle unit, an angle of one radian or any other dimensionless unit (see appendix, Units of measurement)

Etymology

NLem r‑a
LMLem, MLem r‑yr
Ghe ᴛʳ‑ə /r̠ə/

ramàc.

ramòc. Ramo (pen name of the author of the Tlöngö̀l, the epic novel defining the onset of New Lemizh)

Etymology

irregular masculinisation of
NLem ram‑o

The fact that Ramo chose a pen name with an inner tentive case speaks volumes.

ràgw.

to make a dark colour, to darken (referring to colour, not to light intensity)

Etymology

NLem argw‑a
LMLem, MLem argw‑yr
OLem hargw‑ ‘dark’
PLem *hargw‑, o-stem adjective of
PIE *h₁regʷ‑

Cognates

Gk Ἔρεβος ‘god of darkness’, possibly Ice ragna‑rök ‘end times in Norse mythology’ (via ON rökr ‘twilight’)

ràdj.

dat: to (accidentally) discover something-acc

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem ardz‑a ‘emerge’
OLem ardz‑
PLem *ardz‑, root present of
PIE *redʰ‑ ‘emerge, appear’

Cognates

OCS roždǫ ‘give birth’

ràt.

to drive a vehicle-acc, to steer something/someone-acc (for the thing moved) or dat (for the thing manoeuvred, also metaphorically)

rèt. also the constellation Auriga (see appendix, Constellations)

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem ret‑a
OLem ret‑
PLem *reth‑ ‘run’, Narten present of
PIE *ret‑

The verb may have meant ‘go on wheels’ already in PIE, as *rot‑eh₂ is the source of Lat rota ‘wheel’ and *rot‑h₂‑ós that of Ved rátha ‘chariot’.

Cognates

Ger Rad ‘wheel’, Ir rith ‘run’; likely unrelated to Eng rattle and Ger rattern

ràtx.

to give hope to someone-dat about something-acc;
dat, perfect or not topicalised: to hope for something-acc (see unit 13, Verbs of certainty)

Etymology

NLem rentx‑a
LMLem, MLem rentk‑a ‘tackle confidently’
OLem rentk‑
PLem *rentk‑, sk̑-present of
PIE *reh₁dʰ‑ ‘be successful’

Cognates

Ger reden ‘talk’, OCS raždǫ ‘care’

ràj.

to make sixteen individuals

Etymology

NLem ran‑a
LMLem, MLem ran‑yl
Ghe ᴛʳ‑asʱ‑i /r̠anɪ/ ‘sixteen’, lit. ‘one-zero’ [hexadeximal], compound of
  Ghe ᴛʳ‑ə /r̠ə/ ‘one’
 —and—
  Ghe asʱ‑i /anɪ/ ‘zero’

ràjd.

to make red, to redden (with embarrassment-caus, -psu)

riljdkà. to make cyan or turquoise

rijdvnè. rubidium

Usage notes

rÌjd. is more likely to describe the focal colour (‘bright red’) than other colour terms, as attested since Middle Lemizh. (Conversely, ‘reddish’, i.e. a compound with a weakening numeral, is more likely to be used for hues that are not quite focal red.)

Judges wear red, which has resulted in colloquially calling them rèjd., and in the use of the verb ràjd. (‘making something-dat red’) to refer to verdicts.

Etymology

NLem rundr‑a
LMLem, MLem rundr‑yr
OLem hrundr‑
PLem *hrundr‑, r-stem adjective of
PIE *h₁reu̯dʰ‑

This is the word for ‘red’ in most Indo-European languages.

Cognates

Eng red, Gk ἐρυθρός ‘red’

ràc.

to make points / an area to the right of something-nom (see unit 12, Temporal and spatial verbs)

recxnÌ., rÌc. south (symbol: r)
rilckexnÌ., rilckÌ. north (symbol: a Lemizh r turned 180°)

Usage notes

Right-handed men used to carry their swords on the left, which gave rise to the custom of letting the lady walk on the right-hand side so as not to ruin her dress when drawing. Curiously, the ‘male’ poststem of rÌc. and the ‘female’ one of the opposite rilckÌ. have not been able to change this tradition.

Likewise, it is not socially acceptable for the man to walk too far away from the lady, nor to walk between two ladies, despite the gender change of these words.

Etymology

gender change of
NLem Ur‑a
LMLem, MLem Ur‑yr
OLem ür‑
PLem *ūr‑, r-stem adjective of
PIE *u̯eg̑‑ ‘lively, strong’

Many languages derive their words for the direction ‘right’ from the idea that the right hand is the ‘correct’ or the ‘strong’ one. Gender change occurred to avoid homophony with the numeral rà..

Cognates

Eng wake, vigour (via Lat vigeō ‘thrive, flourish’); however, none of the original sounds is left in the present-day word: both r and c come from the PIE adjectival suffix -r-.

ràzg.

to braid, plait something-dat

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem arzg‑a
OLem arzg‑
PLem *arzg‑, root present of
PIE *resg‑

Cognates

Lat restis ‘rope’, Lit rezgù ‘braid, knit’

ràw.

to make an amount

Etymology

NLem orw‑a
LMLem òrw‑yl
MLem oerw‑yl
Ghe oeᴛpʳ‑i /ɔ͜ɛr̠ʙɪ/

ràwb.

to push something-acc somewhere-dat etc. (dat can be ambiguous); to push, press against something-dat; also non-sending

Usage notes

Since Old Lemizh, this verb is connoted positively. Don’t use it to translate hostile kinds of pushing such as ‘shove, jostle’.

Etymology

contamination of
NLem srUmb‑a
LMLem, MLem srimb‑a
OLem srimb‑
PLem *tsrimb‑, root present of
PIE *dʰrei̯bʰ‑ ‘drive’
 —with—
NLem, LMLem, MLem runp‑a ‘break, snap’
OLem runp‑ ‘break, snap’ [intr.]
PLem *runp‑, nasal-infix present of
PIE *reu̯p‑

ràwb. (for expected **sràwb.) was contaminated with ràxp., the modern word for ‘pull’.

Cognates

Eng drive

ràxp.

to pull something-acc somewhere-dat etc. (dat can be ambiguous); at something-dat; also non-sending

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem runp‑a ‘break, snap’
OLem runp‑ ‘break, snap’ [intr.]
PLem *runp‑, nasal-infix present of
PIE *reu̯p‑

Cognates

Eng rupture (via Lat rumpō ‘break, burst, tear’ [tr.]), Ved lumpáti ‘breaks’ [tr.]

ràh.

to like something or someone-acc/dat;
agentive caus, causal-reflexive: to please someone-nom

Usage notes

This verb is usually taken to mean ‘like very much’; it is close to our informal use of ‘love’ as in ‘I love books’.

Etymology

NLem irh‑a
LMLem, MLem irhh‑a
Ghe ipshshʳ‑a /ɪʙr̠̥r̠̥a/

ràs.

to make frost (a cover of small ice crystals)

Etymology

NLem rOs‑a
LMLem rÒs‑yr
MLem rOOs‑yr ‘dew’
OLem rös‑
PLem *rōs‑
PIE *rṓs

Cognates

Lat rōs ‘dew’, OCS rosa ‘dew’

ràsk.

to make the ground, the floor

Etymology

NLem arsk‑a
LMLem arsk‑er
MLem arsk‑er ‘area, ground’
OLem harsk‑ ‘get somewhere, end up somewhere’
PLem *harsk‑, sk̑-present of
PIE *h₁er‑

Cognates

Hit āri ‘arrives’, probably Gk ἔρχομαι ‘come, go’

ràst.

dat: to win something-acc

Etymology

NLem remst‑a
LMLem rè‑mizt‑yr, clarifying compound of
  LMLem rè‑a
MLem ree‑a ‘urge, force’
OLem hrē‑ ‘ask’
PLem *hrē‑, Narten present of
PIE *h₁reh₁‑
 —and—
  LMLem, MLem mizt‑yr ‘reward’
OLem mizt‑
PLem *mizt‑
PIE *misdʰh₁‑ós ‘reward, wages’

Cognates

Gk ἐρέω ‘ask’; Gk μισθός ‘reward, wages, pay’

rOsàc.

to make crystals

Etymology

poststem from singular of
NLem rOs‑a ‘frost’
LMLem rÒs‑yr
MLem rOOs‑yr ‘dew’
OLem rös‑
PLem *rōs‑
PIE *rṓs

This academic formation from the word for ‘frost’ replaced an older Greek loanword.

Cognates

Lat rōs ‘dew’, OCS rosa ‘dew’

nà.

nonexistence (‘zero’) negator (see unit 6, Negators): do not do something-acc;
to make something-dat nonexistent, to undo, annul, destroy something-dat (all: also with inner cons for the object, see unit 6, ‘unknot’);
to make zero individuals, none, nothing

Usage notes

Interestingly, the proverbial entities ‘doing nothing’ are various types of poisonous or inedible mushroom, as in waxvmyjkrÌgwem. ‘be as silent as a fly agaric’ or nà vmyjcrÌem. ‘do nothing, like a death cap’. Such phrases have been recorded since Late Middle Lemizh times.

Etymology

NLem, LMLem n‑a
MLem ne‑a
OLem ne‑, inflected form of
PLem, PIE *ne ‘not’

Cognates

Eng no, Lat ne ‘no(t)’

nàgc.

to (make) war, a war with/against someone-dat

Etymology

NLem engj‑a ‘armour’
LMLem, MLem engj‑yr
OLem hengj‑ ‘protection, armour’
PLem *hengj‑ ‘spines > protection, armour’
PIE *h₁ég̑ʰi‑s ‘hedgehog’

Cognates

Ger Igel ‘hedgehog’, Gk ἐχῖνος ‘hedgehog’

nàgw.

self-receiving: to drink something-acc

Usage notes

This verb often refers to drinking alcoholic beverages in particular. This use is attested from Middle Lemizh.

Etymology

NLem engw‑a
LMLem èngw‑a
MLem eengw‑a
OLem hēngw‑
PLem *hēngw‑, e-reduplicated athematic present of
PIE *h₁egʷʰ‑

Cognates

Lat ēbrius ‘drunk’, TochB yokäṃ ‘drinks’

nàd.

to lead someone-dat (as a boss, chief)

nèd. boss, chief

Usage notes

This term is used for lower ranks in a hierarchy than igcàd., and/or more informally.

Etymology

NLem end‑a
LMLem ènd‑ar, nominalisation of
MLem eend‑a ‘speak gravely’
OLem hēnd‑ ‘say’
PLem *hēnd‑, e-reduplicated athematic present of
PIE *h₁edʰ‑

Cognates

Ved ā́ha ‘says’

nabà.

to make a nabu, the European currency unit (symbol: n; see appendix, Units of measurement)

Etymology

Eth nabũ
PWald *Nabū́ ‘God of literacy and wisdom’
Akk 𒀭𒀝

The Mesopotamian god Nabū was equated with Mercury and Hermes and thus became the God of trade and later the namesake of the European currency. The symbol is the Lemizh supplemental letter ‘n’ and is also reminiscent of this god’s symbol, the caduceus or winged staff .

nàt.

to open something-acc, also non-sending
acc, occasionally self-transporting: to
open

djUtnÌt. Saturnian day, the Lemizh equivalent of Monday (symbol: ; see appendix, Date)

Usage notes

The inherited name of the god has been used metonymically in the sense of ‘seed, inception, beginning’ since Old Lemizh times. In Early New Lemizh, the verbal form expressed facilitating access to something, or the ‘opening’ of new opportunities – a usage that is alive today.

The planet Saturn, as well as the god, is called djistnÌt. in Modern Lemizh.

Etymology

haplology of
NLem dzokont‑a
LMLem, MLem dziskont‑yr ‘Seedputter (the God of agriculture)’
OLem dziskont‑
PLem *dzeskont‑
PIE *dʰh̥₁sk̑‑ónt‑s ‘putting, making’, sk̑é-present active participle of
  PIE *dʰeh₁‑ ‘put, make’

Expected would be ModLem **djotnàt. and resulting **djUt-djotnÌt. for the name of the day; this caused the haplology. The root is probably the same as in PIE *dʰoh₁‑néh₂‑s ‘seed, grain’.

Cognates

Gk δίδωμι ‘give’, Lat ‘give’

natlà.

to make an angular power density unit, an angular power density of 2.813 milliwatts per steradian (see appendix, Units of measurement)

Etymology

shortened form, academic loan of
Koi ναυ‑τιλί‑ᾱ ‘seafaring’, nominal derivation of
  Koi ναῦ‑ς ‘ship’
SHell *snaũ‑s ‘boat’
PIE *snéh₂‑u‑s, u-stem noun of
  PIE *sneh₂‑ ‘swim, bathe’

Having been invented together with the unit of power density, this unit too has a naval name.

Cognates

Eng navy (via Lat nāvis ‘ship’)

nàj.

to make points / an area between objects-nom (see unit 12, Temporal and spatial verbs)

Usage notes

See the connotations section of ràc. for some context on gender change in spatial verbs.

Etymology

gender change of
NLem en‑a, inflected form of
LMLem, MLem en
OLem hen ‘in’
PLem *hen
PIE *h₁en

Gender change occurred to avoid homophony with the negator nà..

Cognates

Eng in, Gk ἐν ‘in’

nàjw.

(to pursue) habitually, (to pursue) a habit (see unit 12, Aspect)

Etymology

NLem nanw‑a
LMLem, MLem nanw‑yr ‘habit(ual)’
OLem n‑anw‑, compound of
  OLem ne‑ ‘not’, inflected form of
PLem *ne
PIE *ne ‘no, not’
 —and—
  OLem anw‑ ‘new, unfamiliar’
PLem *anw‑, u-stem adjective of
PIE *neu̯‑ ‘new’

Cognates

Eng no; Eng new

nàzd.

to make birds

Etymology

NLem nezd‑a
LMLem, MLem nezd‑yr
OLem nizd‑ ‘nest’
PLem *nizd‑
PIE *nisd‑ós

The meaning ‘bird’ developed from MLem nezd‑ar, lit. ‘nest-builder’, which is attested in a few instances.

Cognates

Eng nest, Lat nīdus ‘nest’

nàw.

to make valleys

Etymology

NLem namr‑a
LMLem, MLem namr‑yr
OLem namr‑
PLem *namr‑ ‘tilted (ground) > valley’, r-stem adjective of
PIE *nem‑ ‘tilt’

Cognates

Ved námate ‘tilt’, TochB ñmetsi ‘tilt’

nàwb.

to inflate, stretch something-dat into some shape-acc; to burst, rip, tear something-dat into something-acc [e.g. dust; in two];
dat: to stretch; to burst, rip, tear into something-acc

The deforming and destroying meanings are distinguished by the acc object or – often simpler – by instead using a nominal verb expressing a shape, versus nominal verbs such as skràp. ‘split, turn into parts’, dwà. ‘turn into two [parts]’, etc.

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem nemb‑a ‘burst, tear’
OLem nemb‑
PLem *nemb‑ ‘burst, shatter’, Narten present of
PIE *nebʰ‑

Cognates

Ved nábhate ‘bursts, shatters’

nàxt.

to make beards

nèxt. bearded; slang: damn, bloody (intensifier)

Etymology

NLem nont‑a
LMLem, MLem Ryndzont‑yr ‘plant, something growing’
OLem xyndzont‑
PLem *xandzont‑
PIE *h₂n̥dʰ‑ónt‑s ‘sprouting, blooming’, root present active participle of
  PIE *h₂endʰ‑ ‘sprout, bloom’

doublet of Ràdj.

Cognates

Eng antho‑logy (via Gk ἄνθος ‘flower’)

nàh.

to make nine individuals

Usage notes

The number nine has been associated with art since classical times (corresponding to Late Middle Lemizh), as can be seen in the number of the Muses, sources of the knowledge contained in art. Without doubt, Terpsichore is the fairest one of them.

Much earlier, in Old Lemizh, nine was the number of healers. In Middle Lemizh, it has come to denote placebo effects: if I give you nine pills, I am helping you but not because of any pharmacologic effect of the pills. Counseling someone nine times generates something close to a self-fulfilling prophecy.

Etymology

NLem neh‑a
LMLem nèh‑yl, contamination of
MLem nee‑yl
OLem hnē‑, inflected form of
PLem *hnewan
PIE *h₁néu̯n̥
 —with—
MLem dih‑yl ‘ten’
OLem dish‑, inflected form of
PLem *deshamt
PIE *dék̑m̥t

Cognates

Eng nine, Gk ἐννέα ‘nine’

nàs.

dat: to smell something-nom; nom: to smell of something-acc

nùs. (with outer partitive) nose

Etymology

NLem nas‑a ‘nose’
LMLem, MLem nas‑yr
OLem nas‑
PLem *nas‑
PIE *nás‑os

Cognates

Eng nose, Lat nāsus ‘nose’

nenà.

self-transporting: to run somewhere-dat etc.;
acc: to drift or float quickly somewhere ditto in water etc.-nom [or agentive caus]

Etymology

NLem neni‑a
LMLem nènì‑a
MLem neenii‑a
OLem nēnī‑
PLem *nēnī‑ ‘be driven > run’, intensive of
PIE *nei̯H‑ ‘lead, guide’

The secondary meaning ‘to drift quickly’ is attested from Late Middle Lemizh, in a song about 255 toy balloons made from pig bladders.

Cognates

Ved náyati ‘leads’

nexwaklà.

to work manually, to do a blue-collar job

nexwaklè. blue-collar worker

Etymology

NLem nexwatal‑a ‘Nechwatal’ (prototypical blue-collar worker)
Gl Nechwatal, of unknown origin

niftnàj.

to make the god Neptune/Poseidon; to make the planet Uranus (symbol: )

Usage notes

See djeipysràd. for more information on Lemizh polytheism, and xmàj. for the weekday associated with this god.

Confusingly, the planet Uranus, known to the Lemizh since ancient times, was named by them after the water god – corresponding to the god Neptune/Poseidon in our tradition. The planet Neptune, discovered in modern times, has the Midwinter God, fOpysrÌf., as its patron.

Etymology

gender change of
NLem nifton‑a, academic loan of
OLem nifton‑ ‘Nephew of the Waters’
PLem *nefton‑
PIE *népton‑os

Cognates

Lat Neptune, Ir Nechtan

nrà.

(to keep the) peace

nrìl. ‘passive’ peace (which is there without having to be actively kept)
nrèR. to make peace

Etymology

NLem nar‑a
LMLem, MLem Rynar‑yr
OLem xynar‑ ‘shaman, seer, healer’
PLem *xanar‑ ‘inspiration, intuition’
PIE *h₂énr̥

Cognates

Gk ὄναρ ‘dream’, Hit innarā ‘robust, intentional’

mà.

to make or build something-acc from something-dat, to turn something-dat into something-acc;
dat: to turn into something-acc, to become something-acc

mÌ. entity, thing; stuff

mujbàt. to elect someone-dat for some office-acc

Usage notes

see grÌc. ‘chicken’

Etymology

NLem me‑a
LMLem mè‑a
MLem mee‑a ‘change’
OLem mē‑ ‘change’ [intr.]
PLem *mē‑, Narten present of
PIE *mei̯‑ ‘(ex)change’

Cognates

Ved ví mayante ‘take turns (?)’, TochB mäsk‑ ‘exchange’; unrelated to Eng make

markàw.

to make kangaroos

Etymology

NLem mark‑uw‑a, from an Australian language

This word is said to be based on a misunderstanding as the Australian term actually refers to a type of alcoholic sweet.

màg.

to make shipyards, space docks

mUgÌkh. (clarifying compound used by landlubbers) shipyard, space dock

Etymology

NLem meg‑a
LMLem napègi‑yr
Koi ναυ‑πήγι‑ον, nominalisation, compound of
  Koi ναῦ‑ς ‘ship’
SHell *snaũ‑s ‘boat’
PIE *snéh₂‑u‑s, u-stem noun of
  PIE *sneh₂‑ ‘swim, bathe’
 —and—
  Koi πηγνυ‑μι ‘fasten, stiffen, build’
SHell *pāgnu‑mi, nasal-infix present of
PIE *peh₂g̑‑ ‘stiffen, become solid’

Cognates

Eng navy (via Lat nāvis ‘ship’); Eng fang, Lat pangō ‘fasten’

màt.

self-receiving: to sleep

Etymology

NLem, LMLem mitn‑a
MLem mit‑ne‑a, compound of
  MLem mit‑a ‘wake’
OLem mit‑ ‘awake’
PLem *mis‑, o-stem adjective of
PIE *mei̯s‑ ‘open one’s eyes’
 —and—
  MLem ne‑a ‘not’
OLem ne‑, inflected form of
PLem *ne
PIE *ne ‘no, not’

Cognates

Ved miṣáti ‘opens the eyes’; Eng no

màpx.

self-receiving: to understand something-acc

Etymology

NLem umpx‑a
LMLem, MLem umpk‑a
OLem umpk‑
PLem *umpk‑, sk̑-present of
PIE *u̯ebʰ‑ ‘weave, wrap around’

The meaning probably comes from a metaphor on the lines of ‘wrap one’s head around something’.

doublet of wmàb.

Cognates

Eng weave, Gk ὑφαίνω ‘weave’

màjd.

to make wine

Etymology

NLem mind‑a
LMLem mind‑yr
MLem mindu‑yr ‘mead’
OLem mindu‑
PLem *mendu‑
PIE *médʰu

Cognates

Eng mead, Gk μέθυ ‘wine’

màc.

to make full, to fill something-dat with something-acc, to fill something-acc into something-dat;
acc: to fill something-dat (enter something to make it full)

Etymology

NLem mec‑a
LMLem, MLem mec‑yr
OLem mezhk‑ ‘large’
PLem *mezhx‑
PIE *még̑h₂‑s

Cognates

Eng much, Gk μέγας ‘large’

màv.

to act, speak, think wisely, to make/produce wisdom, wise deeds, sayings, thoughts

Etymology

NLem mev‑a
LMLem, MLem mev‑yr
OLem medh‑ ‘measure, look after, enforce’
PLem *medh‑, Narten present of
PIE *med‑

Cognates

Ger messen ‘measure’ (but not Eng measure), Gk μήδομαι ‘contrive, devise, plot’

màw.

to make muscle, flesh, meat (of animals, including humans)

Usage notes

Technically, this word refers to muscle flesh, i.e. the part of the flesh or meat without the visible fat. In practice, however, the fat is the best part of it.

Etymology

NLem mem‑a
LMLem mèm‑yr
MLem meem‑yr ‘meat, flesh’
OLem mēm‑
PLem *mēm‑
PIE *mḗms

Cognates

Eng membrane (via Lat mem‑brāna ‘skin, membrane’), OCS męso ‘meat’

màwd.

to work as a waiter

Etymology

NLem mowdR‑a
LMLem, MLem anbnowdlz‑yr ‘lieutenant’
Ghe aspxʱofᴛsˡ‑ə /anbʱɴɔβd̠z̟ə/

màxk.

to lie to someone-dat about something-acc;
timber: to creak without anyone stepping on it

Usage notes

From Late Middle Lemizh onwards, people have said that timbers are ‘lying’ to describe their creaking noises due to wind and temperature changes; this is because the timber falsely acts as if some intruder were in the house.

Etymology

NLem mexk‑a
LMLem mèxk‑a
MLem meexk‑a
OLem mēçk‑
PLem *māçx‑ ‘lengthen, stretch’, root present of
PIE *meh₂k̑‑eh₂‑ ‘make long’, de-adjectival factitive verb of
  PIE *meh₂k̑‑ ‘long’

The modern meaning developed from the notion of ‘stretching the truth’.

Cognates

Eng macro- (via Gk μακρός ‘long, far’)

màh.

to sort something-dat into something-acc, to group something-dat according to type (see unit 7, Grouping numerals)

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem mih‑a, back formation of
  MLem mihk‑a ‘mix’
OLem mishk‑
PLem *mishk‑, sk̑-present of
PIE *mei̯k̑‑

MLem reinterpreted the stem-final k as opposition negator, innovating mih‑a ‘the opposite of mixing, unmixing = sorting’.

doublet of màhk.

Cognates

Eng mix, Lat misceō ‘mix’

màhk.

to make salad(s)

Etymology

NLem mihk‑a
LMLem mihk‑yr, nominalisation of
MLem mihk‑a ‘mix’
OLem mishk‑
PLem *mishk‑, sk̑-present of
PIE *mei̯k̑‑

doublet of màh.

Cognates

Eng mix, Lat misceō ‘mix’

màs.

to make mice (also computer mice)

Etymology

NLem mUs‑a
LMLem, MLem mUs‑yr
OLem müs‑
PLem *mūs‑
PIE *múh₂s

The meaning ‘computer mouse’ is calqued from Br lač.

Cognates

Eng mouse, Lat mūs ‘mouse’

màsk.

to make/produce witty deeds, sayings, thoughts, to possess wit

Etymology

NLem mask‑a
LMLem, MLem mnask‑a ‘think’
OLem mnask‑
PLem *mnask‑, sk̑-present of
PIE *mneh₂‑

Cognates

Gk μνάομαι ‘think of, woo’, Ved ā‑manati ‘mentions, hands down’

màst.

to visit someone-dat

Etymology

NLem mist‑a
LMLem, MLem mizt‑yr ‘reward’
OLem mizt‑
PLem *mizt‑
PIE *misdʰh₁‑ós ‘reward, wages’

The PIE noun is probably derived from *dʰeh₁‑ ‘put, make’.

Cognates

Gk μισθός ‘reward, wages, pay’, Ger Miete ‘rent’

màqk.

dat: can (have the opportunity to) do something-acc;
to give someone-dat the opportunity to do something-acc (see unit 13, Overview of the modals)

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem miqk‑a
OLem mithk‑ ‘send someone on a quest, give someone an opportunity’
PLem *mithx‑ ‘remote, far’, o-stem adjective of
PIE *mei̯th₂‑ ‘change, remove’

Cognates

Lat mittō ‘send, release’, Ger meiden ‘avoid’

màqx.

to shine at something-dat (only of stars)

mèqx. star
mÌqx. starlight

Etymology

NLem miqxp‑a
LMLem miqxp‑ar
MLem miqxpe‑ar, haplology of
OLem mithxpeir‑
PLem *mithx‑pāwar‑ ‘remote or far shining fire; star?’, compound of
  PLem *mithx‑ ‘remote, far’, o-stem adjective of
PIE *mei̯th₂‑ ‘change, remove’
 —and—
  PLem *pāwar‑ ‘fire’ [inanimate]
PIE *péh₂u̯r̥

Cognates

Lat mittō ‘send, release’, Ger meiden ‘avoid’; Eng fire

melàs.

to make a power unit, a power of 2.813 milliwatts (see appendix, Units of measurement)

Etymology

NLem meliss‑a, academic loan of
Koi μέλισσ‑α ‘bee’
SHell *melilíkhi‑ā
PIE *melidlíg̑ʰ‑i‑eh₂, nominalisation of
  PIE *mélid‑lei̯g̑ʰ‑, compound of
  PIE *mélid ‘honey’
 —and—
  PIE *lei̯g̑ʰ‑ ‘lick’

An old unit of power was named after the more impressive horse (Koi ἵππος), but (1) the symbol x was needed for the length unit, (2) 2.8 milliwatts are closer to a bee’s than to a horse’s power output, and (3) one of the physicists who devised the modern unit system had a wife called Μέλισσα.

Cognates

Eng mil‑dew, Lat mel ‘honey’

memà.

to become a mum(my)-nom

memè. mum(my) of someone-acc

Etymology

baby talk for mesè. ‘mother’

mesà.

to give birth to a child-acc

mesè. mother of someone-acc
mesÌ. child (son, daughter) of a mother-nom

Etymology

NLem mes‑a
LMLem mès‑yr ‘child (of someone)’
MLem mees‑yr, haplology of
OLem mēsir‑
PLem *māser‑ ‘mother’
PIE *méh₂ter‑s

Cognates

Eng mother, Gk μήτηρ ‘mother’

mlà.

to make several individuals

Etymology

NLem mal‑a
LMLem, MLem mimal‑yl ‘separate’ [nominal]
OLem mimalk‑ ‘crush, separate’
PLem *memalx‑ ‘grind’, e-reduplicated athematic present of
PIE *melh₂‑

Cognates

Ger mahlen ‘grind’, Eng molar [tooth] (via Lat molō ‘grind’)

mlàtx.

to melt something-dat; dat: to melt

Etymology

NLem maltx‑a
LMLem, MLem maltk‑a
OLem maltk‑
PLem *maltk‑, sk̑-present of
PIE *meld‑ ‘soften’

Cognates

Eng melt, Ger schmelzen ‘melt’

mlàv.

to make sweet, to sweeten, to make sweets

mlèv. oxygen
mlùv. (with outer partitive) sweetener

Etymology

NLem mliv‑a
LMLem, MLem miliv‑yr
OLem milidh‑
PLem *melidh‑ ‘honey’
PIE *mélid

Cognates

Eng mil‑dew, Lat mel ‘honey’

mràgz.

to act tetchily, in a hurt or bewildered way, in order to sneakishly get the better of someone-acc/dat

Etymology

NLem margz‑a
LMLem, MLem margjw‑yr ‘short-tempered’
OLem margjw‑
PLem *margjw‑, u-stem adjective of
PIE *mreg̑ʰ‑ ‘short’

Cognates

Eng mirth, Lat brevis ‘short, small, shallow’

mràj.

to make 65,536 individuals

Etymology

shortening, poststem from plural of
NLem mra‑a
LMLem mUrià‑yr
Koi μυριά‑ς ‘ten thousand, countless numbers’, nominalisation of
  Koi μυρί‑ος ‘countless’, of uncertain origin

This is a (probably academic) loan from the Greek word for 10,000, modelled after skmà. ‘256’, originally ‘100’.

Cognates

Eng myriad

mràw.

to celebrate something-acc/caus; celebration

Etymology

NLem marw‑a
LMLem, MLem mindudarw‑a ‘gather for entertainment’
OLem mindu‑darw‑ ‘gather for entertainment’, lit. ‘drink mead and dance (?)’, compound of
  OLem mindu‑ ‘mead’
PLem *mendu‑
PIE *médʰu
 —and—
  OLem darw‑ ‘dance’
PLem *darw‑, u-present of
PIE *dreu̯‑ ‘run’

Cognates

Eng mead; Ved drávati ‘runs’

mràxt.

to paint something-dat with some colour or paint-acc

Etymology

NLem mrixts‑a
Besk mrixts ‘painted, colourful’
PCelt *mrixtó‑s
PIE *mr̥gʷ‑tó‑s ‘dark, coloured’, verbal adjective of
  PIE *mergʷ‑ ‘colour’

Cognates

Wel brith ‘speckled’

gà.

to informally greet someone-dat, to say goodbye to someone-dat; an informal greeting, ‘Hello! Hi! Bye!’ etc. (gesture: 🖖 for the letter g)

Etymology

originally spelt g–à., this is a shortened form of gcrà., the more formal variant of greeting

ganà.

to sing something-acc

ganàm. something like singing (humorously used to refer to very bad singing)

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem gan‑a
OLem kan‑
PLem *kan‑, Narten present of
PIE *kan‑

Funnily, the native word for singing survived Ramo’s attempt to replace it with a Beskidic loanword, while the latter came to mean ‘shout’.

Cognates

Lat canō ‘sing’, Ir can ‘sing’

gàd.

to make whales

Etymology

NLem ged‑a
LMLem gèd‑yr
MLem geed‑yr ‘whale, sea monster’
OTroy κητ‑ος /ˈɡeːdos/
SHell *kẽt‑os, of unknown origin

Cognates

Gk κῆτ‑ος ‘whale’

gàjd.

to act competently, beneficially or ethically, to make good (beneficial, of high quality, ethically sound)

Etymology

NLem gundr‑a
LMLem, MLem gundr‑yr
OLem kundr‑ ‘clean’
PLem *kundr‑, r-stem adjective of
PIE *k̑eu̯dʰ‑ ‘become clean’

Cognates

Ved śundhati ‘cleans’

gomàs.

to make a power density unit, a power density of 0.3322 watts per square metre (see appendix, Units of measurement)

Etymology

academic loan of
Koi γόμ‑ος ‘cargo’
SHell *góm‑os, nominalisation of
  SHell *gém‑ō ‘be full(y loaded)’, full-grade thematic present of
PIE *gem‑ ‘seize, grab’

Cognates

TochB kamāte ‘carried’

glàst.

to make (colour) violet, purple (any hue between magenta and blue)

glilstkà. to make lime green, yellow-green

glystnÌs. iodine

Usage notes

There is an enzyme called GLAST in the Müller glia of the eye’s retina.

A gamma-ray space observatory has been termed GLAST, after the short wavelengths of violet light. And of course there is EGRET.

Etymology

NLem dlost‑a ‘lavender’ [a painter’s term for the specific hue of a valued type of lavender]
LMLem ydlàstt‑yr ‘lavender’ [colour]
MLem ydlaystt‑yr
Ghe əᴛˡaəstt‑ə /əd̠ˡa͜əs̟ttə/

grà.

to make difficult

Etymology

NLem grO‑a ‘difficult(y)’
LMLem kurtrè‑yr ‘war’
MLem kurtree‑yr
OLem kurtrē‑
PLem *kor‑trew‑ ‘war camp’, compound of
  PLem *kor‑ ‘war’
PIE *kór‑os
 —and—
  PLem *trew‑ ‘dwelling’
PIE *tréb‑s

Cognates

Ger Heer ‘army’; Ger Dorf ‘village’

gràbv.

to carve something-acc from something-dat

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem garbw‑a
OLem garbw‑
PLem *garbw‑, root present of
PIE *gerbʰ‑ ‘carve, notch’

Cognates

Eng carve, Lit gerbiù ‘honour’ (< ‘speak’ < ‘count’ < ‘number’ < ‘notch’)

gràc.

to make chickens; (physics) to make quarks

Usage notes

The chicken is proverbial for ‘making’ something, namely eggs. grÌcem. ‘make/build something, like a chicken’, (where mà. can absorb an accusative object) in the sense of ‘make/build something thoroughly, consistently’ (not necessarily at high speed) is attested since Late Middle Lemizh.

Quarks have been termed ‘chickens’ by an imaginative West Lemizh physicist allegedly because they make [up] round things such as protons and neutrons. The term has been calqued into many languages, such as Gk κότα or Br kork.

Etymology

NLem grOr‑a
LMLem, MLem gyrter‑yr
OLem gyrter‑ ‘rooster’
PLem *garter‑
PIE *g̑r̥‑tér‑s, non-event agent of
  PIE *g̑ar‑ ‘sound, call’

Cognates

Gk γῆρυς ‘voice’; but Eng care is questionable

gràw.

to make threads

Etymology

NLem grom‑a ‘(woollen) thread’
LMLem gramm‑yr ‘line’
Koi γραμμ‑ή, nominalisation of
  Koi γράφ‑ω ‘draw, write’
SHell *gráph‑ō ‘carve, notch’, root present of
PIE *gerbʰ‑

Cognates

Eng carve, graphic (the latter via Gk)

grUrà.

to make the river Dniester

Etymology

NLem grUr‑a
LMLem argUr‑yr
MLem arg‑Ur‑yr, compound of
  MLem arg‑ar ‘river’
OLem arg‑ ‘flow, drip’
PLem *arg‑, root present of
PIE *reg̑‑
 —and—
  MLem Ur‑yr ‘right’ [direction]
OLem ür‑
PLem *ūr‑, r-stem adjective of
PIE *u̯eg̑‑ ‘lively, strong’

Expected would be ModLem **gràc., but poststem formation was inhibited by the fact that rivers are mythologically female, as in other PIE languages.

The ‘left’ river is the Dnieper.

Cognates

Ice raki ‘moisture, dampness’; Eng wake, vigour (via Lat vigeō ‘thrive, flourish’)

gmà.

to make points / an area outside something-nom (see unit 12, Temporal and spatial verbs)

Etymology

NLem gom‑a, inflected form of
LMLem, MLem gom
OLem kom ‘with’
PLem, PIE *kom

Cognates

Lat cum ‘with’

gmrà.

to make warm, to warm

Etymology

NLem gmr‑a
LMLem gmr‑yr
MLem gmru‑yr
OLem gmru‑
PLem *gmru‑, u-stem adjective of
PIE *gʷʰer‑ ‘get warm’

doublet of qàc.

Cognates

Eng thermo-meter (via Gk θερμ‑ός), but perhaps not warm

gcà.

to make fifteen individuals

Usage notes

Historically, 15 was the number of councillors or ministers in the Lemizh monarchy. gcÌ. ‘the Fifteen’ is still used pars pro toto for the (or any) government.

Etymology

NLem gj‑a
LMLem, MLem gj‑yl
Ghe qˡ‑i /ɢˠɪ/

gcrà.

to greet, welcome someone-dat to someplace-sce, to say farewell, goodbye to someone-dat; a greeting or farewell, ‘How do you do? Good morning/afternoon/evening/night! Goodbye!’ etc.

Usage notes

While this verb used to be reserved for welcome greetings until recent times, it is now used as a fairly universal greeting, also for farewells. The informal variant is gà..

Etymology

NLem gjor‑a, syncope of
LMLem, MLem gjisor‑a ‘welcome, show respect’
OLem gjisor‑
PLem *gjesor‑ ‘hand’
PIE *g̑ʰés‑or‑s, r-stem noun of
  PIE *g̑ʰes‑ ‘grip’

Cognates

Eng chiro‑practic (via Koi), TochB ṣar ‘hand’

gzlàs.

to make/found countries, sovereign states

Etymology

NTroy ξολσ /ˈɡzuls/
OTroy τπολι‑ς /ˈdbo͜ulis/ ‘fortification’
SHell *tpóli‑s
PIE *tpólh₁i‑s

Cognates

Eng police (via Gk πόλις ‘city’)

gwà.

indefinite pronoun: see unit 6, Demonstrative pronouns

gwÌ. someone/anyone, somebody/anybody, something/anything;
with outer causative/persuasive: for some/any reason;
with outer temporal: some/any time;
with outer locative: somewhere/anywhere;
etc.

Etymology

NLem gw‑a
LMLem, MLem gw‑yr ‘someone, anyone’
OLem gw‑
PLem *gw‑
PIE *kʷ‑ós ‘who?’

Cognates

Eng who, what, Lat quis, quid ‘who, what’

gwàk.

to make oxen

Etymology

gender change of
NLem gwo‑a ‘cow’
LMLem gwò‑yr
MLem gwou‑yr
OLem gwou‑
PLem *gwow‑
PIE *gʷóu̯‑s

Cognates

Eng cow, Gk βοῦς ‘cow, ox, cattle’

gwàt.

to teach someone-dat something-acc; something-acc to someone-dat (the latter can be translated as a progressive aspect);
dat: to learn about something-acc (with inner non-fact, e.g. aff for actions); dat: doing something-acc (with inner fact);
dat, perfect: to know about something-acc (with inner non-fact); dat, perfect: to know how to do something-acc, can do, be able to do something-acc (with inner fact)

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem gwet‑a
OLem gwet‑
PLem *gwesh‑ ‘know’, Narten present of
PIE *kʷek̑‑ ‘see’

Cognates

Ved ákhyat ‘has seen, has looked’, OCS kažǫ ‘show, admonish’

gwàq.

to make four individuals

‘make four’, a version of an old language game for four players, focusing on abstract thought. Other versions of this game are for five, seven or ten players, and named accordingly. The cover term for the game is dmàj. ‘fill (up), make full’.

Usage notes

As in other traditions, four is the number of the physical world (Earth, or the cosmos). This metaphor, which is probably based on the four cardinal points of the compass, the four classical elements, and other concepts, is attested from Proto-Lemizh. As far as we know, the Lemizh always have had a positive attitude towards this world (and thus to the number four) and identified more with their bodies than with their psyches, similar to the Greeks.

Etymology

NLem gwiq‑a
LMLem, MLem gwiq‑yl
OLem gwith‑, inflected form of
PLem *gwethwores
PIE *kʷétu̯ores

Cognates

Eng four, Gk τέτταρες ‘four’

gwlàp.

to make cups

Etymology

NLem gwalp‑a
LMLem, MLem gwalp‑yr
OLem gwalp‑
PLem *gwalp‑ ‘curved > cup, bowl’, o-stem adjective of
PIE *ku̯elp‑ ‘bend, bulge’

Cognates

Ger wölben ‘curve, bulge’

gwrà.

to cut something-dat into something-acc [e.g. pieces, in two] with a knife

gwrù. (with outer partitive) knife

Usage notes

The knife is a metaphor for nourishing and supporting fellow humans, for example children (based on the idea of cutting bread or meat).

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem gwer‑a
OLem gwer‑ ‘cut’
PLem *gwer‑, Narten present of
PIE *kʷer‑

Cognates

Ved kr̥ṇóti ‘does’, Lit kuriù ‘build, create; kindle’

gwràjd.

to make roses

Etymology

contamination of
NLem gword‑a
LMLem, MLem gword‑yr
OLem gword‑
PWald *gvórd‑a
PIE *u̯ŕ̥d‑om ‘flower’
 —with—
NLem rundr‑a ‘red’
LMLem, MLem rundr‑yr
OLem hrundr‑
PLem *hrundr‑, r-stem adjective of
PIE *h₁reu̯dʰ‑

Cognates

Eng rose (via Gk ῥόδον and an Indo-Iranian language)

gwnà.

to be eager, to behave eagerly

Etymology

NLem gwon‑a
LMLem, MLem gwon‑ar
OLem gwon‑
PLem *gwon‑
PIE *k̑u̯ón‑s ‘dog’

Cognates

Eng hound, Lat canis ‘dog’

dà. [1]

to give something-acc to someone-dat;
dat: to get, receive (agentive: take) something-acc from someone-nom

dyxàf. to water something-dat

Usage notes

Giving at the ‘right’ time was an important issue in Late Middle Lemizh times, governed by rather complicated rules. Today, we still have phrases such as dà nÌjaR. ‘give between times = commit a social blunder’ and dà gmÌaR. ‘give outside times = ditto’; and dàR. ‘the time of giving’ can mean ‘exactly the right moment’.

Etymology

NLem dO‑a
LMLem dÒ‑a
MLem dOO‑a
OLem dö‑
PLem *dō‑, Narten present of
PIE *deh₃‑

Cognates

Gk δίδωμι ‘give’, Lat ‘give’

dà. [2]

mot/caus: to calculate a trigonometric function of an angle etc.-dat to give some result-acc (see unit 7, Mathematical functions)

illustration of the use of spatial verbs for the trigonometric functions

dyàf. to calculate the sine ( ìlf dÌil. dà ilfy. ~ ‘calculate the upness’)
dyprà. to calculate the cosine (‘calculate the frontness’, i.e. the distance in the direction of the first or x-axis)
dyfàw. to calculate the tangent

Etymology

academic formation, gender change of
NLem disk‑a ‘circle’

See dàsk. for further information.

Cognates

Eng disc (via Lat discus)

dàp.

to make flour

Etymology

NLem dap‑a
LMLem, MLem dap‑yr
OLem dap‑
PLem *daf‑ ‘split up’, root present of
PIE *deh₂p‑

doublet of dapà.

Cognates

Gk δάπτω ‘devour’

dapà.

to make powder, to pulverise

Etymology

NLem dap‑a ‘flour’
LMLem, MLem dap‑yr
OLem dap‑
PLem *daf‑ ‘split up’, root present of
PIE *deh₂p‑

doublet of dàp.

Cognates

Gk δάπτω ‘devour’

dàpq.

to pay an amount/price-acc to someone-dat for something-fin;
fin, perfect: to cost (have been sold for an amount-acc);
fin, topicalised tentive (o): to cost (be intended to be sold for an amount-acc)

dÌpq. price
dùpq. (with outer partitive) money
dÙlpq. purchase (something for which has been paid)

dypqnÙl. free of charge
dypqcrÙl. cheap
dypqdmÙl. expensive

Etymology

NLem dOpf‑a
LMLem dÒaptf‑a
MLem dOO‑aptf‑a, compound of
  MLem dOO‑a ‘give’
OLem dö‑
PLem *dō‑, Narten present of
PIE *deh₃‑
 —and—
  MLem aptf‑yr ‘gold’
Ghe aptf‑ə /aptɸə/

Cognates

Gk δίδωμι, Lat

dàcj.

to plug something (e.g. a leak)-dat; something-acc in(to something-dat)

dÌcj. a plug

Etymology

NLem darjn‑a
LMLem, MLem darngj‑a ‘hold (fast)’
OLem darnggh‑
PLem *darnggh‑, nasal-infix present of
PIE *dregʰ‑

doublet of skràc.

Cognates

Gk δράσσομαι ‘hold, seize’, OCS drъžǫ ‘hold’

dàv.

to make yellow, to yellow

dyvnÌs. chlorine

Etymology

NLem devr‑a
LMLem dèqur‑yr ‘shiny, yellow’
MLem deequr‑yr
OLem dēthur‑
PLem *dēthor‑ ‘light-giver’
PIE *déi̯h₂‑tor‑s, event agent of
  PIE *dei̯h₂‑ ‘light up’

Old Lemizh ‘shiny, yellow [one]’ is a metonymy of the earlier meaning ‘light-giver’.

Cognates

Gk δέατο ‘it seemed, appeared’, Ved dīdā́ya ‘shines’

dàxt.

dat: must, have to do something-acc;
to command, order, tell someone-dat to do something-acc (see unit 13, Overview of the modals)

dÌxt. necessary; necessity, duty

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem daxt‑a
OLem daçt‑
PLem *daçs‑ ‘be capable, be suitable’, root present of
PIE *dek̑s‑

The similarity with làxt. ‘want’ is pure coincidence.

Cognates

Ved dákṣate ‘is of use, is able’

dàh.

to make ten individuals

‘make ten’, a version of an old language game for ten players, focusing on abstract thought. Other versions of this game are for four, five or seven players, and named accordingly. The cover term for the game is dmàj. ‘fill (up), make full’.

Etymology

NLem dih‑a
LMLem, MLem dih‑yl
OLem dish‑, inflected form of
PLem *deshamt
PIE *dék̑m̥t

Cognates

Eng ten, Gk δέκα ‘ten’

dàsk.

to make circles

dùsk. (with outer partitive) compass (tool for drawing circles)

Etymology

NLem disk‑a
LMLem dìsk‑yr ‘disk, circle’
Koi δίσκ‑ος ‘disk’, of unknown origin

See also dà..

Cognates

Eng disc (via Lat discus)

disfàk.

to make a voltage or magnetic current unit, a voltage of 64.34 millivolts (see appendix, Units of measurement)

Etymology

shortened form, academic loan of
Koi δια‑σφάξ ‘gorge’, lit. ‘hewn through’, compound of
  Koi σφάζω ‘slaughter, kill’, of unknown origin
 —and—
  Koi δια‑ ‘through, across, by, over’
SHell *dwisa‑, prefix derivation of
  SHell *dwis ‘twice’
PIE *du̯is, multiplicative of
  PIE *du̯óh₁ ‘two’

Most electric units use the electricity is water metaphor, which relates voltage to an altitude difference.

drà.

to make trees

Usage notes

The semantic change from ‘wood’ (the material) to ‘tree’ is motivated by the mythologically female nature of trees. The variant with the ‘male’ poststem, drÌt., is the modern word for the material.

Etymology

NLem dur‑a ‘wood (material)’
LMLem dur‑yr
MLem duru‑yr
OLem duru‑
PLem *doru‑ ‘tree, wood (material)’
PIE *dóru

doublet of dràt. and drulà.

Cognates

Eng tree, Gk δόρυ ‘wood, tree, spear’

dràt.

to make/produce wood, timber

Usage notes

see drà.

Etymology

gender change of
NLem dur‑a
LMLem dur‑yr
MLem duru‑yr
OLem duru‑
PLem *doru‑ ‘tree, wood (material)’
PIE *dóru

doublet of drà. and drulà.

Cognates

Eng tree, Gk δόρυ ‘wood, tree, spear’

dràph.

to make bitter, to give a bitter taste to something-dat

drèph. magnesium

Etymology

contamination of
NLem drOp‑a ‘acrid, pungent’
LMLem, MLem drep‑ir ‘midge biting season’
OLem drep‑ ‘tear, bite off’ [especially said of small animals]
PLem *dref‑ ‘cut, tear (off)’, Narten present of
PIE *drep‑
 —with—
NLem abc‑a ‘(unpleasantly) bitter’
LMLem, MLem abgc‑yr ‘bitter’
Ghe apqshˇ‑ə /abɢʒə/

Cognates

Gk δρέπτω ‘pluck, pick’, Slov dȓpljem ‘pluck, tear’

dràj.

to make citrus fruits

drèj. citrus tree or shrub (especially those with edible fruit)
drÌj. citrus fruit

dryjyphà. to make oranges
dryjlàbv. to make white grapefriuts
dryjlàxw. to make limes
dryjglàst. to make (red) grapefruits
dryjdàv. to make lemons
(all with inner nom for the tree and inner acc for the fruit)

Usage notes

Citrus trees have been personified since Early New Lemizh times. Prominent is the idea that they purposefully produce their fruit for its colour, smell and taste.

Etymology

NLem drun‑a
LMLem dryn‑a
OCh  /*[d]ˤrəŋ/ ‘citrus tree’, of unknown origin

dràzd.

to make chairs

Etymology

NLem druzd‑a
LMLem, MLem duruzd‑yr ‘stool, chair’
OLem duru‑zd‑ ‘stool, chair’, lit. ‘wooden seat’, compound of
  OLem duru‑ ‘wood’
PLem *doru‑ ‘tree, wood (material)’
PIE *dóru
 —and—
  OLem zd‑ ‘sit’
PLem *zd‑, root aorist of
PIE *sed‑ ‘sit down’

Cognates

Eng sit; Gk δόρυ ‘wood, tree, spear’

dràw.

to dance with someone-dat (In partner dances, the man is usually in the nom and the lady in the dat; in group dances, we use the nom, or possibly the acc if seen as self-transporting, with a partitive ‘and’.);
a dance (action of dancing)

drèw., drìw. dance partner (in a partner dance)
drèw., drÌw. (with outer partitive) dance partner (in a group dance)
dròrw. dance floor

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem darw‑a
OLem darw‑
PLem *darw‑, u-present of
PIE *dreu̯‑ ‘run’

doublet of dnà.

For NLem darw‑in ‘dance partners, among others’, see Nature 462, 288: Bird behaviour, Darwin and dance.

Cognates

Ved drávati ‘runs’, Cro Drava and other European river names. Although Eng draw is unrelated, partner dancing is really a draw in at least three senses of the word – finding your partner is a draw; discussions with your partner often end in a draw; and when you’re getting good at it, you’re a draw.

droà.

to make Troyan

droàr. the country of Troy (modern endonym: ηλψσό /l̩pˈsu/) in Asia Minor

droÌ krÌstU. droUkrÌst. Turkish Delight, lit. ‘Troyan thing (beneficient) for the throat’

Etymology

NLem dro‑a
LMLem drò‑yr
MLem drou‑yr
OTroy Τροι‑α /ˈdroia/, from an Anatolian word, ultimately
PIE *trḗb‑s ‘dwelling’

The term for Turkish Delight is calqued from Ar رَاحَة الْحُلْقُوم ‘throat comfort’.

Cognates

Ger Dorf ‘village’, Eng place names such as Weaver‑thorpe, OIr treb ‘house, farm’

drulà.

to make bushes

Usage notes

Trees and bushes are mythologically female (as evidenced by the Greek dryads, which are also etymologically related). This inhibited poststem formation of this word; expected would be **dràj.. Regular feminisation was inhibitted by drÌ. ‘tree’.

Etymology

NLem drul‑a
LMLem, MLem durul‑yr
OLem durul‑
PLem *dorul‑
PIE *dóru‑l‑om ‘small tree’, diminutive of
  PIE *dóru ‘tree, wood (material)’

doublet of drà. and dràt.

Cognates

Eng tree, Gk δόρυ ‘wood, tree, spear’

dnà.

self-transporting: to walk somewhere-dat etc.;
(mathematics) a vector

dnù. (with outer partitive) leg

Usage notes

This word can connote walking somewhere for a purpose, or walking with an aim, as fràw. is the go-to word for ambling aimlessly.

Etymology

NLem dn‑a
LMLem drn‑a ‘run’
MLem drnu‑a
OLem drnu‑
PLem *drnu‑, nasal-infix present of
PIE *dreu̯‑

doublet of dràw.

Cognates

probably Ved drávati ‘runs’, Cro Drava and other European river names; Eng dromedary is from a related PIE root

dnàs.

to assure, convince someone-dat about something-acc;
dat, perfect: to be certain, sure about something-acc (see unit 13, Verbs of certainty)

Etymology

NLem dans‑a
LMLem, MLem dans‑yr ‘adept, confident’
OLem dans‑ ‘become adept’
PLem *dans‑, root present of
PIE *dens‑

Cognates

Eng didactic (via Gk διδακτικός ‘skilled in teaching’)

dnià.

to make mortar

Etymology

NLem gni‑a
LMLem konì‑yr ‘plaster (for coating walls)’
Koi κονί‑ᾱ ‘dust, plaster (for coating walls)’
SHell *koní‑ā
PIE *kón‑os ‘dust, ashes’

Cognates

Eng in‑cinerate (via Lat cinis ‘ashes’)

dnujrà.

to make the river Danube

Etymology

gender change of
NLem dnuj‑arg‑a, clarifying compound of
  NLem dnuj‑a
LMLem danòj‑yr
MLem danouj‑yr
PCelt *danouy‑ós, derivation, u-present of
PIE *dʰenh₂‑ ‘slip away’
 —and—
  NLem arg‑a ‘river’
LMLem, MLem arg‑ar
OLem arg‑ ‘flow, drip’
PLem *arg‑, root present of
PIE *reg̑‑

Cognates

Eng Danube; Ice raki ‘moisture, dampness’

dmà.

to make many, much (relative weight 3⁄4; see unit 7, Weighting numerals – usually with partitive bracket; see unit 8, Cardinal numerals)

also an alternative name for the language game mentioned under dmàj.

Etymology

gender change of
NLem bmin‑a ‘full’
LMLem, MLem pylmen‑yr
OLem pylhmen‑
PLem *palhmen‑
PIE *pl̥h₁‑mh̥₁n‑ós ‘filled’, root present mediopassive participle of
  PIE *pleh₁‑ ‘fill, become full’

See Ràbv. for information on Ghean weighting numerals.

Cognates

Eng full, Lat plēnus ‘full’

dmàd.

to make islands

Etymology

NLem dmyd‑a ‘private, secluded space > island’
LMLem domàti‑yr ‘room, chamber’
Koi δωμάτι‑ον, diminutive of
  Koi δῶμα ‘house’, rebuilt as μα-stem of
SHell *dõ
PIE *dómh₂‑s, nominalisation of
  PIE *demh₂‑ ‘build’

doublet of dmàk.

The modern meaning was originally sailors’ jargon until it came into wider use in the last centuries.

Cognates

Eng dome (via Lat domus ‘house’)

dmàk.

to make bricks

Etymology

NLem damk‑a
LMLem, MLem damk‑yr
OLem damk‑ ‘build; brick’
PLem *damx‑ ‘build’, root present of
PIE *demh₂‑

doublet of dmàd.

Cognates

Eng dome (via Lat domus ‘house’)

dmàt.

to make/produce an optical stimulus;
to seem to someone-dat (to be) somehow-qualnom;
dat: to see (agentive: look at) something-nom, the image of something-acc;
dat, perfect: to know something-nom (having seen it)

dmùt. (with outer partitive) eye

dmetfàw. to watch television
dmetfùw. (with outer partitive) the medium of television; television set

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem demt‑a
OLem demt‑
PLem *dems‑, Narten present of
PIE *dekʷs‑ ‘show’

The word for television is a calque from British.

Cognates

Av daxšat̰ ‘teach(?)’

dmàj.

to make quite a lot (relative weight 5⁄8; see unit 7, Weighting numerals – usually with partitive bracket; see unit 8, Cardinal numerals)

also an old language game for four, five, seven or ten players, focusing on abstract thought. Although the game is 4000 years old, this cover term only came into use by Early New Lemizh times when it still meant ‘make full’.

Etymology

NLem bmin‑a ‘full’
LMLem, MLem pylmen‑yr
OLem pylhmen‑
PLem *palhmen‑
PIE *pl̥h₁‑mh̥₁n‑ós ‘filled’, root present mediopassive participle of
  PIE *pleh₁‑ ‘fill, become full’

See Ràbv. for information on Ghean weighting numerals.

Cognates

Eng full, Lat plēnus ‘full’

djà.

to sell something-acc to someone-dat;
dat: to buy something-acc from someone-nom

djÌ. purchase (something bought)

Etymology

irregular poststem of
NLem taln‑a
LMLem, MLem talnk‑a ‘burden’ [tr.]
OLem talnk‑
PLem *talnx‑ ‘lift up, take upon oneself’, nasal-infix present of
PIE *telh₂‑

Cognates

Eng thole, tolerate (via Lat tolerō ‘endure’), Lat tollō ‘lift up, take away’

djàt.

to make (it) daytime

djèRt. morning
djìRt. evening

For compounds denoting weekdays, see the appendix, Date.

Usage notes

Daytime, like the Sun, is mythologically and poetically seen as male. This is the source of the ‘male’ (non-zero) poststem. See also the word for the night.

Etymology

gender change of
NLem dje‑a
LMLem djè‑yr
MLem djei‑yr ‘day’
OLem djei‑
PLem *djēw‑
PIE *di̯ḗu‑s ‘sky’

Cognates

Gk Ζεύς ‘Zeus’, Lat diēs ‘day’

djàvf.

to make a week, a time span of seven days (see appendix, Units of measurement, for usage)

Etymology

NLem djevf‑a
LMLem djèqif‑yr
MLem djei‑qif‑yr, compound of
  MLem djei‑yr ‘day’
OLem djei‑
PLem *djēw‑
PIE *di̯ḗu‑s ‘sky’
 —and—
  MLem qif‑yl ‘seven’
OLem thift‑, inflected form of
PLem *seftam
PIE *septḿ̥

Cognates

Lat diēs ‘day’; Eng seven

djeipysràd.

to make the god or the planet Jupiter/Zeus (symbol: ↯)

Usage notes

This is the head of the PIE polytheistic religion’s pantheon in the Lemizh denomination. Other denominations such as Greek and Ethiynic polytheism mainly differ in gods’ names, holidays, and other details. Anyway, no one takes the gods very seriously today.

See xàps. for the associated weekday.

Etymology

gender change of
NLem djeipysir‑a, academic loan of
OLem djeipysir‑ ‘Father Sky’
PLem *djēw‑paser‑, compound of
  PLem *djēw‑ ‘sky’
PIE *di̯ḗu‑s
 —and—
  PLem *paser‑ ‘father’
PIE *ph̥₂tér‑s

Cognates

Gk Ζεύς Πατήρ ‘Father Zeus’, Lat Jupiter

djingmesrà.

to make the goddess Terra/Gaia, also the Earth when explicitly referred to as a planet among the others (symbol: ⊕)

Usage notes

See djeipysràd. for more information on Lemizh polytheism, and xnà. for the weekday associated with this goddess.

Etymology

NLem dzingmesir‑a, academic loan of
OLem dzingmēsir‑ ‘Mother Earth’
PLem *dzeng‑māser‑, compound of
  PLem *dzeng‑ ‘?’, Narten present of
PIE *dʰég̑ʰ‑
 —and—
  PLem *māser‑ ‘mother’
PIE *méh₂ter‑s

The first part of the PLem compound *dzeng‑māser‑ is the (verbal) root of PLem *dzeng‑om‑ ‘earth’ and is of unclear meaning.

Cognates

Eng humus (via Lat humus ‘ground, earth, soil’); Eng mother

djistnàt.

to make the god or the planet Saturn/Kronos (symbol: )

Usage notes

See djeipysràd. for more information on Lemizh polytheism, and nàt. for the weekday associated with this god.

Etymology

NLem dziskont‑a, academic loan of
OLem dziskont‑ ‘Seedputter (the God of agriculture)’
PLem *dzeskont‑
PIE *dʰh̥₁sk̑‑ónt‑s ‘putting, making’, sk̑é-present active participle of
  PIE *dʰeh₁‑ ‘put, make’

The root is probably the same as in PIE *dʰóh₁‑n‑eh₂ ‘seed, grain’.

Cognates

Gk δίδωμι ‘give’, Lat ‘give’

djnirà.

to live as a nomad

Etymology

NLem dznir‑a
LMLem, MLem dwaxner‑ar
OLem dwa‑xner‑, compound of
  OLem dw‑ ‘move about’
PLem *dw‑, root present of
PIE *tekʷ‑ ‘run, flow’
 —and—
  OLem xner‑ ‘man’
PLem *xner‑
PIE *h₂nér‑s

Cognates

Lit tekù ‘run, flow’; Gk ἀνήρ ‘man’

djmà.

dat: to taste something-nom; nom: to taste of something-acc

djmù. (with outer partitive) tongue

Etymology

NLem djmi‑a ‘tongue’
LMLem dyngwè‑yr
MLem dyngwee‑yr
OLem dyngwē‑
PLem *dangwā‑
PIE *dn̥g̑ʰu̯éh₂‑s

Cognates

Eng tongue, Lat lingua ‘tongue, speech’

dwà.

to make two individuals

Usage notes

The number two conjures up teatime. The traditional Lemizh teatime ritual is more akin to the English than to the Chinese one – homely, without much fuss, and ideally for two people.

Etymology

NLem dwO‑a
LMLem dwÒ‑yl
MLem dwOO‑yl
OLem dwö‑, inflected form of
PLem *dwō
PIE *du̯óh₁

Cognates

Eng two, Gk δύο ‘two’

dwàc.

to marry (Traditionally, the man is in the nom and the woman in the dat; the more modern approach is to use the nom for both, combined with a partitive ‘and’.); a wedding

dwèc. spouse, bridegroom, husband
dwìc. spouse, bride, wife
dwèc. (with outer partitive) spouse
dwìlc. marriage

dwecRìc. king’s wife; also the constellation Cassiopeia (see appendix, Constellations)

Usage notes

While a modern Lemizh marriage amounts to a sincere promise, little is known about the situation in Old Lemizh times. OLem dwarnh‑ seems to have referred to a rather more informal concept; it may have meant something closer to ‘get engaged’.

The resemblence to dwà. ‘make two’ is pure chance but often seen as quite fitting.

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem dwarn‑a
OLem dwarnh‑
PLem *dwarnh‑, nasal-infix present of
PIE *tu̯erh₁‑ ‘grasp’

Cognates

Lit tveriù ‘grasp’, Gk σειρᾱ́ ‘rope, chain’

dwàcj.

to be enthusiastic about something-acc/causal-transporting, also dat/causal-receiving (see unit 3, Ambiguous usage)

Etymology

NLem dwarjm‑a
LMLem, MLem dwarnw‑yr
OLem dwarnw‑ ‘excite joyfully, fill with enthusiasm’
PLem *dwarnw‑, néu̯-present of
PIE *tu̯er‑ ‘drive’

Cognates

Ved tvárate ‘hurry’

dwàw.

to make bottles

Etymology

NLem dwOwr‑a
LMLem dwÒ‑wer‑yr ‘amphora, bottle’, nominalisation, compound of
  LMLem dwÒ‑yl ‘two’
MLem dwOO‑yl
OLem dwö‑, inflected form of
PLem *dwō
PIE *du̯óh₁
 —and—
  LMLem, MLem wer‑a ‘carry, bear’
OLem wer‑
PLem *bwer‑, Narten present of
PIE *bʰer‑

This is a LMLem calque from Koi ἀμφορεύς ‘amphora’.

Cognates

Eng two; Eng bear

dwnàt.

to hit something-dat; to smash, shatter something-dat into something-acc [e.g. shards] by hitting it;
dat: to be hit; to shatter into something-acc

The ‘destroying’ meanings are distinguished from the ‘hitting’ one by the acc object or – often simpler – by instead using nominal verbs such as skràp. ‘split, turn into parts’, shardà. ‘turn into shards’, etc.

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem dwant‑a ‘shatter’
OLem dwant‑
PLem *dwans‑ ‘crumble’, nasal-infix present of
PIE *dʰu̯ens‑ ‘crumble, dissipate’

Cognates

Ved dhváṁsate ‘crumbles, dissipates’, arguably Eng dust

bà.

to make female(s), to make women (symbol: ⊕)

Etymology

NLem b‑a
LMLem, MLem b‑yr
Ghe pˇ‑ə /bə/

Cognates

Claims that the Ghe word is loaned from PCelt *bén‑ā < PIE *gʷén‑eh₂ ‘woman’ are purely hypothetical.

bàbj.

to make parrots

Etymology

NLem babj‑a
LMLem, MLem babj‑yr
OTroy παπγ‑α /ˈbabɰa/, onomatopoetic, probably from a South Asian language

Cognates

Ger Papagei ‘parrot’ (via Ar بَبَّغَاء ‘parrot’)

bàj.

to make gardens, to garden

Etymology

NLem baj‑a
LMLem bàj‑yr
OPers bāğ ‘garden, orchard’

bàst.

to do heroic deeds, to be a hero

bèst. hero

bastjàx. hero’s journey, hero’s quest

Etymology

NLem bast‑a
LMLem bast‑ar, nominalisation of
Koi βαστ‑ώ ‘lift, raise, bear’, short form of
  Koi βαστάζ‑ω, of Pre-Greek origin

Cognates

Ital bastare ‘be enough, suffice’

bilà.

to approve of something-acc/dat

Etymology

NLem bil‑a
LMLem, MLem bybil‑a ‘bless’
OLem bybil‑ ‘blessed’
PLem *babil‑ ‘?’
Akk 𒆍𒀭𒊏𒆠 ‘gate of God’

bunà.

to make coffee

bunÌ. coffee (beverage)
bunì. coffee beans, ground coffee

Usage notes

An old urban legend held that coffee was made from dead, pulverised rabbits, or alternatively that coffee beans were roasted rabbit droppings. No one believes that, nowadays.

Etymology

NLem buna‑a
Amh buna (or from another Afro-Asiatic language)

blà.

to make strong, to strengthen

Usage notes

The Lemizh have never taken strength quite seriously. This can be exemplified with a Late Middle Lemizh author who wrote ‘Any reason for strength is just idle talk’. Incidentally, he was killed by a disoriented wrestler.

Etymology

NLem bl‑a
LMLem bl‑yr
MLem blu‑yr
OLem blu‑
PLem *blu‑, u-stem adjective of
PIE *bel‑

Cognates

Gk βελτίων ‘better’, Lat de‑bīlis ‘weak’

blàdj.

to announce something-acc to someone-dat

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem blUrdz‑a ‘shout, curse’
OLem blürdz‑
PLem *blu‑wardz‑ ‘strong word, swear word’, compound of
  PLem *blu‑ ‘strong’, u-stem adjective of
PIE *bel‑
 —and—
  PLem *wardz‑ ‘word’
PIE *u̯r̥dʰ‑ós

Cognates

Gk βελτίων ‘better’; Eng word

blàp.

to make a momentum unit, a momentum of 53.13 millinewton-seconds (see appendix, Units of measurement)

Etymology

gender change of
NLem bel‑a, academic loan of
Koi βέλ‑ος ‘missile, arrow’, levelling of
SHell *q̌él‑os
PIE *gʷélh₁‑os, zero-affix noun of
  PIE *gʷelh₁‑ ‘hit, throw’

Gender change occurred to avoid homophony with blà. ‘strong’, and also because physicists wanted to be taken seriously.

Cognates

Eng ballistic (via Gk βάλλω ‘throw’) and probably ball (dancing party) (via Gk βαλλίζω ‘dance’)

bràk.

to make dwarfs

Etymology

NLem bark‑a
LMLem, MLem bark‑yr
OLem bark‑
PLem *bark‑, of unknown origin

bvà.

to make a medium number/amount (relative weight 1⁄2; see unit 7, Weighting numerals – usually with partitive bracket; see unit 8, Cardinal numerals)

Etymology

NLem bw‑a ‘much’
LMLem, MLem bw‑yr
Ghe pˡ‑ə /bʷə/

See Ràbv. for more on Ghean weighting numerals.

bvràc.

to dress someone-dat in something-acc;
self-receiving: to dress in something-acc;
dat, perfect: to wear some clothes-acc

Etymology

NLem bwrOr‑a
LMLem, MLem perwer‑a ‘wear (clothes)’
OLem per‑wer‑, compound of
  OLem peri ‘around, through’
PLem, PIE *peri
 —and—
  OLem wer‑ ‘carry, bear’
PLem *bwer‑, Narten present of
PIE *bʰer‑

Cognates

Gk περί ‘about, around’; Eng bear

kà.

opposition (‘minus’) negator (see unit 6, Negators): to turn something-dat into the opposite;
to make minus one individual

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem k‑a
Ghe q‑a /qa/

Development of the minus sign

k →  → _

kamlà.

to make camels

Etymology

NLem kaml‑a
LMLem kàmel‑yr
Koi κάμηλ‑ος
SHell *kámēl‑os
PSem *gamal-

Compare kamlàj. and kamlàc..

Cognates

Eng camel, Ar جَمَل ‘camel’

kamlàj.

to make two-humped or Bactrian camels

Etymology

poststem from plural of
NLem kaml‑a ‘camel’ (see kamlà.)

kamlàc.

to make one-humped camels or dromedaries (also a constellation in the region of Carina and Vela, the Ship’s keel and sails)

Etymology

poststem from singular of
NLem kaml‑a ‘camel’ (see kamlà.)

kàk.

self-transporting: to go somewhere-dat etc. on wheels

kùk. (with outer partitive) wheel

Etymology

NLem kUkl‑a
LMLem kÙkl‑yr ‘wheel, circle’
Koi κύκλ‑ος
SHell *qúql‑os
PIE *kʷékʷl‑os

replaced native MLem gweml‑yr

Cognates

Eng wheel, cycle (via Lat cyclus)

kàt.

to make cats

Usage notes

Cats, being regarded as somewhat mysterious creatures as in many cultures, have a whole host of associations, a common theme being causality and its absence. A good synopsis is:

Etymology

NLem kat‑a
LMLem kàt‑yr
MLem kaut‑yr
Egy ṯaute ‘jungle cat’, female form of
  Egy ṯaus

Cognates

Eng cat, Ital gatto ‘cat’

kàcx.

to make horns

kècx. horned (animal)
korncxnès. rhinoceros

Etymology

NLem karxn‑a
LMLem, MLem karxn‑yr
OLem karxn‑
PLem *karxn‑
PIE *k̑r̥h₂n‑ós

Cognates

Eng horn, Lat cornū ‘horn’

kàx.

to make a speed (actually a rapidity) unit, a speed of 6.980 centimetres per second (see appendix, Units of measurement)

Etymology

NLem koxl‑a ‘unit of velocity’, academic loan of
Koi κόχλ‑ος ‘snail (shell)’, probably related to
  Koi κόγχ‑η ‘mussel’
SHell *kónkh‑ā
PIE *kóngʰ‑eh₂ ‘shell, mussel’

The name of the basic speed unit was chosen for its slowness. It was redefined from a unit of speed to one of rapidity upon the discovery of Lorentz symmetry.

Cognates

Eng, Lat cochlea

kàxk.

to regret something-acc

Etymology

NLem kexk‑a
LMLem kèxk‑a
MLem keexk‑a
OLem kēhk‑
PLem *kāhx‑ ‘crave’, intensive of
PIE *keh₂‑ ‘desire, covet’

Cognates

Lat cārus ‘beloved, expensive’, Ved (ā́) caké ‘desire, be fond of’

kàst.

to weep

kÌst. tear

Etymology

NLem kust‑a
LMLem, MLem kuzt‑a
OLem kuzt‑
PLem *kuzt‑, root present of
PIE *keu̯sdʰh₁‑ ‘hide’

The meaning probably developed from the idea of hiding one’s face when weeping.

Cognates

Eng hoard

keltàj.

self-transporting: to swing (only of pendulums)

keltÌj. pendulum

Etymology

poststem from plural of
NLem kelt‑a ‘pendulum, tail’

The plural poststem reflects a pendulum’s repetitive swinging. See klàt. for further information.

klàt.

to make tails

Etymology

NLem kelt‑a ‘pendulum, tail’
LMLem kè‑alt‑ar ‘pendulum’, nominalisation, compound of
  LMLem kè‑a ‘swing’
MLem kei‑a ‘wobble, swing’
OLem kei‑
PLem *kēw‑, Narten present of
PIE *keh₁u̯‑
 —and—
  LMLem, MLem alt‑yr ‘heavy’
OLem alt‑
PLem *als‑ ‘gather, pick up’, root present of
PIE *les‑

See also keltàj..

Cognates

Lat cēveō ‘move one’s haunches’; Ger lesen ‘gather, read’

klàp.

dat: to steal something-acc

klèp. thief

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem kalp‑a
OLem kalp‑
PLem *kalp‑, root present of
PIE *klep‑

Cognates

Eng klepto‑maniac (via Gk κλέπτω ‘steal’)

klàj.

to cope (agentive: deal) with, handle something-dat

Usage notes

This word, in its Early New Lemizh form, is the title of the Tlöngö̀l, which many Lemizh refuse to recognise as their national epic.

Etymology

NLem tlOn‑a ‘endure, pluck up courage’
LMLem tlèn‑a
Koi τλῆναι, nasal-infix present of
PIE *telh₂‑ ‘lift up, take upon oneself’

Cognates

Eng thole, tolerate (via Lat tolerō ‘endure’), Lat tollō ‘lift up, take away’

klàf.

to make (draw, paint, take) pictures

Etymology

NLem telf‑a
Besk tełf ‘picture, image’
PCelt *délw‑ā ‘figure, form, image’
PIE *délh₁‑u̯‑eh₂, nominalisation of
  PIE *delh₁‑ ‘hew, split’

Like many other culture related terms, this was a loan introduced in the Tlöngö̀l, where a painting of a precipice plays a prominent role.

Cognates

Ir dealbh ‘statue’, Lat doleō ‘hurt’

kRà.

to work (to do a task or job)

Usage notes

While etymologically ‘work with one’s hands’, this verb now denotes mental as well as physical work. Contrast smrà. ‘function, be in operation’, which either refers to machines or to humans (or animals) doing monotonous, often mindless and tiring work.

Etymology

NLem teR‑a ‘touch (intentionally), grasp’
LMLem tèR‑a
MLem teeR‑a ‘touch’
OLem tēgh‑
PLem *tāɦ‑, Narten present of
PIE *teh₂g‑ ‘touch, grasp’

Cognates

Lat tangō ‘touch, grasp’; unrelated to the dance

kRàq.

to make musical notes, tones

Etymology

NLem tiRq‑a, irregular development of
Besk tiŕt ‘sound’
PCelt *dúrd‑os, of unknown origin

The NLem outcome should be **tiRta. It is strongly suspected that Ramo intentionally misspelled the word in the Tlöngö̀l to get a softer sounding word.

krà.

to make a time unit, a time span of 1.318 seconds (see appendix, Time and Units of measurement)

krilrÌj. 16 time units, a time span of about 20 seconds
krilskmÌ. 256 time units, a time span of about 5½ minutes
kriljÌs. 4096 time units, a time span of 90 minutes
krilmrÌj. 65,536 time units, a time span of 24 hours

Etymology

gender change of
NLem kard‑a, shortened form, academic loan of
Koi καρδί‑ᾱ ‘heart’
SHell *kr̥dí‑ā
PIE *k̑r̥dí‑eh₂, i̯-extension, feminine of
  PIE *k̑érd‑s

The name of the basic time unit was chosen for its length of (very roughly) a heartbeat. Gender change occurred to avoid homophony with the related word kràd. ‘(heart)beat’.

Cognates

Eng heart, Lat cor ‘heart’, Gk καρδία ‘heart’

kràgw.

to be mad, insane, to behave madly

krègw. mad(man)

Etymology

NLem krOgwn‑a
LMLem krègwon‑ar
MLem kreigwon‑ar ‘bloodthirsty’
OLem krei‑gwon‑, endocentric compound (tatpurusha) of
  OLem krei‑ ‘blood (outside the body)’
PLem *krēw‑
PIE *kréu̯h₂‑s, nominalisation of
  PIE *kreu̯h₂‑ ‘(make) bleed’
 —and—
  OLem gwon‑ ‘eager’
PLem *gwon‑
PIE *k̑u̯ón‑s ‘dog’

Cognates

Gk κρέας ‘flesh’; Eng hound

kràd.

to beat (only of the heart)

krèd. heart

Etymology

NLem kerd‑a
LMLem, MLem kerd‑ar
OLem kerd‑ ‘heart’
PLem *kerd‑
PIE *k̑érd‑s

Cognates

Eng heart, Lat cor ‘heart’, Gk καρδία ‘heart’

kràb.

to make crabs

Etymology

NLem krobl‑a ‘stronghold; crab’
LMLem akròpoli‑yr ‘upper town, castle, stronghold’
Koi ἀκρό‑πολι‑ς, compound of
  Koi ἄκρ‑ος ‘sharp, topmost’
SHell *ákr‑os ‘sharp’, r-stem adjective of
PIE *h₂ek̑‑ ‘be sharp’
 —and—
  Koi πόλι‑ς ‘city’
SHell *tpóli‑s ‘fortification’
PIE *tpólh₁i‑s

The NLem metaphorical use of the word for a stronghold to denote crabs comes from their defensive exoskeleton and pincers.

The literal use lives on in two words: kroblÌc. ‘Kroblizh, Shabar Castle, the castle of Lemaria’s capital’ with a singular poststem and kroblÌj. ‘[any] castle’, the corresponding plural from.

Cognates

Lat aceō ‘be sour’; Eng police (via Gk πόλις ‘city’)

kràt.

to hunt, to chase someone/something-acc

krèt. also the constellation Orion (see appendix, Constellations)
krÙlt. to catch (up with) someone/something-dat

kratylàs. to hunt in vain; a vain hunt, a wild-goose chase (often used with inner ten: to intend / be about to go on a wild-goose chase)

kràt spàzy. the pursuit of happiness

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem kart‑a
OLem kart‑
PLem *kars‑ ‘run’, root present of
PIE *k̑ers‑ or *k̑ers‑

Cognates

Gk Ἐπί‑κουρος (Epicurus) ‘ally’ (lit. ‘one running with [someone]’), Lat currō ‘run’

kràj.

to form an ensemble of something-dat (see unit 7, Grouping numerals)

krÌj. ensemble, (mathematics) group
krìj. component

krijcnÌzd. plumage
krijfnÌwb. family (also the biological rank)
etc.

Etymology

NLem korj‑a
LMLem, MLem korj‑yr ‘male association’
OLem korj‑
PLem *korj‑
PIE *kór‑i̯‑os, derivation of
  PIE *kór‑os ‘war’

Cognates

Ger Heer ‘army’, Gk Κοιρό‑μαχος and other proper names; unrelated to Ger Krieg ‘war’

kràx.

to scratch someone/something-dat

krÌx. a scratch

krixfplèx. skyscraper

Etymology

NLem krUxr‑a
LMLem krixr‑a
MLem krixrU‑a ‘(make) bleed’
OLem krixrü‑
PLem *krixrū‑, i-reduplicated athematic present of
PIE *kreu̯h₂‑

Cognates

Gk κρέας ‘flesh’

kràxt.

to act/move nimbly, to make one’s actions-acc nimble

Etymology

NLem kront‑a
LMLem, MLem yrkant‑yr ‘crippled’
OLem hyrkant‑
PLem *harkans‑ ‘damage, harm’, nasal-infix present of
PIE *h₁rek̑s‑

The nasal-infix present was probably innovated in PLem as it is unlikely for a PIE root with this phonetic structure.

Cognates

Gk ἐρέχθω ‘rend, break’

kràst.

to make throats

krystrÙjd. robin; redthroat

Etymology

NLem karst‑a
LMLem, MLem karst‑yr
OLem karst‑
PLem *karst‑
PIE *kŕ̥s‑t‑s ‘cut’, verbal adjective of
  PIE *kers‑

The throat is probably named for its function to separate head and body.

Cognates

Hit karaszi ‘cuts, separates’

kroblàj.

to make castles

Etymology

poststem from plural of
NLem krobl‑a ‘stronghold; crab’
LMLem akròpoli‑yr ‘upper town, castle, stronghold’
Koi ἀκρόπολι‑ς

See kràb. for more.

kroblàc.

to make Kroblizh (Shabar Castle, the royal castle of Lemaria’s capital)

Etymology

poststem from singular of
NLem krobl‑a ‘stronghold; crab’
LMLem akròpoli‑yr ‘upper town, castle, stronghold’
Koi ἀκρόπολι‑ς

See kràb. for more.

kmà.

dat: may do something-acc;
to allow someone-dat to do something-acc (see unit 13, Overview of the modals)

Etymology

NLem kem‑a
LMLem kèm‑a
MLem keem‑a ‘announce, praise’
OLem kēm‑
PLem *kēm‑, Narten present of
PIE *k̑ems‑

Cognates

Eng census (via Lat cēnseō ‘count, opine’), Ved śáṁsati ‘praises’

khàv.

to present evidence for something-acc to someone-dat;
dat, perfect: to consider something-acc evident (see unit 13, Verbs of certainty)

khùv. (with outer partitive) evidence

Etymology

NLem khev‑a
LMLem, MLem kehev‑a ‘call’
OLem kishidh‑
PLem *keshidh‑, e-reduplicated athematic present of
PIE *k̑ei̯d‑

Cognates

Ger heißen ‘be called’

khlà.

to make lace

Etymology

NLem kxil‑a
Besk kxił
PCelt *kúl‑om ‘knot’, of unknown origin

Cognates

Wel cwlwm ‘knot’

khnà.

to shout something-acc at someone-dat

Etymology

NLem kxon‑a ‘sing’
Besk kxån
PCelt *kán‑ū, full-grade thematic present of
PIE *kan‑

see also ganà.

Cognates

Lat canō ‘sing’, Ir can ‘sing’

khwà.

to be easygoing, nonconformist

Etymology

gender change of
NLem kxwar‑n‑a ‘unreliable, reckless, devil-may-care’, compound of
  NLem kxwar‑a ‘faeces’
LMLem, MLem kuxwar‑yr
OLem kuhwar‑
PLem *kohwar‑
PIE *k̑ókʷr̥
 —and—
  NLem, LMLem n‑a ‘not’
MLem ne‑a
OLem ne‑, inflected form of
PLem *ne
PIE *ne ‘no, not’

The compound is probably based on the idea of someone ‘not giving a shit’. See also khwàc..

Cognates

Gk κόπρος ‘dung, filth, dirt’; Eng no

khwàc.

to be / act as a rogue, to behave in a rogue way, to be a rascal

Etymology

NLem kxwar‑n‑a ‘unreliable, reckless, devil-may-care’, compound of
  NLem kxwar‑a ‘faeces’
LMLem, MLem kuxwar‑yr
OLem kuhwar‑
PLem *kohwar‑
PIE *k̑ókʷr̥
 —and—
  NLem, LMLem n‑a ‘not’
MLem ne‑a
OLem ne‑, inflected form of
PLem *ne
PIE *ne ‘no, not’

The compound is probably based on the idea of someone ‘not giving a shit’. See also khwà..

Cognates

Gk κόπρος ‘dung, filth, dirt’; Eng no

ksrà.

to make grey

ksrynÌs. tennessine

Etymology

NLem ksr‑a
LMLem, MLem ksr‑yr
OLem ksr‑
PLem *ksr‑, r-stem adjective of
PIE *k̑as‑

Most basic colour terms in Lemizh are r-stem Caland adjectives, perhaps motivated by the word for ‘red’.

Cognates

Eng hare (lit. ‘the grey one’), Lat cānus ‘grey, old’

ksmàs.

to make tree squirrels

Usage notes

Calling someone a squirrel refers to their thrift or stinginess, often combined with a tendency to come up with unexpected presents (especially in winter). This use is only attested from Early New Lemizh.

Etymology

NLem ksmUs‑a
LMLem, MLem kesmUs‑yr
OLem kes‑müs‑, clarifying compound of
  OLem kes‑
PLem kes‑, of unknown origin
 —and—
  OLem müs‑ ‘mouse’
PLem *mūs‑
PIE *múh₂s

Might have referred to other tree-dwelling rodents in the past, but in NLem it is definitely the red squirrel, Sciurus vulgaris. Extended to tree squirrels of other continents in modern times.

Cognates

Eng mouse, Lat mūs ‘mouse’

kfràjd.

to claim something-acc (see unit 13, Verbs of certainty)

Etymology

NLem kfrOnd‑a
LMLem, MLem kfrend‑a
OLem kfrend‑ ‘claim, insist’
PLem *kfrend‑, Narten present of
PIE *kʷrend‑ ‘yell, neigh’

Cognates

Ved krándati ‘yell, neigh’

tà.

definite pronoun: see unit 6, Demonstrative pronouns

tÌ. this/that (one);
with outer causative/persuasive: therefore;
with outer temporal: at this/that time;
with outer locative: here/there;
etc.

Etymology

NLem t‑a
LMLem, MLem t‑yr ‘this, that’
OLem t‑
PLem *t‑
PIE *t‑ód

Cognates

Eng that, the, Gk τό ‘the’

taà.

to measure the circle

taù., τ = 2π = 6.28318530717958647692528676655900…

Usage notes

The Lemizh got it right. Yes, really.

Etymology

academic loan, back formation of
Koi ταῦ ‘the letter τ’, from τόρνος ‘lathe, compass (drawing tool)’ and Τερψιχόρη, the muse of dancing

Cognates

either Eng turn, or Lit tarpstù ‘thrive, prosper’ and probably Ger dürfen ‘may, be allowed’

tamgà.

to tango with someone-dat (the man is usually in the nom and the lady in the dat); a tango (action of dancing)

tamgè. male tango partner
tamgì. female tango partner

Etymology

NLem tamgu‑a
< Ibibio tamgu ‘to dance’

tàk.

dat: to grasp something-acc;
dat, perfect: to hold something-acc (e.g. in one’s hands)

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem tek‑a
OLem tek‑ ‘take into one’s hand(s), grasp’
PLem *tex‑ ‘acquire’, Narten present of
PIE *tek‑

Cognates

Lit tèkti ‘receive’; unrelated to Eng take

tàp.

dat: to assume something-acc

Usage notes

Conceptually, we assume something if it is that which is typically the case under the given circumstances; what seems to follow from the given circumstances. This is also the basis for this verb’s etymology.

Etymology

NLem tUp‑a
LMLem tÙp‑yr ‘(something) typical’
Koi τύπ‑ος ‘impression, mark > type’
SHell *túp‑os ‘impression, mark’, nominalisation of
  SHell *túpt‑ō ‘push, hit’, zero-grade i̯é-present of
PIE *teu̯p‑, form without s-mobile of
  PIE *steu̯p‑

doublet of stàd., stedràj. and stedràc.

Cognates

Eng type (via Gk)

tàj.

to make/build/found cities, towns

Etymology

NLem taj‑a
LMLem, MLem taxj‑yr ‘dwelling’
OLem taçj‑
PLem *taçj‑, o-stem adjective of
PIE *tk̑ei̯‑ ‘dwell, farm’

Cognates

Ved kṣéti ‘dwells’, Gk ἔκτισσα ‘found (a city)’

tàcd.

to make more, to make a larger amount (often with qualitative; often compounded; see unit 11, Verbs of comparison and Comparative)

Usage notes

The difficulty of locating more of something (such as knowledge, wisdom) has been a common theme in literature and other arts since Late Middle Lemizh times; e.g. thinkà tìlcdy gwÌar. in the well-known song (‘Won’t you dance for me cos I just don’t care / What’s going on today, I think there’s something more…’). Compare àst..

Etymology

gender change, anomalous poststem formation (under the influence of àst. ‘make the most’) of
NLem, LMLem tir‑a
MLem tiro‑a, back formation of
OLem comparative suffix ‑tiro‑
PLem *‑tero‑
PIE *‑tero‑s

Cognates

Eng far‑ther, Gk comparative suffix ‑τερος

tàx.

to make/produce art, (an) art

tÌx. artwork

Etymology

NLem texn‑a
LMLem tèxn‑yr
Koi τέχν‑η ‘craft, art’
SHell *tékhn‑ā, nominalisation of
PIE *tetk̑‑ ‘produce, create’

Cognates

Eng technical, Ved tákṣati ‘timbers, produces, creates’

telmà.

to make an electric capacitance unit, a capacitance of 0.8959 farads (see appendix, Units of measurement)

telmàr. (jocular, nerdy) location of a treasure

Etymology

shortened form, academic loan of
Koi τέλμα ‘swamp’, possibly from
  Koi τέλλω ‘perform, accomplish’
PIE *kʷelh₁‑ ‘turn (around)’

Most electric units use the electricity is water metaphor, which relates electric capacitance to a water reservoir. A lake (Koi λίμνη) would have been the obvious choice, but the symbol l was already used for the mass unit.

The jocular meaning of the inner locative is based on viewing stored electricity as a treasure.

Cognates

possibly Ger dulden ‘tolerate, endure’

telmàx.

to (ride a) bicycle

telmÌx. a bicycle

Etymology

named for its inventor, one Τηλέμαχος (not the classical one)

tUxà.

to happen by chance

tUxà., tUxàl. chance, luck

Etymology

NLem tUx‑a
LMLem tÙx‑yr
Koi Τύχ‑η ‘Tyche (the Goddess of luck)’
SHell *túkh‑ā ‘luck, fortune’, nominalisation, zero-grade root stative of
PIE *dʰeu̯gʰ‑ ‘hit, produce something useful’

Cognates

Ger tüchtig ‘capable, efficient’, Ved duhé ‘give milk’

tlOnà.

tlOnÒl. Tlöngö̀l (the epic novel defining the onset of New Lemizh)

Etymology

NLem tlOn‑a ‘endure, pluck up courage’
LMLem tlèn‑a
Koi τλῆναι, nasal-infix present of
PIE *telh₂‑ ‘lift up, take upon oneself’

This verb is only used for the name of the epic. The modern form for all other purposes is klàj..

Cognates

Eng thole, tolerate (via Lat tolerō ‘endure’), Lat tollō ‘lift up, take away’

trà.

to make three individuals

Etymology

NLem trO‑a
LMLem trè‑yl
MLem tree‑yl
OLem trē‑
PLem *trē‑
PIE *tréi̯‑es

Cognates

Eng three, Gk τρεῖς ‘three’

tràgc.

to make music, the art of music

Etymology

NLem trUgj‑a
LMLem, MLem trigj‑yr
PCelt *trígy‑os, of unknown origin

tràd.

to twist something-dat into some shape-acc; to break something-dat into something-acc [e.g. into parts, in two] by torsion;
dat: to twist; to break into something-acc by torsion

The ‘deforming’ and ‘destroying’ meanings are distinguished by the acc object or – often simpler – by instead using a nominal verb expressing a shape, versus nominal verbs such as skràp. ‘split, turn into parts’, dwà. ‘turn into two [parts]’, etc.

Etymology

gender change of
NLem, LMLem, MLem tar‑a
OLem tarh‑ ‘drill, rub’
PLem *tarh‑, root present of
PIE *terh₁‑

Cognates

Lat terō ‘rub’, possibly Eng throw

tràw.

to perform witchcraft

trèw. witch

Usage notes

The idea that witches often come in threes is nicely matched by the phonological similarity to trÌ. ‘three’.

Etymology

NLem trom‑a
LMLem tràmi‑yr ‘gut’
Koi τράμι‑ς, nominalisation of
SHell *tér‑mi ‘drill, rub’, root present of
PIE *terh₁‑

The NLem word literally means ‘gut-maker’; the concept was probably ‘someone making the guts whole = someone healing the innards’. Gender change was inhibited by the word trÌ..

Cognates

Lat terō ‘rub’, possibly Eng throw

tràxk.

to make beavers

Etymology

NLem troxk‑a
LMLem, MLem troxk‑ar
OLem troçk‑ ‘gnaw to pieces’
PLem *troçk‑, sk̑-present of
PIE *treh₃g̑‑ ‘gnaw through’

Cognates

Gk τρώγω ‘gnaw through’, TochB treṣṣäṃ ‘chews (through)’

tnàdw.

to do duty as a captain, to captain a ship or crew-dat

tnèdw. captain

Etymology

NLem tondw‑a
LMLem, MLem etondb‑yr
Ghe etostpʱ‑ə /ɛtɔndʱbʱə/

tnàk.

to make bones

Etymology

NLem tank‑a
LMLem, MLem tank‑yr
OLem tank‑ ‘bony’
PLem *tanx‑ ‘thin’, o-stem adjective of
PIE *tenh₂‑

Cognates

Eng thin, Lat tenuis ‘thin, weak, slight’

tmà.

to make unexpected, to lead to an expectation opposite to something-acc [given previous information]

tmÌ. but, even (often in a bracket or compound with the unexpected object; for ‘even’, this object has an inner partitive; see pragmatics page II, Pragmatic adverbs and expressives)

Etymology

NLem tam‑a ‘(unpleasant) surprise’
LMLem, MLem tamn‑yr ‘(surprise) attack’
OLem tamnh‑ ‘cut’
PLem *tamnh‑, nasal-infix present of
PIE *temh₁‑

Cognates

Eng contempt (via Lat con‑temnō ‘despise’), Gk τέμνω ‘cut’

txà.

to make/prepare (black) tea from Camellia sinensis or other plants (see connotations)

txÌ. tea (beverage)
txì. tea ([dried] leaves)

txilàbv. to make/prepare white tea
txilàxw. to make green tea
txiwrà. to make black tea
txiflàc. to make oolong
(all with inner acc for the beverage and inner dat for the leaves)

Usage notes

This is the word for tea from the plant Camellia sinensis and, by extension, for other strongly aromatic sorts of tea, especially spiced teas.

Etymology

NLem tha‑a ‘black tea’
Man
OCh  /*rlaː, laː, ɦlja/ ‘a bitter tasting plant, tea’
PST *s-la ‘leaf, tea?, flat object’

The MLem word was li‑yr < OTroy ϲλι‑α /ˈhlia/ < OCh, before it was re-loaned from Man.

Cognates

Eng tea, chai

txatxàf.

to make mercury, quicksilver

Etymology

NLem tsatxaf‑a
LMLem etstxaf‑yr
MLem etst‑xaf‑yr, compound of
  MLem etst‑yr ‘silver’
Ghe etsᴛ‑ə /ɛts̟t̠ə/
 —and—
  MLem xaf‑yr ‘water’
OLem xaf‑ ‘water, stream’
PLem *xaf‑ ‘water’ [animate], stream’
PIE *h₂ép‑s

Cognates

Ved ā́p ‘water’, Ir abhainn ‘river’

txàsk.

to make loud, to make/produce a noise (level), a sound

Etymology

NLem txusk‑a
LMLem txutk‑a
MLem txut‑k‑a, compound of
  MLem txut‑yr ‘silent’
OLem txut‑
PLem *txus‑, o-stem adjective of
PIE *th₂eu̯s‑ ‘be silent’
 —and—
  MLem k‑a ‘opposition’
Ghe q‑a /qa/

Cognates

Hit tuhussiyezzi ‘watches quietly’

tfàd.

to make forests, woods

Etymology

NLem tfydR‑a
LMLem, MLem ytfydlz‑yr
Ghe əᴛf‑əᴛsˡ‑ə /ət̠ɸəd̠z̟ə/, compound of
  Ghe əᴛf‑ə /ət̠ɸə/ ‘night’
 —and—
  Ghe ᴛsˡ‑ə /d̠z̟ə/ ‘green’

pà.

to ask (interrogate) someone-dat about something-acc (see unit 16, Questions, imperative and exclamations)

là pÙla. to answer something-acc to someone-dat

Etymology

NLem pi‑a
LMLem pì‑a
MLem pii‑a ‘sing’
OLem pī‑
PLem *pī‑, root present of
PIE *pei̯h₂‑

Cognates

OCS pojǫ ‘sing’

pàbc.

to make/produce poison, venom

pìbc. slightly vulgar: damn, bloody (intensifier)

Etymology

NLem pibc‑a
LMLem pìp‑abgc‑yr, clarifying compound of
  LMLem pìp‑yr
MLem piip‑yr
OLem pīp‑
PLem *piwf‑ ‘drink’, i-reduplicated athematic present of
PIE *peh₃‑
 —and—
  LMLem, MLem abgc‑yr ‘bitter’
Ghe apqshˇ‑ə /abɢʒə/

Cognates

Lat bibō ‘drink’

pàt.

to make correct, right; to correct, fix something-dat

pèt pèpe. daddy doing [it/everything] right, daddy is right [about everything], a phrase loved by little and loathed by older children

Etymology

NLem pet‑a
LMLem, MLem pet‑yr
OLem pet‑
PLem *pesh‑ ‘be happy’, Narten present of
PIE *pek̑‑

Cognates

OEng ġefēon ‘rejoice’, Lit púošiu ‘decorate’

pàp.

to become a dad(dy)-nom

pèp. dad(dy) of someone-acc

Etymology

baby talk for psrèb. ‘father’

pàf.

to place a person-acc upright somewhere-dat etc.;
self-transporting: to stand up, get up, perfect: to stand somewhere ditto;

This verb is not used for objects whose position can be determined with spatial verbs alone (see ‘stand’ in the English / Lemizh dictionary). It is only needed to distinguish a standing from a sitting or squatting person, whose coordinate systems share the same orientation.

Etymology

NLem, LMLem pifn‑a
MLem pif‑ne‑a ‘stand (still)’, compound of
  MLem pif‑a ‘move (purposefully)’
OLem pifh‑ ‘move’ [intr.]
PLem *pifh‑, i-reduplicated athematic present of
PIE *peh₁‑
 —and—
  MLem ne‑a ‘not’
OLem ne‑, inflected form of
PLem *ne
PIE *ne ‘no, not’

Cognates

Ved vi-pipāná- ‘sorting out’, probably Hit pippanzi ‘overturn’

potmàs.

to make an electric current or magnetomotive force (‘magnetic voltage’) unit, a current of 43.72 milliamperes (see appendix, Units of measurement)

Etymology

shortened form, academic loan of
Koi ποταμ‑ός ‘river’, probably related to
Koi πῑ́πτ‑ω ‘fall’
SHell *pī́pt‑ō, i-reduplicated thematic present of
PIE *peth₂‑ ‘fly (up)’

Most electric units use the electricity is water metaphor, which relates an electric current to running water.

Cognates

Eng hippo‑potamus; probably feather, petition (via Lat petō ‘ask, request’)

plàk.

to unlock something-dat, to open a lock-acc to something-dat

plÌk. a lock
plùk. (with outer partitive) key

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem pylk‑a, reanalysis of
OLem pylkanh‑ ‘cover, conceal > lock’
PLem *palkanh‑ ‘cover, conceal’, néH-present of
PIE *pelk‑

The n was reanalysed as a negation in late OLem, after the syncope of stem-final h.

Cognates

Eng feal ‘hide’

plàvg.

to make mould, to go mouldy

Etymology

NLem plOvgc‑a
LMLem pleqkc‑yr
MLem pleqkcU‑yr ‘rot, mould’
OLem plethk‑zhü‑, compound of
  OLem plethk‑ ‘spread’ [of diseases, rumours]
PLem *plethx‑ ‘spread (out)’, Narten present of
PIE *pleth₂‑
 —and—
  OLem zhü‑ ‘make dirty’
PLem *dzū‑ ‘smoke’, root present of
PIE *dʰu̯eh₂‑

Cognates

Gk πλατύς ‘wide, flat’; Gk θῡ́ω ‘sacrifice by burning’

prà.

to make points / an area in front of something-nom (see unit 12, Temporal and spatial verbs)

prexnÌ., prÌ. east (symbol: p)
prilkexnÌ., prilkÌ. west (symbol: g, i.e. a turned p)

Etymology

NLem prO‑a, inflected form of
LMLem prÒ ‘in front of’
MLem prOO
OLem prö
PLem *prō
PIE *prō ‘forth’

Cognates

Lat prō ‘for, in front of’

pràg.

to make towers

Etymology

NLem pUrg‑a
LMLem pÙrg‑yr
Koi πύργ‑ος ‘tower, castle’
SHell *púrg‑os, possibly (via Urartian or some other language)
PIE *bʰerg̑ʰ‑ ‘rise’

possible doublet of wràgc.

Cognates

may be related to Ger Burg ‘castle, stronghold’

pràk.

to request something-acc from someone-dat

Usage notes

This verb typically refers to friendly requests.

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem park‑a
OLem park‑
PLem *park‑, sk̑-present of
PIE *prek̑‑ ‘ask’

Cognates

Eng postulate (via Lat postulō ‘request’), Ger fragen ‘ask (interrogate)’

pràt.

to barely/just do something-acc;
acc: to barely/just happen

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem part‑a
OLem part‑
PLem *pars‑ ‘try’, s-desiderative of
PIE *per‑ ‘traverse’

Cognates

Eng fare, Gk πείρω ‘pierce, run through’

pràj.

to make beautiful, to beautify

used for anything aesthetically pleasing to the senses, including tastes and smells

Etymology

NLem prUn‑a
LMLem prìn‑yr ‘pleasing, dear’ [of things]
MLem priin‑yr ‘pleasing, dear’
OLem prīn‑ ‘please, be dear’
PLem *prīn‑, nasal-infix present of
PIE *prei̯H‑

Cognates

Ved prīṇā́ti ‘pleases’; needless to say, unrelated to Ger Pracht ‘splendour’

pridnà.

to make museums

Etymology

gender change of
NLem prigonts‑a ‘fine art’
Besk prigånts ‘the High One (Goddess of art)’
PCelt *brigant‑ī
PIE *bʰr̥g̑ʰént‑ih₂, feminine of
  PIE *bʰérg̑ʰ‑ont‑s ‘high’, nt-stem adjective of
  PIE *bʰerg̑ʰ‑ ‘rise’

Cognates

Eng Brigid (via Ir Brighid)

proxà.

to make badgers (Meles meles and, by extension, other species of this genus)

Usage notes

In Lemizh mythology, female badgers often serve as messengers and negotiators. Accordingly, a qualitative bracket with proxÌ. can express a messengers or negotiator, and là proxÌem. means ‘to convey a message’ ot ‘to negotiate on behalf of someone else’.

Etymology

gender change of
NLem proxykx‑a
Besk proxɨkx
PCelt *brokk‑os, of unknown origin

Compare proxàkh..

Cognates

Ir broc ‘badger’

proxàkh.

to make woodland creatures

proxòrkh. woodland (especially regarding the fauna)

Etymology

NLem proxykx‑a ‘badger’
Besk proxɨkx
PCelt *brokk‑os, of unknown origin

Compare proxà..

Cognates

Ir broc ‘badger’

pnà.

to make five individuals

‘make five’, a version of an old language game for five players, focusing on abstract thought. Other versions of this game are for four, seven or ten players, and named accordingly. The cover term for the game is dmàj. ‘fill (up), make full’.

Etymology

NLem pin‑a
LMLem, MLem pin‑yl
OLem ping‑, inflected form of
PLem *pengwe
PIE *pénkʷe

Cognates

Eng five, Gk πέντε ‘five’

pnàgc.

to act in a terrible way, to do something-acc terrible

Etymology

NLem pangj‑a
LMLem, MLem pangdj‑yr ‘determined, authoritative’
OLem pangdj‑
PLem *pangdj‑
PIE *pń̥kʷ‑sti‑s ‘fist’, possibly of
  PIE *pénkʷe ‘five’

Cognates

Eng fist, possibly Eng five

pnàb.

to make fauns

pnèb. the god Faunus/Pan, lit. ‘maker/father of fauns’

Etymology

gender change of
NLem pan‑a
LMLem pàn‑yr
Koi Πᾱ́ν ‘Pan’, probably from
PIE *peh₂- ‘protect, shepherd’

Cognates

probably Ved Pūṣan ‘a Vedic deity’, Eng pasture (via Lat pāscō ‘feed, graze’)

pxlàj.

to make plain(s), to make (a) flat (surface), (geometry) to make a plane

Etymology

NLem pxloj‑a
LMLem palxòj‑yr ‘(flat) pasture land’
MLem palxouj‑yr
OLem pal‑xouj‑, compound of
  OLem palx‑ ‘flat’
PLem *palx‑, root present of
PIE *pleh₂‑
 —and—
  OLem xouj‑ ‘pasture’
PLem *xowj‑
PIE *h₂óu̯i‑s ‘sheep’

Cognates

Eng floor, Eng plain (via Lat plānus ‘flat, intelligible’); Eng ewe

pslà.

to cut something-dat into something-acc [e.g. pieces, in two] with scissors

pslì. euphemistic: darn, bloody (intensifier)
pslù. (with outer partitive) scissors; a kind of steel used for making high-quality scissors

Etymology

NLem pslU‑a
LMLem psalì‑yr
Koi ψαλί‑ς, of unknown origin

psràb.

to father a child-acc;
dat: to conceive a child-acc

psrèb. father of someone-acc
psrìb. mother of someone-acc (rare)
psrÌb. child (son, daughter) of a father-nom and a mother-dat

psrebqlÌp. plastic

Usage notes

Metaphoric use of ‘child’ for younger people who are not the speaker’s sons or daughters, either affectionate or patronising, has been common at least since Early New Lemizh.

Etymology

gender change of
NLem pser‑a
LMLem, MLem pyser‑yr ‘someone’s child, son’
OLem pyser‑
PLem *paser‑ ‘father’
PIE *ph̥₂tér‑s

Cognates

Eng father, Gk πατήρ ‘father’

psràxk.

to make froth, foam, to froth something-dat, to foam

Etymology

NLem psronk‑a
LMLem, MLem prusank‑a ‘snort, froth’
OLem prusank‑
PLem *prusanx‑, nasal-infix present of
PIE *preu̯th₂‑

Cognates

Eng froth, Ved próthati ‘snorts, pants’

pqàb.

to be angry with someone-dat/causal-receiving, about something-acc/causal-transporting (see unit 3, Ambiguous usage);
agentive caus, causal-reflexive: to anger someone-nom

Usage notes

Anger being a potentially constructive emotion has been recognised since Early New Lemizh times. In Modern Lemizh, this verb mainly evokes an energetic, extroverted kind of reaction.

Etymology

gender change of
NLem pfi‑a
LMLem pifì‑yr ‘a bulge’
MLem pifii‑yr
OLem pifī‑ ‘swell’
PLem *pifī‑, i-reduplicated athematic present of
PIE *pei̯h₁‑

For some strange reason, masculinisation is common in verbs of emotion; see spàz. ‘be happy’.

Cognates

Ved pínvate ‘swells’

pqxrà.

to fantasise about something-acc

Etymology

NLem pqxar‑a
LMLem, MLem piqxar‑yr ‘wing’
OLem pithxar‑
PLem *pethxar‑ ‘feather’
PIE *péth₂‑r̥, r-stem noun of
  PIE *peth₂‑ ‘spread (one’s wings), fly (up)’

Cognates

Eng pen (via Lat penna ‘feather, quill pen’)

jà.

relative pronoun type I level n−5: see unit 6, Relative pronouns

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem j‑a, formed after the Ghean relative pronouns
a f‑a s‑a sh‑a x‑a / fˇ‑a sˇ‑a shˇ‑a xˇ‑a
/a ɸa s̟a ʃa χa / βa z̟a ʒa ʁa/

jàt.

to give a name to someone-dat, to call, name someone-dat something-acc after someone-psu

jÌt. a name

Etymology

NLem jet‑a
LMLem jèt‑a
MLem jeet‑a ‘call (by name)’
OLem jēt‑ ‘call, rouse’
PLem *jews‑ ‘notice, awake’, Narten present of
PIE *i̯eu̯t‑

Cognates

OCS oštuštǫ ‘sense, notice’

jàx.

to move something-acc somewhere-dat etc., also non-sending; a body part-acc;
self-transporting: to move (a distance), to go somewhere ditto by train etc.-ins

jìrx. to put something-acc somewhere ditto; self-transporting: to arrive;
jèrx. self-transporting: to leave, depart

jyxhlà. to salt something-dat
jyxsràx. to sugar something-dat
etc.

jixdwàw. to bottle something-acc
jixRàxt. to shoulder something-acc
etc.

vàsk jìrxi. jirxvìrsk. to misplace something-acc, self-transporting: to get lost

Etymology

gender change of
NLem, LMLem, MLem j‑a
OLem j‑
PLem *j‑, root present of
PIE *h₁ei̯‑

Gender change occurred to avoid homophony with the pronoun jà., as pronouns referring to verbs were becoming more common during the last centuries.

Cognates

Gk εἶμι ‘come, go’, Lat ‘go’

jàxw.

to make bile

jèxw. liver

Etymology

NLem jexw‑a
LMLem jèxw‑yr
MLem jeexw‑yr, haplology of
OLem jēxwyr‑
PLem *jēxwar‑ ‘liver’
PIE *i̯ḗkʷr̥

Cognates

Gk ἧπαρ ‘liver’, Lat iecur ‘liver’

jàs.

to make 4096 individuals

Usage notes

The number 1000 has traditionally been seen as unlucky, attested from Old Lemizh. Fortunately, it is no longer a round number (1000dec = 3E8hex) and can easily be avoided.

Etymology

NLem jesl‑a
LMLem, MLem jesl‑yl
OLem jesl‑ ‘thousand’
PLem *gjesl‑
PIE *g̑ʰés‑l‑os lit. ‘a hand full (of corn?)’, l-stem noun of
  PIE *g̑ʰes‑ ‘grip’

Following the example of skmà., the numeric value of this word was adapted to the Ghean hexadecimal system in Middle Lemizh.

Cognates

Eng kilo- (via Gk χίλιοι ‘thousand’), probably Lat mille (< PIE *sm̥‑g̑ʰésl‑os ‘one thousand’)

jàsk.

to make/brew beer

Etymology

NLem jeskx‑a
LMLem jèsakx‑yr ‘ship soup’
MLem jees‑akx‑yr, compound of
  MLem jees‑yr ‘thick soup’
OLem jēs‑
PLem *jews‑
PIE *i̯éu̯h₁s ‘broth, soup’
 —and—
  MLem akx‑yr ‘ship’
Ghe aqx‑ə /aqχə/

jexà.

to bake something [e.g. bridecake]-acc from something [e.g. wheat, dough]-dat

Etymology

NLem jexe‑a
LMLem jèxè‑ar ‘baker’
MLem jeexee‑ar ‘farmer’
OLem jēhē‑
PLem *jewhē‑
PIE *i̯eu̯h₁‑ḗ‑s ‘possessing cereals’, internal derivation of
  PIE *i̯éu̯h₁‑os ‘cereal, barley’

Cognates

Lit jãvas ‘cereal plant’

jloà.

to make Greek

jloàr. the country of Greece

— jloynè droÌne. squabblers, enemies, lit. ‘Greeks and Troyans’

Etymology

NLem jlo‑a
LMLem xellà‑yr
Koi Ἑλλά‑ς
Gk Σελλοί ‘inhabitants of northwestern Greece’

jrà.

to make worms

Etymology

NLem jUr‑a
LMLem, MLem jUr‑yr
OLem jür‑
PLem *gjuwer‑ ‘wild beast’, Lindeman’s variant of
PIE *g̑ʰu̯ér‑s, nominalisation of
  PIE *g̑ʰu̯er‑ ‘go crookedly’

Cognates

Eng feral (via Lat ferus ‘wild’), Ved hvárate ‘diverge, bend, go crookedly’

jnà.

to make every, all, the whole (relative weight 1; see unit 7, Weighting numerals – usually with partitive bracket; see unit 8, Cardinal numerals), the Universe

Usage notes

This word has pejorative connotations when used with certain words (mainly flat things, but also faces), dating from Middle Lemizh:

This list is far from complete.

The meaning ‘Universe’ is probably influenced by the unrelated but similar sounding xnàr. ‘land, (inhabited) world’.

Etymology

irregular development of
NLem can‑a ‘complete, all’
LMLem, MLem can‑yr
OLem shand‑ ‘win’
PLem *sand‑ ‘succeed’, root aorist of
PIE *seh₂dʰ‑

The idiosyncratic development from NLem c to modern j could be a contamination from the neighbouring xpàj.. (It also avoids confusion with the near-antonym crà..)

See Ràbv. for information on Ghean weighting numerals.

Cognates

Gk ἰθῡ́ς ‘straight, fair’, Ved sídhyati ‘succeeds’

jnàgc.

to be curious about something-acc/causal-transporting (also dat/causal-receiving, see unit 3, Ambiguous usage)

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem jingj‑a ‘crave’
OLem jinggh‑
PLem *gjinggh‑ ‘pant, crave’, nasal-infix present of
PIE *g̑ʰei̯gʰ‑

Cognates

Ved jéhamāna- ‘panting (with open mouth)’

jmà.

to make doors and windows

Etymology

abstracted from jmàs. ‘to make doors’ and jmàxt. ‘to make windows’

jmàx.

to make ice

Etymology

gender change of
NLem jem‑a
LMLem jèm‑yr
MLem jeem‑yr
OLem jēm‑
PLem *gjēom‑
PIE *g̑ʰéi̯om‑s ‘winter’

Gender change comes from the fact that ice is a form of water and thus (poetically) male.

Cognates

Lat hiems ‘winter’, Cro zima ‘winter, frost’

jmàxt.

to make windows

Etymology

NLem jmunt‑a
LMLem, MLem lingjwont‑yr
OLem lingj‑hwont‑, endocentric compound (tatpurusha) of
  OLem lingj‑ ‘house’ (more at làj.)
 —and—
  OLem hwont‑ ‘eye’
PLem *ohwont‑
PIE *h̥₃kʷ‑ónt‑s, Narten present active participle of
  PIE *h₃ekʷ‑ ‘see’

Cognates

Eng eye, Lat oculus ‘eye’

jmàs.

to make doors

Etymology

NLem jmUs‑a
LMLem lingjfÒs‑yr ‘portal, front door’
MLem lingjfOOs‑yr
OLem lingj‑fös‑, endocentric compound (tatpurusha) of
  OLem lingj‑ ‘house’ (more at làj.)
 —and—
  OLem fös‑ ‘mouth’
PLem *fōs‑
PIE *h₃óh₁s

Cognates

Lat ōs ‘mouth’, Hit ais ‘mouth’

jmRàs.

to make tired

Etymology

NLem jmRas‑a
LMLem, MLem neRwas‑yr
OLem nighwas‑
PLem *neghwas‑ ‘night’
PIE *négʷ‑t‑s, t-stem noun of
  PIE *negʷ‑ ‘grow dark’

Cognates

Eng night, Lat nox ‘night’

jbàt.

to vote for something/someone-acc/dat

Etymology

NLem jbot‑a
LMLem kibot‑yr ‘voting urn’
Koi κιβωτ‑ός ‘wooden box, chest’, of unknown origin

This word was loaned in error; the Koi term for a voting urn is actually the diminutive κιβώτιον.

Cognates

possibly Lat cibus ‘food’

jvelà.

to play chess, a game of chess

jvelÌ. chess piece

Etymology

NLem jvelO‑a
LMLem xwasèlÒ‑yr
MLem xwaseilOU‑yr
OTroy ϲ̣ασιλευ‑ς /hʷaˈse͜ileus/ ‘king, chess’
SHell *qhasileũ‑s ‘chief, king’, probably of pre-Greek origin

OTroy likely calqued this term from a language spoken in East Asia, where chess originated. Another OTroy term for this (or a similar) game is ϙετϝορες /kedˈvo͜ures/ ‘four’, from the four sections of an army, which the players aim to connect in an optimal way.

Cognates

Gk βασιλεύς ‘chief, king’

jhnà.

to make machines

jhnè. mechanic

Etymology

NLem jhen‑a
LMLem, MLem xuxsen‑yr ‘ox’
OLem xuhsen‑
PLem *xuhsen‑
PIE *h₂uksén‑s

Cognates

Eng ox, Ved ukṣā́ ‘young bull’

jstà.

to sail a ship-acc somewhere-dat etc.

jstù. (with outer partitive) a sail

Etymology

NLem jsti‑a
LMLem xistì‑yr
Koi ἱστί‑ον, diminutive of
  Koi ἱστ‑ός ‘mast’, nominalisation of
  Koi ἵστη‑μι ‘stand’ [tr.]
SHell *sístā‑mi, i-reduplicated athematic present of
PIE *steh₂‑ ‘stand’

Cognates

Eng histo-logy (via Gk), Eng stand

cà.

relative pronoun type I level n−4: see unit 6, Relative pronouns

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem c‑a, formed after the Ghean relative pronouns
a f‑a s‑a sh‑a x‑a / fˇ‑a sˇ‑a shˇ‑a xˇ‑a
/a ɸa s̟a ʃa χa / βa z̟a ʒa ʁa/

càwb.

to make hardly any(thing) (relative weight 1⁄8; see unit 7, Weighting numerals – usually with partitive bracket; see unit 8, Cardinal numerals)

Usage notes

The Middle and Old Lemizh sense of ‘negligible, trivial, not worth mentioning’ is still palpable today.

Etymology

NLem cambr‑a
LMLem cambr‑yr
MLem cambr‑yr ‘negligible’
OLem zhambr‑
PLem *dzambr‑ ‘few, little’, r-stem adjective of
PIE *dʰebʰ‑ ‘reduce’

See Ràbv. for information on Ghean weighting numerals.

Cognates

Ved dabhnóti ‘deceives’, Lv dâbt ‘strike, beat’

càhw.

to make hair, fur

cahwnè., cahwcèwb. bald

Etymology

NLem cOhw‑a
LMLem cÒ‑ehw‑yr, compound of
  LMLem cÒ‑yr ‘awn’
MLem cOO‑yr
OLem zhö‑
PLem *dzō‑ ‘grain, seed’
PIE *dʰóh₁n‑eh₂
 —and—
  LMLem, MLem ehw‑yr ‘horse’
OLem heshw‑
PLem *heshw‑
PIE *h₁ék̑u̯‑os

Cognates

Lit dúona ‘bread’; Lat equus ‘horse’

cOàc.

to make human(s), persons, people

Etymology

poststem from singular of
NLem cO‑a
LMLem ecÒ‑yr
MLem ecOO‑yr
OLem hezhö‑ ‘person, individual’, inflected form of
PLem *hezhō ‘I’
PIE *h₁eg̑óh₂

Cognates

Eng I, Gk ἐγώ ‘I’

crà. [1]

to make few, little, a bit (relative weight 1⁄4; see unit 7, Weighting numerals – usually with partitive bracket; see unit 8, Cardinal numerals)

crURÌjg. vitamin

Etymology

gender change of
NLem crumbw‑a
LMLem crumbw‑yr, contamination of
MLem srumbw‑yr ‘few, little’
OLem srumbw‑
PLem *tsrumbw‑ ‘trifle’, u-stem adjective of
PIE *dʰreu̯bʰ‑ ‘break’ [intr.], crumble’
 —with—
MLem cambr‑yr ‘negligible’
OLem zhambr‑
PLem *dzambr‑ ‘few, little’, r-stem adjective of
PIE *dʰebʰ‑ ‘reduce’

See Ràbv. for information on Ghean weighting numerals.

Cognates

Gk θρύπτω ‘crush, grind’

crà. [2]

Usage notes

Occurs only in the compound vmyjcrÌ. ‘death cap’, lit. ‘underworldly agaric’. Often misinterpreted as ‘a bit of an agaric’ or ‘an agaric not doing much’, which is seen as rather cynical. As an independent word, it is last attested in LMLem as cUrer ‘underworld’ and cUryr ‘underworldly’.

Etymology

NLem cUr‑a ‘underworldly’
LMLem, MLem cUr‑yr
OLem zhür‑ ‘underworld’
PLem *dzuwr‑ ‘deep’, r-stem adjective of
PIE *dʰeu̯b‑

Cognates

Eng deep, TochB taupe ‘mine’ (as in mining)

cràw.

to make laws

Etymology

NLem carw‑a
LMLem, MLem carw‑yr
OLem zharw‑
PLem *dzarw‑ ‘announcement, order’, o-stem adjective of
PIE *dʰreu̯‑ ‘cry, announce’

Cognates

Gk θρέομαι ‘cry, shriek’, Arm erdnowm ‘swear, take an oath’

cnà.

to make children (human or other living beings before puberty) of a parent-nom

This word is not used to express ‘someone’s child (son or daughter)’ unless to specifically refer to a child before puberty; see psràb. ‘father’ and mesà. ‘give birth’.

Etymology

gender change of
NLem cUnw‑a
LMLem, MLem cUnw‑yr
OLem shünw‑ ‘(young) child’
PLem *sūnw‑ ‘son’
PIE *suh₁nú‑s

Gender change possibly occurred for similarity with crà. ‘little’.

Cognates

Eng son, OCS synŭ ‘son’

cnàk.

self-transporting: to (actively) swim somewhere-dat etc.

Usage notes

In Old Lemizh, this verb apparently could also mean ‘drown’; and there is a classical if gruesome story about a man drowning after his lower legs were bitten off by a large fish. From Middle Lemizh onwards, swimming is mosty positively connoted, as seen in metaphors where it means ‘escape, get out of harm’s way’.

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem cank‑a
OLem shank‑ ‘swim through’
PLem *sanx‑ ‘swim, bathe’, root present of
PIE *sneh₂‑

Cognates

Eng navy (via Lat nāvis ‘ship’)

cnàzd.

to make feathers

Etymology

NLem cOnzd‑a
LMLem cÒ‑nezd‑yr, compound of
  LMLem cÒ‑yr ‘awn’
MLem cOO‑yr
OLem zhö‑
PLem *dzō‑ ‘grain, seed’
PIE *dʰóh₁n‑eh₂
 —and—
  LMLem, MLem nezd‑yr ‘bird’
OLem nizd‑ ‘nest’
PLem *nizd‑
PIE *nisd‑ós

Cognates

Lit dúona ‘bread’; Eng nest

cnàxw.

to make dust

Etymology

NLem canxw‑a
LMLem, MLem canxw‑yr
OLem zhanxw‑
PLem *dzanxw‑ ‘raise dust’, u-present of
PIE *dʰenh₂‑ ‘slip away’

Cognates

Gk θάνατος ‘death’; Eng Danube

cmàbv.

to hurt someone-dat

Usage notes

In Modern Lemizh, this verb is also used to express hurting someone verbally and colloquially often just means ‘annoy, get on someone’s nerves’.

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem cambw‑a
OLem zhambw‑
PLem *dzambw‑ ‘hit, smash (?)’, root present of
PIE *dʰembʰ‑

Cognates

Ved dambháyati ‘smashes, destroys’

zà.

relative pronoun type I level n−3: see unit 6, Relative pronouns

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem z‑a, formed after the Ghean relative pronouns
a f‑a s‑a sh‑a x‑a / fˇ‑a sˇ‑a shˇ‑a xˇ‑a
/a ɸa s̟a ʃa χa / βa z̟a ʒa ʁa/

zaraqàht.

to make Zarathustra (an ancient philosopher and poet)

Etymology

NLem zaraquhtr‑a, academic loan of
OLem zarathushtr‑, from an Asian language

Cognates

To judge from context, Av Zaraθuštra seems to be related.

zrOnà.

to make mermaids (also a constellation in the region of Cassiopaia, Camelopardalis and Lynx; see appendix, Constellations)

zrOnyÌx. merman (also the constellation Aquarius)

Etymology

NLem zrOn‑a
LMLem serèn‑yr
Koi Σειρήν ‘Siren’, agentive noun of
  Koi σειρ‑ά ‘cord, rope’, nominalisation of
  Koi εἴρ‑ω ‘link, bind together’
SHell *héry‑ō, full-grade i̯e-present of
PIE *ser‑

Cognates

Eng Siren, Lat serō ‘link, bind together’

znàg.

to deform something-dat into some shape-acc [e.g. flat, into a z]

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem zing‑a, probably dialect borrowing of
OLem dhing‑
PLem *dzing‑ ‘knead, form’, root present of
PIE *dʰei̯g̑ʰ‑

Cognates

Eng dough, Lat fingō ‘to form’

zmàj.

to make stones

Etymology

NLem zmyn‑a
LMLem, MLem slicman‑yr ‘boundary stone’
OLem slizhman‑
PLem *slezhman‑ ‘ending, limit’
PIE *slég̑‑mn̥, neuter abstract -mn̥-noun of
  PIE *sleg̑‑ ‘end’

doublet of hlàg.

Cognates

Gk λήγω ‘leave off, cease’

zmàw.

to make nightshade fruits

zmèw. nightshade plant
zmÌw. nightshade fruit

zmywràjd. to make bittersweet nightshade berries
zmywmlàv. to make sweet peppers, bell peppers
zmywwàcg. to make black nightshade berries
zmywxalà. to make tomatoes
zmywfisà. to make eggplants
(all with inner nom for the plant and inner acc for the fruit)

Etymology

NLem zmingw‑a
LMLem frenk‑vengw‑yr ‘fire-fruit (toxic fruit, nightshade?)’, compound of
  LMLem, MLem frenk‑a ‘fruit’
OLem frenk‑
PLem *pfrenk‑, Narten present of
PIE *bʰrenk‑ ‘swell’
 —and—
  LMLem, MLem vengw‑yr ‘fire’
OLem dhengw‑ ‘make fire’
PLem *dzengw‑ ‘burn’ [tr.], Narten present of
PIE *dʰegʷʰ‑

Cognates

ON bringa ‘breast, chest’; Lat foveō ‘(keep) warm, foster’

zdàs.

to seat someone-acc somewhere-dat etc.;
self-transporting: to sit down, perfect: to sit somewhere ditto;
acc, perfect: to float, to be afloat in water etc.-nom (or agentive caus)

zdòrs. a seat

zdasgwìlt. to be capable of floating

Etymology

poststem from perfect of
NLem, LMLem, MLem zd‑a
OLem zd‑ ‘sit’
PLem *zd‑, root aorist of
PIE *sed‑ ‘sit down’

The secondary meaning ‘float’ was generalised from the earlier development of nenà. ‘run’ > also ‘float quickly’.

Cognates

Eng sit, Lat sedeō ‘sit’

zvormàv.

to do science, to work as a scientist

Etymology

NLem zvor‑mev‑a, compound of
  NLem zvor‑a ‘friend’
LMLem, MLem swisor‑yr ‘sibling’
OLem swisor‑
PLem *swesor‑ ‘sister’
PIE *su̯ésor‑s
 —and—
  NLem mev‑a ‘wise’
LMLem, MLem mev‑yr
OLem medh‑ ‘measure, look after, enforce’
PLem *medh‑, Narten present of
PIE *med‑

This is a NLem learned calque from Koi φιλοσοφίᾱ ‘philosophy, science’, lit. ‘love of wisdom’.

Cognates

Eng sister; Ger messen ‘measure’ (but not Eng measure)

zvrà.

to be friends with someone-dat; friendship

zvrè.(, zvrì.) friend

Usage notes

Calling someone a friend is not to be taken lightly. Someone you just correspond with via a social platform is not a friend.

Etymology

NLem zvor‑a
LMLem, MLem swisor‑yr ‘sibling’
OLem swisor‑
PLem *swesor‑ ‘sister’
PIE *su̯ésor‑s

Cognates

Eng sister, Lat soror ‘sister’

và.

relative pronoun type I level n−2: see unit 6, Relative pronouns

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem v‑a, formed after the Ghean relative pronouns
a f‑a s‑a sh‑a x‑a / fˇ‑a sˇ‑a shˇ‑a xˇ‑a
/a ɸa s̟a ʃa χa / βa z̟a ʒa ʁa/

vàbv.

to be interested in something-acc/causal-transporting, also dat/causal-receiving (see unit 3, Ambiguous usage)

Etymology

NLem vibwr‑a ‘fascinate’
LMLem vìbwyr‑a
MLem viibwyr‑a
OLem dhībwyr‑
PLem *dzī‑bwar‑ ‘be fascinated’, compound of
  PLem *dzī‑ ‘set one’s eyes on’, root present of
PIE *dʰei̯h₁‑
 —and—
  PLem *bwar‑ ‘shiny, glossy’, r-stem adjective of
PIE *bʰeh₂‑ ‘shine’

Cognates

Alb di ‘know’; Gk φαίνω ‘show, bring to light’

vàsk.

to err in something-dat (the action or thing made wrong) or -acc (the wrong action or thing);
an error, mistake

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem vesk‑a
OLem dhesk‑ ‘misplace > err’
PLem *dzesk‑ ‘put’, sk̑-present of
PIE *dʰeh₁‑ ‘put, make’

Cognates

Eng do, and funnily thesis (via Gk θέσις ‘placement, arrangement’) and Lat crē‑dō ‘trust, believe’

vnà.

to burn (of fire);
agentive caus: to set fire to something-dat, to burn something-dat to something-acc [e.g. ashes];
dat: to burn (of an object)

vnè. a/the fire
vnÌ. smoke and ashes
vnòr. fireplace, hearth

vnajnà. agentive caus: to burn down something-dat (as opposed to ‘set fire to’)

Usage notes

Fire is mythologically and poetically seen as female, which is the source of the ‘female’ (zero) poststem in Modern Lemizh. George Lakoff did not comment on this fact. (xÌf. ‘water’, by comparison, is male, as for some reason is sxnèz. ‘sun’.)

Etymology

gender change of
NLem vengw‑a
LMLem, MLem vengw‑yr ‘fire’
OLem dhengw‑ ‘make fire’
PLem *dzengw‑ ‘burn’ [tr.], Narten present of
PIE *dʰegʷʰ‑

The Old Lemizh meaning ‘make fire’ gave rise to the inner accusative of MLem vengw‑yr ‘fire’. The modern plot, by contrast, views the fire-nom as burning an object-dat, in analogy to someone breaking a branch, the sun melting snow, etc.

Cognates

Lat foveō ‘(keep) warm, foster’, Ved dáhati ‘burns’ [tr.]

vnàt.

to chew something-dat into something-acc [e.g. mush]

vnùt. (with outer partitive) (molar) tooth

vnatmlè. ruminant

Etymology

NLem vont‑a
LMLem, MLem vont‑yr ‘tooth’
OLem dhont‑
PLem *edhont‑
PIE *h̥₁d‑ónt‑s, Narten present active participle of
  PIE *h₁ed‑ ‘eat’

Cognates

Eng tooth, Lat dēns ‘tooth’

vmàj.

to make agarics (lamelled mushrooms)

vmyjkrÌgw. fly agaric
vmyjcrÌ. death cap

Etymology

NLem vmin‑a
LMLem, MLem swylmen‑yr ‘mushroom’
OLem swylhmen‑
PLem *swalhmen‑ ‘swelling’
PIE *su̯l̥h₁‑mh̥₁n‑ós ‘swollen’, root present mediopassive participle of
  PIE *su̯elh₁‑ ‘swell’

Cognates

Eng swell, possibly Lat īn‑solēns ‘haughty’

vxàzd.

to make/build hotels

Etymology

NLem vxozd‑a
LMLem voxozd‑yr
MLem voxozdi‑yr ‘hotel, inn’
OTroy δο‑χοστι‑ς /ð̞oˈxosdis/, endocentric compound (tatpurusha) of
  OTroy δο /ð̞o/ ‘house’
SHell *dõ
PIE *dómh₂‑s, nominalisation of
  PIE *demh₂‑ ‘build’
 —and—
  OTroy χοστι‑ς /ˈxosdis/ ‘stranger, foreigner’
SHell *khósti‑s
PIE *gʰósth₂i‑s

The OTroy word is a calque from OCh.

Cognates

Eng dome (via Lat domus ‘house’); Eng host, guest (via Lat hospes ‘host, guest’)

wà.

relative pronoun type I level n−1: see unit 6, Relative pronouns

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem w‑a, formed after the Ghean relative pronouns
a f‑a s‑a sh‑a x‑a / fˇ‑a sˇ‑a shˇ‑a xˇ‑a
/a ɸa s̟a ʃa χa / βa z̟a ʒa ʁa/

wàgw.

to make dogs

Usage notes

Dogs are, of course, famous for wagging their tails.

Etymology

NLem wagw‑a
LMLem, MLem wagw‑yr, dialect borrowing of
OLem walgw‑
PLem *walgw‑
PIE *u̯ĺ̥kʷ‑os ‘wolf’

Cognates

Eng wolf, Gk λύκος ‘wolf’

wàtx.

to make books

Etymology

NLem weth‑a ‘scroll’
LMLem, MLem aweth‑yr
Ghe afˡetsh‑ə /aβɛtʃə/

This word, originally meaning ‘scroll’, now refers to books of all shapes, and especially the modern form consisting of bound pages. The older term for ‘book’, NLem blU‑a (< Koi βιβλί‑ον) has fallen out of use after acquiring pejorative connotations on the lines of ‘old, yellowing, smelly tome’.

wàcg.

to make black, to blacken (‘active’ black, as in black fur or varnish; compare lilbvnà.)

wycgnÌs. astatine

Etymology

NLem wargr‑a
LMLem, MLem wargr‑yr
OLem wargr‑
PLem *bwargr‑ ‘dark, black’, r-stem adjective of
PIE *bʰerg̑‑ ‘roast’

Most basic colour terms in Lemizh are r-stem Caland adjectives, perhaps motivated by the word for ‘red’.

Cognates

Ved bhr̥jjáti ‘roasts’, Lat fer(c)tum ‘a sacrificial cake’

wàcz.

to make rice

Etymology

NLem warzn‑a
LMLem warndz‑yr
MLem warndzi‑yr
OLem warndzi‑
PWald *várnji‑s, probably from Austroasiatic

Cognates

Eng rice, Ved vrīhi ‘rice’

wàv.

to decide something-acc

Etymology

NLem wevm‑a ‘disassemble, separate > decide’
LMLem wèvmyn‑a ‘disembowel’
MLem weevmyn‑a
OLem wēdhmyn‑
PLem *bwēdhman‑ ‘one who takes something apart?’
PIE *bʰéi̯d‑mn̥ ‘thing split’, neuter abstract -mn̥-noun of
  PIE *bʰei̯d‑ ‘split’

doublet of wnàd.

Cognates

Eng bite, fissure (via Lat findō ‘split’)

wàwb.

to create, invent something-acc

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem wimbr‑a
OLem wimbr‑
PLem *bwimbr‑ ‘give birth’, i-reduplicated athematic present of
PIE *bʰer‑ ‘carry, bear’

Cognates

Eng bear, Gk φέρω ‘carry, bear, bring’

wàx.

to speak/talk to someone-dat about something-acc; to say something-acc to someone-dat; to tell someone-dat (a story etc.-fact) about something-acc; see unit 14, ‘about’
(all: in some language-ins)

wùx. (with outer partitive) language

Etymology

NLem wix‑a
LMLem wìx‑a
MLem wiix‑a ‘say’
OLem wīh‑
PLem *wiwh‑, i-reduplicated athematic present of
PIE *u̯ekʷ‑

Cognates

Ved vívakti ‘speak’, Gk εἶπον ‘said, spoke’

wàf.

to miss someone-acc

Etymology

gender change of
NLem we‑a
LMLem wè‑a
MLem wee‑a ‘grieve, be miserable’, verbalisation of
OLem ‘woe!’
PLem *wā
PIE *u̯ai̯

Cognates

Eng woe, Lat vae! ‘woe!’

wemà.

to make/build dams

Usage notes

This verb has been used since Early New Lemizh to express ‘putting obstacles in someone’s way’; with an inner accusative, the word can mean ‘obstacle, hurdle’.

Etymology

gender change of
NLem wemabwr‑a
LMLem, MLem wembrw‑yr
OLem wembrw‑
PLem *bwembrw‑
PIE *bʰébʰru‑s ‘beaver’, reduplicated noun of
  PIE *bʰreu̯‑ ‘brown’

Gender change was motivated by the myth that only female beavers build dams.

Cognates

Eng beaver, brown

wlàg.

to make/produce blossoms, to blossom

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem walg‑a
OLem walg‑
PLem *bwalg‑ ‘shine, gleam’, root present of
PIE *bʰleg‑

Cognates

Lat fulgō ‘shine, sparkle, glitter’, Ger blecken ‘bare [one’s teeth]’

wrà.

to make brown, to brown, to tan

wrìl. a tan

wrynÌs. bromine

Etymology

NLem war‑a
LMLem, MLem war‑yr
OLem war‑ ‘glossy brown’
PLem *bwar‑ ‘shiny, glossy’, r-stem adjective of
PIE *bʰeh₂‑ ‘shine’

Most basic colour terms in Lemizh are r-stem Caland adjectives, perhaps motivated by the word for ‘red’.

Cognates

Gk φαίνω ‘show, bring to light’, Ger bohnern ‘polish’

wràgc.

self-transporting: to climb somewhere-dat etc.

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem wergj‑a
OLem wergj‑
PLem *bwergj‑ ‘rise’, Narten present of
PIE *bʰerg̑ʰ‑

possible doublet of pràg.

Cognates

Ved barhayā sám ‘I want to stregthen’; Ger Burg ‘castle, stronghold’

wràdj.

to make chins

Etymology

NLem wardz‑a ‘beard’
LMLem, MLem wardz‑yr
OLem wardz‑
PLem *bwardz‑
PIE *bʰárdʰ‑os

From Old Lemizh onwards, this word described a bristly, untidy beard, then an unshaven chin, whence the modern meaning.

Cognates

Eng beard, Lat barba ‘beard’

wràt.

to make/speak words

Etymology

NLem wert‑a
LMLem, MLem wert‑yr
OLem werht‑
PLem *werht‑
PIE *u̯érh₁‑dʰh₁‑om, nominalisation of
  PIE *u̯erh₁‑ ‘say’

Cognates

Eng word

wràj.

to dare (to do) something-acc

Etymology

NLem wron‑a
LMLem, MLem furon‑yr ‘daring’
OLem furon‑
PLem *foron‑ ‘eagle’
PIE *h₃éron‑s

Cognates

Gk ὄρνις ‘bird’, Ger Adler ‘eagle’

wràw.

to make free, to free someone-dat

Etymology

NLem warw‑a
LMLem, MLem warw‑yr
OLem hwarhw‑
PLem *hwarhw‑, u-stem adjective of
PIE *h₁u̯erh₁‑ ‘wide, broad’

Cognates

Gk εὐρύς ‘wide, broad’, TochA wärts ‘broad’

wnàd.

to split something-dat into something-acc [e.g. pieces, in two] with an axe

wnùd. (with outer partitive) axe

Usage notes

The axe has traditionally been seen as a lowly and despicable tool, as attested from Old Lemizh. The Winged Axe, however, is held in great esteem.

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem wind‑a
OLem wind‑
PLem *bwind‑ ‘split’, nasal-infix present of
PIE *bʰei̯d‑

doublet of wàv.

Cognates

Eng bite, fissure (via Lat findō ‘split’)

wmà.

to cover (put over) something-dat with something-acc;
acc, perfect: to cover (be over) something-dat

wmÌ. a cover (lid, covering cloth, etc.); also a lady’s poncho

Etymology

NLem wmU‑a ‘winter coat; cover’
further see wmàf.

wmàb.

to weave something-dat into something-acc

wmÌb. woven fabric

Usage notes

This word is used as a metaphor for the fabric of the universe (as in English), and in physics jargon for the microwave background.

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem wemb‑a
OLem wemb‑
PLem *wemb‑, Narten present of
PIE *u̯ebʰ‑ ‘weave, wrap around’

doublet of màpx.

Cognates

Eng weave, Gk ὑφαίνω ‘weave’

wmàf.

to make coats

Usage notes

NLem wmUa ‘winter coat’ developed a metonymical meaning ‘to cover’, which became the primary meaning of the regular descendant ModLem wmà.. The original sense ‘coat’, i.e. the garment, mainly lives on in the masculinised form wmàf..

Etymology

gender change of
NLem wmU‑a ‘winter coat; cover’
LMLem wermÒ‑yr ‘winter coat’
MLem wermOO‑yr ‘coat’
OLem wer‑mö‑, compound of
  OLem wer‑ ‘carry, bear’
PLem *bwer‑, Narten present of
PIE *bʰer‑
 —and—
  OLem mö‑ ‘fleece (?)’
PLem *mō‑
PIE *mói̯s

Cognates

Eng bear; Lit maĩšas ‘sack’

wzrà.

to protect someone/something-dat

wzrinskrùc. (with outer partitive) thimble

Usage notes

This verb is only used to express protection from minor harm and in certain compounds denoting protective tools.

Etymology

gender change of
NLem wzar‑k‑a ‘umbrella’, compound of
  NLem wzar‑a ‘rain’
LMLem, MLem wuzar‑yr
OLem wuzar‑
PLem *wozar‑ ‘water’ [inanimate]
PIE *u̯ódr̥, deverbal noun of
  PIE *u̯ed‑ ‘well, gush’
 —and—
  NLem, LMLem, MLem k‑a ‘opposition’
Ghe q‑a /qa/

doublet of wzràk.

Cognates

Eng water, undulate (via Lat unda ‘wave’), Gk ὕδωρ ‘water’

wzràk.

to protect someone/something-dat with an umbrella

wzrùk. (with outer partitive) umbrella

Etymology

NLem wzar‑k‑a, compound of
  NLem wzar‑a ‘rain’
LMLem, MLem wuzar‑yr
OLem wuzar‑
PLem *wozar‑ ‘water’ [inanimate]
PIE *u̯ódr̥, deverbal noun of
  PIE *u̯ed‑ ‘well, gush’
 —and—
  NLem, LMLem, MLem k‑a ‘opposition’
Ghe q‑a /qa/

doublet of wzrà.

Cognates

Eng water, undulate (via Lat unda ‘wave’), Gk ὕδωρ ‘water’

wzràf.

to rain

wzrèf. rain cloud
wzrÌf. the rain

Usage notes

Unsurprisingly, rain is associated with weeping and thus sadness. Together with xnÌt. ‘wind’, which can stand for happiness because of its whistling, this gives us metaphors such as — wzrynfÒ xnÌntO. ‘with (wildly) mixed feelings’, attested from Early New Lemizh.

Gender change is motivated by the mythologically male gender of water and probably also by the final -f of xÌf. ‘water’.

Etymology

gender change of
NLem wzar‑a
LMLem, MLem wuzar‑yr
OLem wuzar‑
PLem *wozar‑ ‘water’ [inanimate]
PIE *u̯ódr̥, deverbal noun of
  PIE *u̯ed‑ ‘well, gush’

PIE also had an animate word for water, *h₂ép‑s; see xàf..

Cognates

Eng water, undulate (via Lat unda ‘wave’), Gk ὕδωρ ‘water’

xà.

relative pronoun type II level n−5: see unit 6, Relative pronouns

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem x‑a, formed after the Ghean relative pronouns
a f‑a s‑a sh‑a x‑a / fˇ‑a sˇ‑a shˇ‑a xˇ‑a
/a ɸa s̟a ʃa χa / βa z̟a ʒa ʁa/

xalà.

to make apples

xalè. apple tree
xalÌ. apple

Usage notes

Apple trees are supposed to always be on time in producing their fruit. Since Late Middle Lemizh, you can praise a punctual person by calling them an apple tree; and xalàR. or xalòR. is the end of summer (whereas fràRxk. and fròRxk. refer to early summer).

Etymology

NLem xaOl‑a
LMLem xàÒl‑yr
MLem xayOOl‑yr
OLem xayöl‑
PLem *xawōl‑
PIE *h₂ébōl

Cognates

Eng apple, Avalon (via a Celtic language)

xaràhk.

to make a synodic month, a time span from one new moon to the next, i.e. of 29.53 days on average (see appendix, Moon calendar and Units of measurement for usage)

Etymology

NLem xar‑ihk‑a, clarifying compound of
  NLem xar‑a
LMLem, MLem jixar‑yr ‘year’
OLem jihar‑
PLem *jehar‑
PIE *i̯éh₁r̥
 —and—
  NLem ihk‑a ‘moon’
LMLem, MLem ihk‑ar
Ghe ishq‑ə /ɪʃqə/

The meaning in MLem and LMLem is somewhat unclear; see Otà..

Cognates

Eng year, hour (via Gk ὥρᾱ ‘period of time’)

xàk.

to make points (also points in geometry, Lemizh commas or hexadecimal separators [,]), to sharpen something-ben to a point

xykdwÌ. Lemizh full stop [.]

Etymology

NLem xak‑a
LMLem, MLem xak‑yr
OLem xak‑ ‘sharpen (to a point)’
PLem *xaç‑ ‘be sharp’, Narten present of
PIE *h₂ek̑‑

Cognates

Ger eggen ‘harrow’, Lat aceō ‘be sour’

xàps.

to make weather

djUtxÌps. Jovian day, the Lemizh equivalent of Thursday (symbol:; see appendix, Date)

Usage notes

The name of the Indo-European sky god, equivalent to Jupiter/Zeus, has been used metonymically to refer to the weather since Old Lemizh. From Early New Lemizh times onwards, this word is used exclusively to describe the weather (both fair and rough). It is also found compounded in the name of a weekday.

The planet Jupiter, as well as the god, is called djeipysrÌd. in Modern Lemizh.

Etymology

simplification and voicing assimilation (from the weekday) of
NLem djeps‑a
LMLem djèpys‑yr ‘Father Sky’
MLem djeipys‑yr, haplology of
OLem djeipysir‑
PLem *djēw‑paser‑, compound of
  PLem *djēw‑ ‘day’
PIE *di̯ḗu‑s ‘sky’
 —and—
  PLem *paser‑ ‘father’
PIE *ph̥₂tér‑s

Cognates

Gk Ζεύς Πατήρ ‘Father Zeus’, Lat Jupiter

xàjq.

to make mountains

xijqjmàx. iceberg

Etymology

NLem xojqt‑a
LMLem xòjfust‑yr ‘rock’
MLem xoujfust‑yr
OLem xoujfust‑
PLem *xowj‑fost‑ ‘rock, boulder (in a pasture or field)’, compound of
  PLem *xowj‑ ‘pasture’
PIE *h₂óu̯i‑s ‘sheep’
 —and—
  PLem *fost‑ ‘bone’
PIE *h₃ésth₁

Cognates

Eng ewe; Lat os ‘bone’

xàc.

to ride a horse etc.-dat (focusing on the horse being directed) or -acc (focusing on the horse moving)

xìc., xÌc. mount (animal/device used to ride on)

Usage notes

As this word implies steering, it is unsuitable for translating phrases such as ‘ride a train’; use jàx. with an instrumental object instead. Also compare ràt. which means steering without necessarily mounting up.

Etymology

NLem xic‑a
LMLem xìc‑a
MLem xiic‑a ‘drive’
OLem xīzh‑
PLem *xīzh‑, i-reduplicated athematic present of
PIE *h₂eg̑‑

Cognates

Eng act (via Lat agō ‘drive’)

xàcg.

to shine at something-dat, to make/produce light, to be light/bright (of a light source)

xacgàzw. to twinkle
xycg. photon
xycgmyhrè. laser
xycgmyhrÌ. laser light, laser beam

Etymology

NLem xargr‑a
LMLem, MLem xargr‑yr
OLem xargr‑ ‘bright’
PLem *xargr‑, r-stem adjective of
PIE *h₂erg̑‑ ‘white, bright, fast’

Cognates

Gk ἄργυρος ‘silver’, TochB ārkwi ‘white’

xàxs.

to rotate, turn something-acc (continuously), to roll something-acc somewhere-dat etc., also non-sending;
self-transporting: to rotate, to roll somewhere ditto;
(mathematics) the curl of a vector field-acc (curl F = ∇[mFn] ≡ ∇m Fn − ∇n Fm)

xùxs. (with outer partitive) axis, axle

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem xaxs‑a
OLem xaçs‑ ‘axis, axle’
PLem *xaçs‑
PIE *h₂ék̑s‑os

See also xaxsà. ‘waltz’.

Cognates

Eng axle, axis (via Lat axis)

xaxsà.

to waltz with someone-dat (the man is usually in the nom and the lady in the dat); a waltz (action of dancing)

xaxsè. male waltzing partner
xaxsì. female waltzing partner

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem xaxs‑a ‘rotate’
OLem xaçs‑ ‘axis, axle’
PLem *xaçs‑
PIE *h₂ék̑s‑os

See also xàxs. ‘rotate’.

Cognates

Eng axle, axis (via Lat axis)

xàsk.

to search, to look for something-acc;
agentive acc: to hide from someone-nom

xÙlsk. to find something-dat

xiskrùc. (with outer partitive) compass (tool for determining the cardinal directions)

Usage notes

Since Middle Lemizh, this verb connotes that the searched-for thing or person is actively hiding or concealing itself. Conversely, with agentive accusative it can express ‘hide from someone (who is searching for you)’, literally ‘have someone looking for you’.

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem xesk‑a
OLem xisk‑
PLem *xisk‑, sk̑-present of
PIE *h₂ei̯s‑

Cognates

Eng ask, Lat qu‑aerō ‘ask’

xàf.

to make water

Usage notes

Water is mythologically and poetically seen as male, matching the non-zero poststem; vnè. ‘fire’, by contrast, is female.

Etymology

NLem xaf‑a
LMLem, MLem xaf‑yr
OLem xaf‑ ‘water, stream’
PLem *xaf‑ ‘water’ [animate], ‘stream’
PIE *h₂ép‑s

PIE also had an inanimate word for water, *u̯ódr̥; see wzràf..

Cognates

Ved ā́p ‘water’, Ir abhainn ‘river’

xOàj.

to make/produce a sound;
dat: to hear (agentive: listen to) something-nom, the sound of something-acc

xOùj. (with outer partitive) ear

Etymology

poststem from plural of
NLem xO‑a
LMLem xÒ‑a
MLem xOU‑a
OLem xöü‑ ‘ear’
PLem *xōw‑
PIE *h₂ṓu̯s

The plural poststem comes from the fact that we have two ears.

Cognates

Eng ear, Lat auris ‘ear’

xUxtrà.

to make comets

Etymology

NLem xUxter‑a, academic loan of
OLem xü‑xter‑, compound of
  OLem xü‑ ‘blow’
PLem *xū‑, root present of
PIE *h₂u̯eh₁‑
 —and—
  OLem xter‑ ‘planet’
PLem *xter‑
PIE *h₂stér‑s ‘star’

The regular NLem outcome would be xter‑a (with apocope of U), which is homophonous with the word for ‘star’; so, the word was re-made from OLem.

The literal meaning ‘blowing/blown planet’ could refer to its ‘blowing’ tail or to the comets’ habit of disappearing, as if they were blown away with the wind.

Cognates

Eng wi‑nd; Eng star

xlà.

to make/produce wool

xlè. a wooly animal

Etymology

NLem xUl‑a
LMLem xÙel‑yr
MLem xUeel‑yr
OLem xüēl‑
PLem *xuwēl‑, Lindeman’s variant of
PIE *h₂u̯élh₁‑s

Cognates

Eng wool, Lat lāna ‘wool’

xlàj.

to behave strangely, to make one’s actions-acc strange

Etymology

NLem xalj‑a
LMLem, MLem xalj‑yr
OLem xalj‑ ‘(an)other’
PLem *xalj‑
PIE *h₂éli̯‑os

Cognates

Eng else, Lat alius ‘(an)other’

xRà.

to make adult(s);
dat: to come of age

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem xuR‑a ‘come of age’
OLem xugh‑
PLem *xuɦ‑, root present of
PIE *h₂eu̯g‑ ‘strong’

xRà. used to be restricted to girls’ coming of age, while the ‘male’ variant xRàj. was reserved for boys. The latter word is obsolete now.

Cognates

Ger auch ‘also’, Lat augeō ‘increase, enlarge, honour’

xRàbv.

acc: to blow (of a gale or strong breeze)

xRÌbv. gale, strong breeze

Usage notes

see xnàt.

Etymology

NLem xURbw‑a ‘strong breeze’
LMLem xÙRbw‑yr ‘wind force 3/6’
MLem xU‑yRbw‑yr, compound of
  MLem xU‑a ‘blow’
OLem xü‑
PLem *xū‑, root present of
PIE *h₂u̯eh₁‑
 —and—
  MLem yRbw‑yr ‘3/6’
Ghe xpˡ‑ə /ʁbʷə/

This word comes from the Middle Lemizh nautical wind scale. It has entered everyday language and hasn’t been used in its old technical sense for well over a millennium.

Cognates

Eng wi‑nd

xrà.

to make a length unit, a length of 92.023 millimetres (see appendix, Units of measurement)

Etymology

NLem xer‑a, academic loan of
Koi χείρ ‘hand’
SHell *kheī́r
PIE *g̑ʰés‑or‑s, r-stem noun of
  PIE *g̑ʰes‑ ‘grip’

The name of the basic length unit was chosen for the width of a hand.

Cognates

Eng chiro‑practic (via Koi), TochB ṣar ‘hand’

xràtx.

to fear, to be afraid of someone or something-acc/causal-transporting (also dat/causal-receiving, see unit 3, Ambiguous usage);
agentive caus, causal-reflexive: to frighten someone-nom

Etymology

NLem xartx‑a
LMLem, MLem xartk‑yr ‘bear’
OLem xartk‑
PLem *xartk‑
PIE *h₂ŕ̥tk̑‑os

Cognates

Eng Arctic (via Gk ἄρκτος ‘bear’), Lat ursus ‘bear’

xràp.

to hook something-acc/dat

xrùp. (with outer partitive) a hook

Etymology

NLem xarp‑a
LMLem, MLem xarp‑yr
OLem xarp‑
PLem *xarf‑ ‘plough’, root present of
PIE *h₂erh₃‑

Cognates

Lat arō ‘plough’, Lit ariù ‘plough’

xràj.

(to pursue) a profession (see unit 6, Compounds from brackets)

Etymology

gender change of
NLem xer‑a
LMLem xèr‑a
MLem xeer‑a ‘get up, get to work’
OLem xēr‑
PLem *xār‑
PIE *h₂éi̯r̥ ‘day, morning’

Masculinisation occurred at a time when professional work was mainly done by men, while women stayed at home with their children. Things have long since changed, but the language is stuck with this anachronism.

Cognates

Eng ear‑ly, Gk ἄρι‑στον ‘breakfast’

xràw.

to make wolves (also the constellation Lupus; see appendix, Constellations)

Usage notes

Calling someone a wolf primarily refers to their strength and leadership qualities since Old Lemizh (as opposed to their fierceness or savagery).

Etymology

NLem xrOm‑a
LMLem, MLem xrem‑yr
OLem xrem‑
PLem *kxrem‑ ‘howl (of wolves)’, Narten present of
PIE *gʰrem‑ ‘resound, rage’

Cognates

Ger Gram ‘grief’, Lit grumiù ‘resound, thunder’

xnà.

to make earthly

xnàr. the (surface of the) earth, the land, the inhabited/habitable world as opposed to the sky or mythological/religious places

djUtxnÌ. Terrestrial day, the Lemizh equivalent of Saturday (symbol:; see appendix, Date)

Usage notes

The Earth as a planet among the others, as well as the goddess Terra/Gaia, is called djingmesrÌ. in Modern Lemizh.

Etymology

simplification and voicing assimilation (from the weekday), gender change of
NLem dznis‑a
LMLem dzingmès‑yr ‘Mother Earth’
MLem dzingmees‑yr, haplology of
OLem dzingmēsir‑
PLem *dzeng‑māser‑, compound of
  PLem *dzeng‑ ‘?’, Narten present of
PIE *dʰég̑ʰ‑
 —and—
  PLem *māser‑ ‘mother’
PIE *méh₂ter‑s

The first part of the PLem compound *dzeng‑māser‑ is the (verbal) root of PLem *dzeng‑om‑ ‘earth’ and is of unclear meaning.

Cognates

Eng humus (via Lat humus ‘ground, earth, soil’); Eng mother

xnàt.

acc (poetically self-transporting): to blow (only of wind)

xnÌt. wind, breeze
xnèt. wind (poetic, personifying)

Usage notes

Wind is associated with whistling and thus happiness and joy, usually of a fierce kind; compare wzrÌf. ‘rain’.

In the literal sense, the word normally denotes a light wind or breeze; consequently, xRÌbv. is used for significantly lower wind speeds than the English word ‘gale’.

Etymology

NLem xont‑a ‘breeze’
LMLem, MLem xuxont‑ar ‘wind’
OLem xuhont‑
PLem *xuhont‑
PIE *h₂uh₁‑ónt‑s, root present active participle of
  PIE *h₂u̯eh₁‑ ‘blow’

Cognates

Eng wind, Lat ventus ‘wind’

xnrà.

to make a spouse’s sibling, to marry someone’s acc sibling

Etymology

NLem xnir‑a ‘wife’s brother’
LMLem, MLem jinxter‑yr ‘brother-in-law’s wife’
OLem jinxter‑
PLem *jenxter‑
PIE *h₁i̯énh₂ter‑s ‘husband’s brother’s wife’
 —merged with—
LMLem, MLem xner‑yr ‘man’
OLem xner‑
PLem *xner‑
PIE *h₂nér‑s

The PIE word meant specifically ‘husband’s brother’s wife’, but by OLem it could also mean ‘wife’s brother’s wife’.

Cognates

Lat ianitrīcēs ‘brothers’ wives’

xmàj.

djUtxmÌj. Uranian day, the Lemizh equivalent of Sunday (symbol: ; see appendix, Date)

Usage notes

The planet Uranus is called niftnÌj. in Modern Lemizh. (See there for an explanation of the Uranus/Neptune difficulty.)

Etymology

NLem xmun‑a
LMLem, MLem nefton‑yr ‘Nephew of the Waters’
OLem nifton‑
PLem *nefton‑
PIE *népton‑os

Cognates

Lat Neptune, Ir Nechtan

xmàs.

to make babies, infants (very joung human or other living beings) of a parent-nom

Etymology

NLem xmus‑a
LMLem, MLem nefos‑yr ‘descendant’
OLem nifos‑ ‘ancestor’ [sic]
PLem *nefos‑ ‘grandson, nephew’
PIE *népot‑s

Cognates

Eng nephew (via Lat nepōs ‘nephew, grandson’), Ger Neffe ‘nephew’

xmlàg.

to give milk, to nurse, suckle someone-dat;
dat, agentive: to suck milk from a woman-nom, to milk an animal-nom

xmlèg. mammal
xmlÌg. milk
xmlùg. (with outer partitive) breast

Usage notes

The verb is typically understood in the immediate sense of giving milk from one’s breasts (or in general, mammary glands). For translating ‘give someone milk (e.g. in a glass)’, it is safer to use xmlÌgy..

xmlìg. ‘the recipient of milking, the receiver of milk’ refers to someone receiving a benefit or favour since Early New Lemizh.

Etymology

NLem xmylg‑a
LMLem, MLem xmalg‑a
OLem xmalg‑
PLem *xmalg‑, root present of
PIE *h₂melg̑‑

Cognates

Eng milk, Gk ἀμέλγω ‘I milk’

xklàj.

to make soap

Etymology

NLem xklon‑a
LMLem xilkòn‑yr
Koi ἱλκόν‑ος
SHell *silkón‑os
OLem thilpkon‑
PLem *selp‑kon‑ ‘cleaning paste’, compound of
  PLem *selp‑ ‘oil, fat’
PIE *sélp‑s
 —and—
  PLem *kon‑ ‘dust, ashes’
PIE *kón‑os

Cognates

Eng salve; Eng in‑cinerate (via Lat cinis ‘ashes’)

xtà.

to make eight individuals

Usage notes

Eight is the number of the Far North (possibly because of the eight stars of the Plough or Big Dipper, including Alcor) and other cold and icy places, such as frozen lakes and other bodies of water. This association can be traced back to Old Lemizh times.

In Late Middle Lemizh, the number also acquired an edgy quality. A possible explanation is that the number 8 looks like a sickle or scythe.

Etymology

NLem xtO‑a
LMLem xtÒ‑yl
MLem xtOU‑yl
OLem çtöü‑, inflected form of
PLem *oçtōw
PIE *ok̑tṓu̯

Cognates

Eng eight, Gk ὀκτώ ‘eight’

xtrà.

to reside, to live somewhere-loc/sce

Etymology

NLem xtrO‑a
LMLem uxtrè‑yr ‘home’
MLem uxtree‑yr
OLem huhtrē‑
PLem *huh‑trew‑, compound of
  PLem *huh‑ ‘be comfortable with, love’, root aorist of
PIE *h₁eu̯k‑ ‘get used to, learn’
 —and—
  PLem *trew‑ ‘dwelling’
PIE *tréb‑s

Cognates

Ved ucyasi ‘[you] are used to’; Ger Dorf ‘village’

xtràj.

to make planets

Etymology

gender change of
NLem xter‑a
LMLem, MLem xter‑yr
OLem xter‑
PLem *xter‑
PIE *h₂stér‑s ‘star’

Cognates

Eng star, Gk ἀστήρ ‘star’

xpàj.

to make almost every, nearly all (relative weight 7⁄8; see unit 7, Weighting numerals – usually with partitive bracket; see unit 8, Cardinal numerals)

Etymology

gender change of
NLem xp‑a
LMLem, MLem xp‑yr
Ghe xp‑ə /χpə/

Gender change was triggered by the similar-sounding numeral xtà.. See Ràbv. for more on Ghean weighting numerals.

xpàf.

to make peoples

Etymology

NLem xpif‑a
LMLem jUpìf‑yr ‘foreigner’
MLem jUpiif‑yr
OLem jüpīf‑ ‘a foreign people’
PLem *jū‑piwf‑ ‘a foreign people’, lit. ‘you drinkers’, compound of
  PLem *jū ‘you’ [plural]
PIE *i̯uH
 —and—
  PLem *piwf‑ ‘drink’, i-reduplicated athematic present of
PIE *peh₃‑

It is unclear to which people the PLem word referred to, and whether it was a derogatory term or a title of praise.

Cognates

Eng you; Lat bibō ‘drink’

xprà.

mot/caus: to calculate a hyperbolic function of something-dat to give some result-acc (see unit 7, Mathematical functions)

xpryàf. to calculate the hyperbolic sine ( ìlf xprÌil. xprà ilfy. ~ ‘calculate the upness’)
xpryprà. to calculate the hyperbolic cosine
xpryfàw. to calculate the hyperbolic tangent

See dà. for the connection between trigonometric and hyperbolic functions with spatial verbs.

Etymology

academic formation, gender change of
NLem xprol‑a ‘hyperbola’

See xpràj. for further information.

xpràj.

to make hyperbolas

Etymology

NLem xprol‑a
LMLem xUperbol‑yr
Koi ὑπερβολ‑ή, nominalisation of
  Koi ὑπερ‑βάλλ‑ω ‘exceed’, compound of
  Koi ὑπερ ‘over, above’
SHell *huper
PIE *uper ‘above’
 —and—
  Koi βάλλ‑ω ‘throw’
SHell *q̌ĺ̥l‑ō, nasal-infix present of
PIE *gʷelh₁‑ ‘hit, throw’

See also xprà..

Cognates

Eng hyperbola (via Gk); Eng over; Eng ballistic (also via Gk)

xwàx.

dat: to follow someone-nom in something-acc (intellectually or spiritually), agree with someone-nom on something-acc

Etymology

NLem, LMLem xwyx‑a
MLem xwyxU‑a ‘follow, pursue’
OLem xwyxü‑
PLem *xwaxū‑, e-reduplicated athematic present of
PIE *h₂u̯ei̯‑ ‘run’

Cognates

Hit huwāi ‘run’

xsrà.

djUtxsrÌ. Venerian day, the Lemizh equivalent of Friday (symbol:; see appendix, Date)

Usage notes

The planet Venus, as well as the goddess, is called usrÌ. in Modern Lemizh.

Etymology

NLem xsor‑a
LMLem, MLem uxsor‑yr ‘Lady Love’
OLem huhsor‑
PLem *huh‑sor‑, feminine of
  PLem *huh‑ ‘be comfortable with, love’, root aorist of
PIE *h₁eu̯k‑ ‘get used to, learn’

Cognates

Ved ucyasi ‘[you] are used to’; the PLem feminine suffix is related to the second components of Eng sister and probably Lat uxor ‘wife’

xfàft.

to make manganese

Etymology

NLem xfaftf‑a
LMLem, MLem yxxfaftf‑yr ‘pyrolusite’
Ghe əxxfⁿafᴛf‑ə /əχχɸaɸt̠ɸə/

hà.

relative pronoun type II level n−4: see unit 6, Relative pronouns

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem h‑a, formed after the Ghean relative pronouns
a f‑a s‑a sh‑a x‑a / fˇ‑a sˇ‑a shˇ‑a xˇ‑a
/a ɸa s̟a ʃa χa / βa z̟a ʒa ʁa/

habà.

to make Shabar (the capital of Lemaria)

Usage notes

There is of course an elaboate founding myth dating back to Late Middle Lemizh times, which this space is too narrow to contain.

Etymology

NLem haba‑a
LMLem hàbà‑yr
MLem haebaa‑yr ‘Shabar (kingdom)’

The further etymology is doubtful; the word is possibly related to Ar سبأ, Heb שבא ‘Sheba’;
or else to a Proto-Turkic word meaning ‘low’ and OPers bāğ ‘garden, orchard’ (i.e. ‘lower vineyards’);
or maybe both.

hàt.

to make pigs

Usage notes

The myth that pigs are dirty because they roll in their own faeces is of course completely unfounded.

Etymology

NLem hit‑a
LMLem, MLem hit‑yr, contamination of
OLem shü‑
PLem *sū‑
PIE *súh₂‑s
 —with—
Ghe it‑ə /ɪtə/

Cognates

Eng sow, Lat sūs ‘pig’

hàhs.

to make an energy-per-mass unit, an energy per mass of 4.872 millijoules per kilogram or milligrays (see appendix, Units of measurement)

Etymology

NLem hahs‑a, academic loan of
Ghe öshashssⁿ‑ə /œʃaʃs̟s̟ə/ ‘power’

This is the only unit with a Ghean etymology. It was introduced to measure the heat of combustion and food energy, but is now also used for the dose of ionising radiation.

huràj.

to cackle at someone-dat

Etymology

poststem from plural of
NLem, LMLem, MLem hur‑a ‘yelp’
OLem shur‑
PLem *sur‑ ‘to sound’, root present of
PIE *su̯er‑

doublet of hrà.

Cognates

Eng swear, Ved svárati ‘sing, sound’

hlà.

to make salt

This word refers to the substance, as opposed to the taste. àhp. ‘give something a salty taste’ is used for the latter purpose.

Etymology

NLem hel‑a
LMLem hèl‑yr
MLem heel‑yr
OLem shēl‑
PLem *sāl‑
PIE *séh₂l‑s

Cognates

Eng salt, Gk ἅλς ‘salt’

hlàg.

to make/bulid walls

Etymology

NLem halg‑a
LMLem, MLem halg‑yr
OLem shalg‑ ‘be hindered’
PLem *salg‑ ‘end’, root present of
PIE *sleg̑‑

doublet of zmàj.

Cognates

Gk λήγω ‘leave off, cease’

hrà.

to yelp at someone-dat

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem hur‑a
OLem shur‑
PLem *sur‑ ‘to sound’, root present of
PIE *su̯er‑

doublet of huràj.

Cognates

Eng swear, Ved svárati ‘sing, sound’

hràk.

to make gravel, pebbles

hrèk. ‘gravel-maker’, a legendary, ogre-like creature

Etymology

NLem hark‑a
LMLem, MLem hark‑yr
OLem shark‑
PWald *šárkh‑a
PIE *k̑órk‑eh₂

Cognates

Gk κρόκη ‘pebble’, Eng sugar (see also srÌx. ‘sugar’)

hnàxt.

to happen by fate

hnàxt., hnàlxt. fate

Etymology

NLem hnunt‑a ‘healer (one mixing potions)’
LMLem, MLem mihkont‑ar
OLem mishkont‑
PLem *mishkont‑
PIE *mik̑sk̑‑ónt‑s ‘mixing’, sk̑é-present active participle of
  PIE *mei̯k̑‑ ‘mix’

Cognates

Eng mix, Lat misceō ‘mix’

hkàt.

to make (it) autumn

Usage notes

Technically, autumn starts with the autumnal equinox (around 23rd September in our calendar) and ends with the winter solstice (around 21st December). In everyday parlance, however, the term is usually applied to the time spanning weeks 40 to 52 in the Lemizh Sun calendar, which starts and ends a few days earlier.

Etymology

NLem hketm‑a
LMLem ihkètm‑yr
MLem ihkeOtm‑yr ‘ninth (full) moon’
Ghe ishq‑eöᴛⁿ‑ə /ɪʃqɛ͜œt̠ⁿə/, compound of
  Ghe ishq‑ə /ɪʃqə/ ‘moon’
 —and—
  Ghe eöᴛⁿ‑i /ɛ͜œt̠ⁿɪ/ ‘nine’

The months of the Ghean Moon calendar actually drifted through the seasons; but the ninth full moon came to be interpreted (probably by mistake) as the full moon near the autumnal equinox, and hence acquired its present meaning.

htenà.

to make flerovium

Etymology

named for L. Šthenu, an Ethiynic physicist

htrà.

to make an older sibling of someone-nom; in Lemizh grammar: to make an earlier (left) sibling object of a later (right) one-nom

htrè. jounger sibling of someone-acc

Usage notes

This word, in its changing meanings, has always symbolised the (real or imagined) strength of Lemizh family bonds.

Etymology

NLem htir‑a ‘jounger sibling’
LMLem, MLem cUtir‑yr ‘daughter’
OLem zhütir‑ ‘mother, daughter?’
PLem *dzuɦter‑ ‘daughter’
PIE *dʰugh₂tér‑s

Cognates

Eng daughter, Gk θυγάτηρ ‘daughter, maid-servant’

hhà.

to make a ‘shh’ sound, to go ‘shh’

hh: shh!

Etymology

Variants of ‘sh’ and ‘s’ are used in many languages to request silence.

sà.

relative pronoun type II level n−3: see unit 6, Relative pronouns

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem s‑a, formed after the Ghean relative pronouns
a f‑a s‑a sh‑a x‑a / fˇ‑a sˇ‑a shˇ‑a xˇ‑a
/a ɸa s̟a ʃa χa / βa z̟a ʒa ʁa/

saxàf.

to play/sound a trumpet

saxèf. trumpet player
saxùf. (with outer partitive) trumpet

This term is often erroneously used for a kind of single-reed instrument made of brass, which looks somewhat similar but has a quite different method of sound production.

Etymology

irregular development of
NLem salpn‑a
LMLem sàlpink‑yr ‘war-trumpet’
Koi σάλπιγξ, of unknown origin

The expected modern form would be **sàxp.. The additional vowel and fricativisation of p is somewhat of a mystery. It has been variously attributed to folk etymology or contamination with the names of other instruments, but no conclusive explanation exists.

selà.

to make an angle unit, an angle of 28′ 7.5″ (see appendix, Units of measurement)

Etymology

gender change of
NLem selen‑a, academic loan of
Koi Σελήν‑η ‘moon (goddess), Selene’, from
  Koi σέλα‑ς ‘light, ray, spark’
SHell *swéla‑s
PIE *su̯el‑ ‘smoulder, burn’

The moon has an apparent diameter of about an angle unit. Gender change occurred because the moon is mythologically and poetically seen as female (in Lemizh as well as in Greek).

Cognates

Eng sultry, Lit svįlù ‘smoulder’

sokrateàs.

to make Socrates (an ancient Greek philosopher)

Etymology

academic loan of
Koi Σωκράτη‑ς

sràb.

to write something-acc to someone-dat

srÌb. text

Etymology

irregular development of
NLem esr‑a
LMLem èsr‑a
MLem eesr‑a
Ghe eestʳ‑a /ɛːr̥ra/

The elision of e- and addition of the poststem -b is probably a contamination with psràb. ‘to father’, interpreting the author of a text as its father. This development is fortunate because the uncontaminated esr‑a is pretty awkward.

sràj.

to meet someone-dat

Etymology

poststem from plural of
NLem, LMLem, MLem sr‑a ‘link’
OLem sr‑ ‘link, bind together’
PLem *sr‑, root present of
PIE *ser‑

doublet of sràc.

Cognates

Gk εἴρω ‘link, bind together’, Lat serō ‘link, bind together’

sràc.

to link something-acc to something-dat

srùc. (with outer partitive) a link

Etymology

poststem from singular of
NLem, LMLem, MLem sr‑a
OLem sr‑ ‘link, bind together’
PLem *sr‑, root present of
PIE *ser‑

doublet of sràj.

Cognates

Gk εἴρω ‘link, bind together’, Lat serō ‘link, bind together’

sràwd.

to make adequate, functional, okay

srìlwd: okay!

Usage notes

Ghe əsʳəffᴛˡə /ər̥əββd̠ˡə/ seems to have been an all-purpose confirmation or approval. The Early New Lemizh and modern meaning is rather weak: as an interjection, it corresponds to a pretty half-hearted ‘okay’.

Etymology

NLem sruwdl‑a
LMLem, MLem ysrywwdl‑a
Ghe əsʳəffᴛˡ‑a /ər̥əββd̠ˡa/

sràx.

to make sugar

Etymology

NLem sarx‑a
LMLem, MLem sarx‑yr
OTroy σαρχ‑α /ˈsarxa/
SHell *sárkh‑ā
PWald *šárkh‑a ‘gravel’
PIE *k̑órk‑eh₂

Cognates

Eng sugar, Gk κρόκη ‘pebble’ (see also hrÌk. ‘gravel, pebble’)

sràq.

to make queues;
dat: to queue, to form a queue

srÌq. a queue
srìq. a queuing person / queuing people

nà srÙlqi. to jump the queue

Etymology

NLem sreq‑a
Br sreþ ‘row, series’
PCelt *srit‑ā, of unknown origin

Cognates

Gael sreath ‘row, queue’

snàw.

to snow

snèw. snow cloud
snÌw. the snow

Etymology

NLem sningw‑a
LMLem, MLem snengw‑yr ‘snow cloud’
OLem sningw‑ ‘snow’
PLem *sningw‑
PIE *snígʷʰ‑os, deverbal noun of
  PIE *snei̯gʷʰ‑ ‘adhere, snow’

Cognates

Eng snow, Lat nix ‘snow’

snràk.

to knot a piece of string etc.-dat, to make knots

Etymology

NLem snyrk‑a
LMLem, MLem snark‑a
OLem snark‑ ‘tie, tighten’
PLem *snark‑, root present of
PIE *snerk‑

Cognates

Eng en‑snare, probably Gk νάρκη ‘fit, cramp’; definitely unrelated to ‘Snark’, which is also rendered snrÌk. in ModLem

smàj.

dat: to be aware of something-acc, to remember something-acc [inner fact for remembering to do something; inner non-fact for remembering a fact, something concrete, etc.]

see also unit 14, Differences between infinitives and gerunds

Etymology

NLem smyn‑a
LMLem, MLem musan‑a ‘keep safe’
OLem musanh‑ ‘lift, remove’
PLem *musanh‑, nasal-infix present of
PIE *meu̯sh₁‑

Cognates

Ved móṣathā ‘will rob’, TochB masa ‘went’

smrà.

to function, to be in operation

Usage notes

When applied to humans, this verb refers to monotonous, often mindless and tiring work. Contrast kRà. ‘work, do a task or job’.

Etymology

NLem smir‑a
LMLem, MLem smer‑yr ‘grease, marrow’
OLem smer‑
PLem *smer‑
PIE *smér‑s

Cognates

Eng smear, TochB ṣmare ‘slick, oil’

sklà.

to make bridges

Etymology

NLem stel‑a ‘pillar’
LMLem stèl‑yr
Koi στήλ‑η
SHell *stĺ̥n‑ā
PIE *stĺ̥‑n‑eh₂ ‘upright stone or slab?’, nominalisation of
  PIE *stel‑ ‘put, make ready’

Cognates

Eng stele (via Gk), OCS po-steljǫ ‘spread out’

sklàg.

dat: to prove, turn out to be something-acc, to prove difficult etc.-acc

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem stelg‑a ‘protrude’
OLem stelg‑
PLem *stelg‑, Narten present of
PIE *stelg‑ ‘protrude; rigid’

doublet of stàjg.

Cognates

Lit stulgỹs ‘great snipe’, Eng stalk (approach quietly)

sklàxt.

to make rooms

Etymology

NLem sklont‑a
LMLem, MLem skylont‑yr ‘compartment’
OLem skylont‑
PLem *skalont‑ ‘splitter, separator’
PIE *skl̥‑ónt‑s ‘splitting’, Narten present active participle of
  PIE *skel‑ ‘split’

Cognates

Gk σκάλλω ‘hoe’, Ger Schale ‘peel, shell’

skrà.

to make/lay eggs

Etymology

gender change of
NLem skrOngj‑a
LMLem, MLem dyrkterengj‑yr ‘thimble’
OLem dyrkter‑hengj‑, endocentric compound (tatpurusha) of
  OLem dyrkter‑ ‘finger’
PLem *darkter‑
PIE *dr̥gʰ‑tér‑s ‘holder (?)’, non-event agent of
  PIE *dregʰ‑ ‘hold (fast)’
 —and—
  OLem hengj‑ ‘protection, armour’
PLem *hengj‑ ‘spines > protection, armour’
PIE *h₁ég̑ʰi‑s ‘hedgehog’

The meaning ‘egg’ is derived from the metaphorical use of ‘thimble’ as a protection for something tender and delicate, perhaps aided by the roughly similar shapes. This is one of the stranger introductions of the Tlöngö̀l.

Cognates

Gk δράσσομαι ‘hold, seize’; Ger Igel ‘hedgehog’

skràp.

to split, divide, break, crush something-dat into something-acc [e.g. in two, into dust];
dat: to break, split, crush

skrÌp. part, scrap, fragment

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem skarp‑a
OLem skarp‑
PLem *skarf‑ ‘divide, separate’, root present of
PIE *skerh₃‑

Cognates

Lit skiriù ‘divide, separate, distinguish’

According to the Lexikon der indogermanischen Verben, this PIE verb has to be separated from *sker‑ ‘cut’ > Eng shear; PIE *skreb‑ ‘scrape’ > Eng scrap, scrape is also unrelated.

skràj.

to prick, sting (someone-dat)

Etymology

possibly dialect borrowing of
NLem skerdz‑a
LMLem, MLem skerdz‑yr
OLem skerdz‑
PLem *skerdz‑ ‘cut, sting (?)’, Narten present of
PIE *skerdʰ‑

The regular ModLem outcome would be **skràdj.

Cognates

Lit skerdžiù ‘stab, slaughter’

skràc.

to work with one’s fingers, to do something-fact with one’s fingers

skrùc. (with outer partitive) finger

Etymology

NLem skrOr‑a
LMLem, MLem dyrkter‑yr
OLem dyrkter‑
PLem *darkter‑
PIE *dr̥gʰ‑tér‑s ‘holder (?)’, non-event agent of
  PIE *dregʰ‑ ‘hold (fast)’

doublet of dàcj.

Cognates

Gk δράσσομαι ‘hold, seize’, OCS drъžǫ ‘hold’

skmà.

to make 256 individuals

Etymology

NLem skam‑a
LMLem, MLem tkam‑yl
OLem tkamt‑ ‘hundred’, inflected form of
PLem *tkamtom
PIE *dk̑m̥tóm

The numeric value of this word was adapted to the Ghean hexadecimal system in Middle Lemizh.

Cognates

Eng hundred, Lat centum ‘hundred’

skmàw.

to work as a butcher

Etymology

NLem skmim‑a
LMLem skarpmèm‑ar
MLem skarp‑meem‑ar, compound of
  MLem skarp‑a ‘split, divide, break’
OLem skarp‑
PLem *skarf‑ ‘divide, separate’, root present of
PIE *skerh₃‑
 —and—
  MLem meem‑yr ‘meat, flesh’
OLem mēm‑
PLem *mēm‑
PIE *mḗms

Cognates

Lit skiriù ‘divide, separate, distinguish’; Eng membrane (via Lat mem‑brāna ‘skin, membrane’)

stàd.

to make stories

stàd wàxy / sràby. to make stories about something-acc (object of wàx. / sràb.; see unit 14, Language related objects)

Etymology

NLem stedr‑a ‘legend’
LMLem stètur‑ar ‘legendary warrior’
MLem steetur‑ar
OLem stētur‑ ‘legend(ary warrior)’
PLem *stewtor‑ ‘fighter, warrior’
PIE *stéu̯p‑tor‑s ‘hitter, brawler’, event agent of
  PIE *steu̯p‑ ‘push, hit’

doublet of stedràj., stedràc. and tàp.

This is the regular outcome of NLem stedra ‘legend’. Modern stedrÌj. ‘novel’ (with poststem from plural) and stedrÌc. ‘legend’ (with poststem from singular) are academic formations: the singular poststem originally signified literary forms with unity of action (drama, various forms of short stories), while the plural poststem signified forms without such unity (epos, novel).

Cognates

Eng type (via Gk), Lat stupeō ‘be stunned, be amazed’

stàjg.

to make hard, to harden

Etymology

NLem stalgr‑a
LMLem, MLem stalgr‑yr
OLem stalgr‑
PLem *stalgr‑, r-stem adjective of
PIE *stelg‑ ‘protrude; rigid’

doublet of sklàg.

Cognates

Lit stulgỹs ‘great snipe’, Eng stalk (approach quietly)

stedràj.

to make novels

stedràj wàxy / sràby. to make novels about something-acc (object of wàx. / sràb.; see unit 14, Language related objects)

Etymology

poststem from plural of
NLem stedr‑a ‘legend’
LMLem stètur‑ar ‘legendary warrior’
MLem steetur‑ar
OLem stētur‑ ‘legend(ary warrior)’
PLem *stewtor‑ ‘fighter, warrior’
PIE *stéu̯p‑tor‑s ‘hitter, brawler’, event agent of
  PIE *steu̯p‑ ‘push, hit’

doublet of stàd. (see there for further information), stedràc. and tàp.

Cognates

Eng type (via Gk), Lat stupeō ‘be stunned, be amazed’

stedràc.

to make legends

stedràc wàxy / sràby. to make legends about something-acc (object of wàx. / sràb.; see unit 14, Language related objects)

Etymology

poststem from singular of
NLem stedr‑a
LMLem stètur‑ar ‘legendary warrior’
MLem steetur‑ar
OLem stētur‑ ‘legend(ary warrior)’
PLem *stewtor‑ ‘fighter, warrior’
PIE *stéu̯p‑tor‑s ‘hitter, brawler’, event agent of
  PIE *steu̯p‑ ‘push, hit’

doublet of stàd. (see there for further information), stedràj. and tàp.

Cognates

Eng type (via Gk), Lat stupeō ‘be stunned, be amazed’

strà.

to make cattle, cows, bulls

stryÌx. bull; also the constellation Taurus (see appendix, Constellations)

Etymology

NLem star‑a ‘bull’
LMLem stàr‑yr
MLem stayr‑yr
OLem stayr‑
PLem *stawr‑
PIE *stáu̯r‑os

Cognates

Ger Stier ‘bull’, Lat taurus ‘bull’

stràg.

to make boxes (small, cuboid containers)

Etymology

NLem strogn‑a
LMLem tetràgon‑yr ‘square, rectangle’
Koi τετρά‑γων‑ον, compound of
  Koi τετρα‑ ‘four…’, combining form of
  Koi τέτταρες ‘four’
SHell *qétwores
PIE *kʷétu̯ores
 —and—
  Koi γωνί‑α ‘corner(stone), angle’
  Koi γόνυ ‘knee’
SHell *gónu
PIE *g̑ónu

Cognates

Eng four; Eng knee

stràz.

to make Crimean

stràrz. Crimea

Etymology

gender change of
NLem star‑a ‘bull’
LMLem stàr‑yr
MLem stayr‑yr
OLem stayr‑
PLem *stawr‑
PIE *stáu̯r‑os

This is a (folk etymological) calque from the Gk Ταυρική, which is actually derived from the name of the Tauroi, who lived there in the first millennium BC.

Cognates

Ger Stier ‘bull’, Lat taurus ‘bull’

stnàg.

self-transporting (nom for the hobbling action, acc for walking in a hobbling fashion, for hobbling along): to hobble, limp, totter somewhere-dat etc.

Usage notes

This verb is somewhat less negative than the translations given above; it can just mean ‘walk in an awkward fashion’.

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem skeng‑a
OLem skeng‑
PLem *skeng‑, Narten present of
PIE *skeng‑

Cognates

Ger hinken ‘limp’, Gk σκάζω ‘limp’

stnàt.

to make sparrows (also a constellation in the region of Camelopardalis’, the Giraffe’s, head; see appendix, Constellations)

Usage notes

In modern usage, this word is also loosely applied to other small birds.

Etymology

NLem skont‑a
LMLem, MLem skont‑yr
OLem skont‑
PLem *skont‑ ‘little bird, sparrow’
PIE *skₔk‑ónt‑s ‘jumping’, Narten present active participle of
  PIE *skek‑ ‘move quickly, jump’

Cognates

Ger ge‑schehen ‘happen’, Eng chic (via Fr chic and Ger schick ‘elegant’)

spàj.

to be sad about something-acc/causal-transporting (see unit 3, Ambiguous usage);
agentive caus, causal-reflexive: to sadden someone-nom

Etymology

NLem spalm‑a
LMLem, MLem spalnp‑a ‘disgrace’
OLem spalnp‑
PLem *spalnf‑ ‘speak publicly’, nasal-infix present of
PIE *spelh₃‑

The semantic development is from ‘speak publicly about someone (good or bad)’ via ‘disgrace someone’, metonymically to ‘fall into disgrace’ and finally ‘be downcast, be sad’.

The phonetic similarity to spàz. ‘be happy’ is incidental.

Cognates

Lv peļu ‘vilify’, TochB pällātär ‘praises’

spàz.

to be happy about something-acc/causal-transporting (also dat/causal-receiving, see unit 3, Ambiguous usage);
agentive caus, causal-reflexive: to please someone-nom

spèz stnÌtem. happy as a lark, lit. ‘happy as a sparrow’

Usage notes

The word formerly meant ‘warm, hot’ (see below). It has been noted that causes for being happy and causes for getting warm often coincide; they include sun, food, drink, jumping about, and even friction.

Etymology

gender change of
NLem sp‑a
LMLem tp‑yr ‘warm, hot’
MLem tpu‑yr
OLem tpu‑
PLem *tpu‑, u-stem adjective of
PIE *tep‑ ‘be warm, hot’

For some strange reason, masculinisation is common in verbs of emotion; see pqàb. ‘be angry’.

The phonetic similarity to spàj. ‘be sad’ is incidental.

Cognates

Lat tepeō ‘be warm’, Ved tāpáyati ‘heats, pains’

splàj.

to make shores

Etymology

NLem spolj‑a
LMLem, MLem tpolj‑yr ‘barrier’
OLem tpolhj‑ ‘fence’
PLem *tpolhj‑
PIE *tpólh₁i‑s ‘fortification’

Cognates

Eng police (via Gk πόλις ‘city’)

spràdj.

self-transporting: to flee somewhere-dat etc.

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem sperdz‑a
OLem sperdz‑
PLem *sperdz‑, Narten present of
PIE *sperdʰ‑ ‘run away, flee’

Cognates

Ger Spurt ‘sprint’, Ved spárdhate ‘compete’

swàh.

to make six individuals

Etymology

NLem sweh‑a
LMLem, MLem sweh‑yl
OLem swesh‑, inflected form of
PLem *sweshs
PIE *su̯ék̑s

Cognates

Eng six, Gk ἕξ ‘six’

swnàt.

to make someone-dat believe in something-acc;
dat, perfect or not topicalised: to believe in something-acc (see unit 13, Verbs of certainty)

Usage notes

Belief is connotated somewhat negatively; the Lemizh have always preferred thinking to believing.

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem swent‑a
OLem swent‑ ‘make believe’
PLem *swent‑ ‘put oneself in front > make believe’, Narten present of
PIE *su̯e‑dʰh₁‑ ‘place oneself’, compound of
  PIE *su̯e ‘self’
 —and—
  PIE *dʰeh₁‑ ‘put, make’

Cognates

Gk ἔθος ‘habit, custom, disposition’, Ved svádhā ‘habit, custom’

sxnàz.

to shine at something-dat (only of the Sun)

sxnèz. Sun; Sol, Helios (god) (symbol: 🞼)
sxnÌz. sunlight, sunshine; sunbeam, sunray

sxnyzrÌ. sunbeam, sunray

Usage notes

The Sun is mythologically and poetically seen as the male and strong counterpart of the Moon, as in most Indo-European languages. This is the source of the ‘male’ (non-zero) poststem in Modern Lemizh.

Etymology

gender change of
NLem sxun‑a
LMLem, MLem sxun‑ar
OLem sxun‑
PLem *sxun‑, zero grade of
PIE *sh₂u̯én‑s, genitive/weak stem of
  PIE *séh₂u̯l̥

Cognates

Eng Sun (generalised weak stem), Lat sōl ‘Sun’ (generalised strong stem)

qà.

relative pronoun type II level n−2: see unit 6, Relative pronouns

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem q‑a, formed after the Ghean relative pronouns
a f‑a s‑a sh‑a x‑a / fˇ‑a sˇ‑a shˇ‑a xˇ‑a
/a ɸa s̟a ʃa χa / βa z̟a ʒa ʁa/

qàc.

to make a temperature unit, a temperature of 1.138 kelvins (see appendix, Units of measurement)

Etymology

NLem qerm‑a, academic loan of
Koi θερμ‑ός ‘warm’
SHell *qherm‑ós
PIE *gʷʰer‑m‑ós, m-stem noun of
  PIE *gʷʰer‑ ‘get warm’

doublet of gmrà.

Cognates

Eng thermo-meter (via Gk θερμ‑ός), but perhaps not warm

qàzg.

to think about something-acc (to oneself-dat)

Etymology

NLem qizgw‑a
LMLem, MLem qisgw‑a
OLem thisgw‑
PLem *sisgw‑ ‘discuss (constructively), reason’, i-reduplicated athematic present of
PIE *sekʷ‑ ‘say’

Cognates

Eng say, Lat in‑quit ‘says, said’

qàxk.

self-transporting: to fly somewhere-dat etc.;
nom: to beat one’s wings, turn one’s propeller or rotor, etc.

Usage notes

The sense of ‘beating one’s wings’, attested from Old Lemizh, typically implies doing so effectively, powerfully (as opposed to, say, fluttering feebly).

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem qexk‑a
OLem thexk‑
PLem *sexk‑, intensive of
PIE *skek‑ ‘move quickly, jump’

Cognates

Ger ge‑schehen ‘happen’, Eng chic (via Fr chic and Ger schick ‘elegant’)

qàf.

to make seven individuals

‘make seven’, a version of an old language game for seven players, focusing on abstract thought. Other versions of this game are for four, five or ten players, and named accordingly. The cover term for the game is dmàj. ‘fill (up), make full’.

Etymology

NLem qif‑a
LMLem, MLem qif‑yl
OLem thift‑, inflected form of
PLem *seftam
PIE *septḿ̥

Cognates

Eng seven, Gk ἑπτά ‘seven’

qlàp.

to make tar

Etymology

NLem qelp‑a
LMLem, MLem qelp‑yr
OLem thelp‑
PLem *selp‑ ‘oil, fat’
PIE *sélp‑s

Cognates

Eng salve, possibly Gk ἔλπος ‘olive oil, fat’

qrà.

to make animals

Etymology

NLem qer‑a
LMLem qèr‑yr
Koi θήρ ‘wild beast’
SHell *thḗr
PIE *g̑ʰu̯ér‑s, nominalisation of
  PIE *g̑ʰu̯er‑ ‘go crookedly’

Cognates

Eng feral (via Lat ferus ‘wild’), Ved hvárate ‘diverge, bend, go crookedly’

qnàt.

to (make/produce) smoke

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem qent‑a
OLem thent‑ ‘to smoke’
PLem *sent‑, Narten present of
PIE *sen‑dʰh₁‑ ‘secrete’, probably compound of
  PIE *sen ‘aside, away’
 —and—
  PIE *dʰeh₁‑ ‘put, make’

Cognates

Eng cinder, Gk ὄνθος ‘dung’

qmà.

to group something-dat into something-acc (see unit 7, Grouping numerals)

qmÌ. a group, (mathematics) a set

qmyhrìk. silicon

Etymology

NLem qem‑a
LMLem, MLem qem‑yr
OLem them‑
PLem *sem‑ ‘one, together’
PIE *sém‑s

Cognates

Eng same, similar (the latter via Lat similis)

qkràdj.

to make artichokes (the vegetable)

qkrèdj. artichoke plant

Etymology

NLem qkerdz‑a, contraction of
LMLem ev‑skerdz‑yr ‘artichoke, cardoon’, compound of
  LMLem, MLem ev‑a ‘eat’
OLem hedh‑
PLem *hedh‑, Narten present of
PIE *h₁ed‑
 —and—
  LMLem, MLem skerdz‑yr ‘prick, sting’
OLem skerdz‑
PLem *skerdz‑ ‘cut, sting (?)’, Narten present of
PIE *skerdʰ‑

This word etymologically means ‘stinging food’.

Cognates

Eng eat; Lit skerdžiù ‘stab, slaughter’

qtrà.

to arrange something-dat by some property-acc (see unit 7, Grouping numerals)

Etymology

NLem qtrO‑a
LMLem ihwtrè‑yr ‘arrangement, sequence’
MLem ihwtree‑yr ‘herd’
OLem hishwtrē‑
PLem *heshw‑trew‑ ‘(horse) stable’, compound of
  PLem *heshw‑ ‘horse’
PIE *h₁ék̑u̯‑os
 —and—
  PLem *trew‑ ‘dwelling’
PIE *tréb‑s

Cognates

Lat equus ‘horse’; Ger Dorf ‘village’

fà.

relative pronoun type II level n−1: see unit 6, Relative pronouns

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem f‑a, formed after the Ghean relative pronouns
a f‑a s‑a sh‑a x‑a / fˇ‑a sˇ‑a shˇ‑a xˇ‑a
/a ɸa s̟a ʃa χa / βa z̟a ʒa ʁa/

fàt.

to act/move fast, to make one’s actions/movements fast

Etymology

NLem fet‑a
LMLem, MLem fet‑yr
OLem fet‑
PLem *fesh‑ ‘be fast’, root present of
PIE *h₃eh₁k̑‑

Cognates

Gk ὠκύς ‘fast’

fàps.

to make it midwinter

djUtfÌps. Neptunian day, the Lemizh equivalent of New Year’s Eve (symbol: ; see appendix, Date)
djUtfÙlps. lit. ‘the [four] purposes of the Neptunian day / of New Year’s Eve’, referring to food, gifts, charity, and the return of the sun

psrèb fÌpse. Midwinter God (roughly corresponding to Father Christmas, Santa Claus)

filpskà. to make it midsummer

Usage notes

Children generally call the Midwinter God psrèb fÌpse.. His formal (scholarly, religious) name is fOpysrÌf. (as is the name of the planet Neptune in Modern Lemizh).

New Year’s Eve, and the associated festivities, have been called that since Late Middle Lemizh. From Early New Lemizh times onwards, a number of parallels to Father Christmas have sprung up in popular belief – e.g., the Midwinter God is said to find out whether children have been naughty or nice, and brings presents only to the good ones. His sledge, though, is drawn by four porpoises swimming through the air.

Etymology

NLem fOps‑a
LMLem fÒpys‑yr ‘Father Midwinter’
MLem fOOpys‑yr, haplology of
OLem föpysir‑
PLem *foɦ‑paser‑, compound of
  PLem *foɦ‑ ‘?’, Narten present of
PIE *h₃eg‑
 —and—
  PLem *paser‑ ‘father’
PIE *ph̥₂tér‑s

The first part of the compound is based on a root of unknown meaning.

Cognates

Eng father

fàw.

to make points / an area far (away) from something-nom (see unit 12, Temporal and spatial verbs)

Usage notes

See the connotations section of ràc for some context on gender change in spatial verbs.

Etymology

gender change of
NLem fo‑a, inflected form of
LMLem, MLem afo ‘from’
OLem afo
PLem *afo
PIE *apo

Gender change occurred to avoid homophony with the pronoun fà..

Cognates

Eng of, off, Lat ab ‘from’; unrelated to Eng far, even in non-rhotic dialects

fàs.

to kiss someone-dat

Etymology

NLem fOs‑a
LMLem fÒs‑a, verbalisation of
MLem fOOs‑yr ‘mouth’
OLem fös‑
PLem *fōs‑
PIE *h₃óh₁s

Cognates

Lat ōs ‘mouth’, Hit ais ‘mouth’

fàst.

to peck at something-dat

fùst. (with outer partitive) beak

Etymology

NLem fOst‑a
LMLem fÒsotk‑yr ‘beak’
MLem fOOs‑otk‑yr, compound of
  MLem fOOs‑yr ‘mouth’
OLem fös‑
PLem *fōs‑
PIE *h₃óh₁s
 —and—
  MLem otk‑yr ‘chicken’
Ghe otq‑ə /ɔtqə/, an onomatopoeia like axʱ‑ə /aɴə/ ‘cat’ and oxfˇ‑ə /ɔʁβə/ ‘dog’

Cognates

Lat ōs ‘mouth’

fisà.

to make pears

fisè. pear tree
fisÌ. pear

Etymology

NLem fis‑a
LMLem, MLem fis‑yr
OLem fis‑
PLem *afis‑
PIE *h̥́₂pis‑om, probably from a Mediterranean substrate language

No poststem was formed — expected would be ModLem **fàs. — likely for rhythmic analogy with xalà. ‘make apples’.

Cognates

Eng pear

fOpysràf.

to make the Midwinter God (roughly corresponding to Father Christmas, Santa Claus); to make the planet Neptune (symbol: )

Usage notes

The Midwinter God has been said to be a bringer of gifts, and live in the Far North, since Old Lemizh times.

See djeipysràd. for more information on Lemizh polytheism.

This is the formal (scholarly, religious) term. Children generally call him psrèb fÌpse.. (See there for information on popular beliefs, and on the associated weekday.)

Etymology

gender change of
NLem fOpysir‑a, academic loan of
OLem föpysir‑ ‘Father Midwinter’
PLem *foɦ‑paser‑, compound of
  PLem *foɦ‑ ‘?’, Narten present of
PIE *h₃eg‑
 —and—
  PLem *paser‑ ‘father’
PIE *ph̥₂tér‑s

The first part of the compound is based on a root of unknown meaning.

Cognates

Eng father

flàc.

to make blue, to blue

flàRc. ‘blue hour’, especially regarding the colours, sounds and smells associated with it

flicvnè. caesium

Etymology

NLem flOr‑a
LMLem, MLem fler‑yr
OLem fler‑
PLem *pfler‑ ‘grey, blue(?)’, r-stem adjective of
PIE *bʰleh₁‑ ‘shine, flash’

Most basic colour terms in Lemizh are r-stem Caland adjectives, perhaps motivated by the word for ‘red’. The similarity with Eng flash is purely incidental.

Cognates

Eng blue, Lat flāvus ‘yellow’

frà.

to make twelve individuals

Etymology

NLem fr‑a
LMLem, MLem fr‑yl
Ghe fʳ‑i /ʙ̥ɪ/

fràg.

djUtfrÌg. Martian day, the Lemizh equivalent of Tuesday (symbol: ; see appendix, Date)

Usage notes

The planet Mars, as well as the god, is called frekrÌf. in Modern Lemizh.

Etymology

NLem frOgr‑a
LMLem frèkur‑yr ‘Brother (in) War’
MLem freekur‑yr
OLem frēkur‑
PLem *pfrā‑kor‑, compound of
  PLem *pfrā‑ ‘brother’, suffixless from of
PIE *bʰréh₂ter‑s
 —and—
  PLem *kor‑ ‘war’
PIE *kór‑os

Cognates

Eng brother; Ger Heer ‘army’

fragmà.

to make an electric resistance unit, a resistance of 1.472 ohms (see appendix, Units of measurement)

Etymology

shortened form, academic loan of
Koi φράγμα ‘dam, barrier’
  Koi φράσσω ‘fence in, fortify’, of unknown origin

Most electric units use the electricity is water metaphor, which relates electric resistance to a water barrier, such as a dam.

Cognates

Eng dia‑phragm

fràdj.

to make/produce a sensory stimulus;
to seem to someone-dat (to be) somehow-qualnom;
dat: to perceive something-nom

frùdj. (with outer partitive) sensory organ

Etymology

NLem frodj‑a
LMLem fràtj‑a
MLem fraatj‑a
PCelt *φrā́ty‑ū, i̯e-causative of
PIE *pret‑ ‘realize’

Cognates

Lit prantù ‘understand, grasp’

fràw.

self-transporting: to amble, stroll, walk without a specific aim

Etymology

NLem frOm‑a
LMLem frèm‑a
MLem freem‑a ‘move aimlessly’
OLem frēm‑
PLem *pfrēm‑ ‘stray, go wrong’, Narten present of
PIE *bʰremH‑ ‘be unsteady, restless’

Cognates

Ved bhrámasi ‘flicker, flare’

fràx.

to be astonished, surprised about something-acc/causal-transporting (also dat/causal-receiving, see unit 3, Ambiguous usage);
agentive caus, causal-reflexive: to astonish, surprise someone-nom

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem frux‑a
OLem fruh‑
PLem *pfruh‑ ‘look grim, be troubled’
PIE *bʰrúh₁‑eh₂ ‘brow’

Cognates

Eng brow, Gk ὀφρῡ́ς ‘eyebrow, brow of a hill’

fràxk.

to make/produce fruit, to fruit

frèxk. fruiting plant, flowering plant

Usage notes

Fruit, especially strawberries, have been a highly valued food since Old Lemizh times. fràRxk. or fròRxk. ‘the time of producing fruit [i.e. strawberries]’ refers to early summer, especially its colours and smells (whereas xalàR. and xalòR. refer to the end of summer).

Etymology

NLem frOnk‑a
LMLem, MLem frenk‑a
OLem frenk‑
PLem *pfrenk‑, Narten present of
PIE *bʰrenk‑ ‘swell’

Cognates

ON bringa ‘breast, chest’, PSl bręče ‘swelled’

fràs.

to make an uncle or aunt of someone-nom (related by blood)

frès. nephew, niece of someone-acc

Etymology

NLem frOs‑a
LMLem frès‑yr ‘uncle (father’s brother)’
MLem frees‑yr, haplology of
OLem frēsir‑
PLem *pfrāser‑ ‘nephew, grandson (?)’
PIE *bʰréh₂ter‑s ‘brother’

Cognates

Eng brother

frekràf.

to make the god or the planet Mars/Ares (symbol: )

Usage notes

See djeipysràd. for more information on Lemizh polytheism, and fràg. for the weekday associated with this god.

Etymology

gender change of
NLem frekur‑a, academic loan of
OLem frēkur‑ ‘Brother (in) War’
PLem *pfrā‑kor‑, compound of
  PLem *pfrā‑ ‘brother’, suffixless from of
PIE *bʰréh₂ter‑s
 —and—
  PLem *kor‑ ‘war’
PIE *kór‑os

Cognates

Eng brother; Ger Heer ‘army’

fnà.

to try (to do) something-acc

fnÌ., fnÙl. manage to do something-acc, succeed in doing something-acc

Etymology

gender change of
NLem fing‑a
LMLem, MLem fifing‑a ‘desire’
OLem fifing‑
PLem *fifing‑, i-reduplicated athematic present of
PIE *h₃ei̯g̑ʰ‑

Cognates

Gk ἰχανάω ‘crave, yearn’

fnàwb.

to make an older relative of someone-nom, to make related to someone-nom

fnèwb. jounger relative of someone-acc

Etymology

NLem fnumb‑a
LMLem, MLem fnomb‑yr ‘navel, hub’
OLem fnomb‑
PLem *fnomb‑
PIE *h₃nóbʰ‑s

Cognates

Eng navel, Gk ὀμφαλός ‘navel’

fmàxk.

to pour, spill something-acc somewhere-dat etc.

Etymology

NLem, LMLem, MLem fmink‑a
OLem fmink‑
PLem *fmink‑, sk̑-present of
PIE *h₃mei̯g̑ʰ‑ ‘urinate’

Cognates

Lat mingō ‘urinate’, Ved mehati ‘urinate’

fkràj.

to make tortoises, turtles

Etymology

NLem fkrongj‑a
LMLem, MLem repkongj‑ar
OLem rep‑konggh‑, compound of
  OLem rep‑ ‘creep’
PLem *ref‑, root present of
PIE *reh₁p‑
 —and—
  OLem konggh‑ ‘shell, mussel’
PLem *konggh‑
PIE *kóngʰ‑eh₂

The name of this irritating animal literally means ‘shell(ed) creeper’.

Cognates

Eng reptile (via Lat rēpō ‘creep’); Eng, Lat cochlea

ftàx.

to play (a game)

Etymology

NLem ftax‑a
LMLem, MLem ptax‑a ‘duck’
OLem ptah‑
PLem *ptah‑, root present of
PIE *pteh₂k‑

Cognates

Gk πτώσσω ‘to duck’, Lat taceō ‘be silent’

ftràsk.

to sneeze

Etymology

NLem ftarsk‑a
LMLem, MLem ptarsk‑a
OLem ptarsk‑
PLem *ptarsk‑, sk̑-present of
PIE *pster‑

Cognates

Lat sternuō ‘sneeze’

ftnàk.

to make eagles (also the constellation Aquila; see appendix, Constellations)

Etymology

NLem ftank‑a
LMLem, MLem ptank‑yr ‘bird of prey’
OLem ptank‑ ‘fly’
PLem *ptanx‑ ‘fly (up)’, nasal-infix present of
PIE *peth₂‑ ‘spread (one’s wings), fly (up)’

Cognates

Eng feather, Gk πέτομαι ‘fly’

fplàx.

to make the sky

Etymology

NLem fpalx‑a
LMLem, MLem ufpalx‑yr
OLem uf‑palx‑, compound of
  OLem uf ‘above’, shortened form of
PLem *ufer
PIE *uper
 —and—
  OLem palx‑ ‘flat’
PLem *palx‑, root present of
PIE *pleh₂‑

Cognates

Eng over; Eng floor, Eng plain (via Lat plānus ‘flat, intelligible’)

fpràf.

to rustle; to whisper something-acc to someone-dat

Usage notes

The meaning ‘whisper’ is secondary; it developed from metaphorical use of ‘rustle’ and typically connotes a very quiet, friendly whisper.

This verb also, paradoxically, describes the sound of a boiling teapot before it starts to whistle.

Etymology

NLem fprUf‑a
LMLem, MLem perpif‑a ‘move around (violently)’
OLem per‑pifh‑ ‘move around’, compound of
  OLem peri ‘around, through’
PLem, PIE *peri
 —and—
  OLem pifh‑ ‘move’ [intr.]
PLem *pifh‑, i-reduplicated athematic present of
PIE *peh₁‑

Cognates

Gk περί ‘about, around’; Ved vi-pipāná- ‘sorting out’

fxàc.

to make dragons (also the constellation consisting of Draco and most of Ursa Minor; see appendix, Constellations)

Etymology

NLem fxurm‑a
LMLem, MLem fxurm‑yr
OLem fxurm‑
PLem *fxurm‑, of unknown origin

fxyrcrà.

to make lizards

Etymology

simplification, compound of
  ModLem fxàc. ‘dragon’
NLem fxurm‑a
LMLem, MLem fxurm‑yr
OLem fxurm‑
PLem *fxurm‑, of unknown origin
 —and—
  ModLem crà. ‘1/4’, gender change of
NLem crumbw‑a ‘2/6’
LMLem crumbw‑yr, contamination of
MLem srumbw‑yr ‘few, little’
OLem srumbw‑
PLem *tsrumbw‑ ‘trifle’, u-stem adjective of
PIE *dʰreu̯bʰ‑ ‘break’ [intr.], crumble’
 —with—
MLem cambr‑yr ‘negligible’
OLem zhambr‑
PLem *dzambr‑ ‘few, little’, r-stem adjective of
PIE *dʰebʰ‑ ‘reduce’

Okay, this is just a simplification of a modern compound meaning ‘little dragon’.