lemĂc. Lemizh grammar and dictionary

# Unit 8. Numerals II

Cantor illustrated the concept of infinity for his students by telling them that there was once a man who had a hotel with an infinite number of rooms, and the hotel was fully occupied. Then one more guest arrived. So the owner moved the guest in room number one into room number two; the guest in room number two into number three; the guest in three into room four, and so on. In that way room number one became vacant for the new guest. What delights me about this story is that everyone involved, the guests and the owner, accept it as perfectly in order to carry out an infinite number of operations so that one guest can have peace and quiet in a room of his own. That is a great tribute to solitude.

(Peter HĂžeg. FrĂžken Smillas fornemmelse for sne)

## Translating numerals

### Cardinal, indefinite and weighting numerals

As we have seen in the previous unit, cardinal numerals (âone, twoâ), as well as indefinite and weighting numerals used in the same way, work like adjectives. They form brackets or coordinations, including â especially the weighting numerals, as might be expected â partitive ones.

 sklĂxt trĂy. â trĂ sklĂxty. rooms, three individuals (see bracket inversion for word order) three rooms room-acc1 three-acc-acc2. â three-acc1 room-acc-acc2. trĂ sklĂxtyn. three individuals from the set of rooms three of the rooms three-acc1 room-acc-partacc2. ĂŹvd crĂi. â crĂ ĂŹvdy. guests (recipients of hosting), a few few guests host-dat1 1/4-acc-dat2. â 1/4-acc1 host-dat-acc2. crĂ ĂŹvdyn. a few from the set of guests a few of the guests 1/4-acc1 host-dat-partacc2. jnĂ sklĂxtyn. everything from the set of rooms all rooms 1/1-acc1 room-acc-partacc2.

The latter phrase is a partitive construction that describes all items from its set, a possibility left open by the partitive casesâ definition. The corresponding cumulative bracket would mean âall things, which are roomsâ or âeverything, which is a roomâ, i.e. there are no other things than rooms.

### Multiplicative numerals

Multiplicative numerals (âonce, twiceâ) work like adverbally used adjectives: they form factive brackets.

 ftrĂ sk dwĂa. sneezing, two individuals She sneezes twice. sneeze-fact1 two-acc-fact2.

As an individual need not be temporally connected, two individuals of a continuous action such as âeatâ or âsleepâ do not necessarily mean eating or sleeping twice in the sense of two temporally separate actions. But then, even in English we speak of sleeping twice if we are thinking of two nights, even if we wake up in the middle of the first night and then go to sleep again. Itâs not a question of continuity but of what functions as an individual, as mentioned before.

### Distributive numerals

Distributive numerals (âone each, in pairsâ) are another use of the indefinite numeral RĂ. âeachâ, this time with a cumulative bracket.

 RĂ ĂŹvdy dwĂi. Each [pair] is two guests. pairs of guests, two guests each each-acc1 host-dat-acc2 two-acc-dat3.

To express âeach of somethingâ, we additionally need the partitive bracket we know from the reflexive constructions. Again, we normally use a compound derived from the partitive bracket.

 RĂ ivdĂn dĂŹy sklĂxty rĂy. Each of the guests is the recipient of giving one room. each-acc1 host-dat-partacc2 give-dat-acc2 room-acc-acc3 one-acc-acc4. â dĂ  RĂi ivdĂœn sklĂxty rĂy. Someone gives each of the guests one room. (verbose) give-fact1 each-acc-dat2 host-dat-partacc3 room-acc-acc2 one-acc-acc3. dĂ  ivdRiĂŹ sklĂxty rĂy. Someone gives the guests â each of them â one room. Each of the guests gets one room. The guests get one room each. give-fact1 host-dat-each-dat-dat2 room-acc-acc2 one-acc-acc3. dĂ  ivdĂŹ sklĂxty rĂy. The guests are the addressees and one room is the content of giving. The guests get one room [together]. give-fact1 host-dat-dat2 room-acc-acc2 one-acc-acc3.

Adjectives of possession containing a numeral (âtwo-windowed, four-leggedâ) need the same kind of construction, as sklĂxt jmĂxty dwĂy. room-acc1 window-ben-acc2 two-acc-acc3. would be read as âone (or several) rooms with two windows altogetherâ. The same is true of related nouns and such.

 sklyxtRĂ jmĂxty dwĂy. Each of the rooms is the beneficiary of making two windows. two-windowed room(s) room-acc-each-acc1 window-ben-acc2 two-acc-acc3. dnyRĂ gwĂqu. Each of the walkers has four means of walking, i.e. legs (tool noun). four-legged; quadruped(s) walk-acc-each-acc1 four-acc-ins2. qmyRĂ qĂfi. Each of the groups is made of seven individuals. group(s) of seven group-acc-each-acc1 seven-acc-dat2. kRĂ  djiltRĂoR. Each of the days is an episode of working. (inverted in comparison to the previous examples) daysâ work work-fact1 day-cons-each-acc-eps2.

âdayâ defines a certain quantity and is therefore multiplied with âeachâ by an epenthetic consecutive; see Measuring in unit 12 and Units of measurement in the appendix for more on this.

### Ordinal numerals

Recall that pnĂ . âmake five individualsâ implies making them one after the other. Consequently, âthe fifthâ is the temporal or spatial end point of making five: either the egressive (iR, closing time, temporal end point) or the illative (ir, spatial end point) case is appropriate here.

 pnĂŹR. the temporal end point of making five individuals the fifth five-egr1. pnĂŹr. the spatial end point of making five individuals five-ill1. mĂŹR ynjĂ pnĂny. (mĂ .-desorption) the twenty-first make-egr1 16-partacc-acc2 five-partacc-acc2.

âthe fifth roomâ is the end point of making five rooms. We know from the cardinal numerals that the rooms in the phrase âfive roomsâ are the accusative object of âfiveâ, i.e. they are the content of making five individuals. As with multiplicative numerals, we can use this kind of construction with verbs that have an inner factive.

An illative or egressive bracket has a quite different meaning.

 pnĂŹr sklĂxty. the fifth room five-ill1 room-acc-acc2. pnĂŹr sklĂxtyn. the fifth of the rooms five-ill1 room-acc-partacc2. dwĂŹR srĂ jy. the second meeting They met for the second time two-egr1 meet-fact-acc2. pnĂŹr sklĂxtir. the fifth thing, a room five-ill1 room-acc-ill2. rĂŹR rOsĂ ciR jmĂxi. the first thing, the making of ice crystals At first, ice crystals form. one-egr1 crystal-fact-egr2 ice-acc-dat3.

Repetitive ordinal numerals (âevery sixthâ) are ordinals built into the kind of construction we used for the distributive numeral in âtwo guests eachâ.

 RĂ swĂhy. â swĂŹrh RĂy. six each â every sixth each-acc1 six-acc-acc2. â six-ill1 each-acc-acc2.

### Composite numerals

To translate numerals describing composition (âtwofold/double/binary, threefold/triple/ternaryâ), a cardinal numeral (a bracket or coordination) will often suffice.

 hlĂg dwĂy. a twofold/double wall, two walls wall-acc1 two-acc-acc2. ftrĂ sk dwĂa. a twofold/double sneeze. She sneezes twice. sneeze-fact1 two-acc-fact2.

To highlight the integritive (twofold, i.e. one thing in two parts) or the composite aspect (double/binary, i.e. two parts forming a whole), we use a compound of a grouping numeral with different inner cases.

 krĂj dwĂi. â dwĂ krĂŹjy. â krijdwĂ. an ensemble of two [things] ensemble-acc1 two-acc-dat2. â two-acc1 ensemble-dat-acc2. â ensemble-dat-two-acc1. hlĂg krijdwĂy. a wall, an ensemble of two a twofold wall wall-acc1 ensemble-dat-two-acc-acc2. hlĂg krijdwĂŹy. walls, forming an ensemble of two; walls, two ensembled ones a double wall wall-acc1 ensemble-dat-two-dat-acc2.

### Type numerals

âtwo/three sorts/kinds/types ofâ is translated with the grouping numeral âsortâ. The things which are sorted into a number of kinds of course want the dative.

 mĂh swyhĂ snĂwi. â swĂh mĂhy snĂwi. â myhswĂh snĂwi. six sorts of snow sort-acc1 six-acc-acc2 snow-acc-dat2. â six-acc1 sort-acc-acc2 snow-acc-dat3. â sort-acc-six-acc1 snow-acc-dat2.

### Counting

In counting, we use the inner factive.

 rĂ . dwĂ . trĂ . â making one individual, making two individuals, making three individuals, âŠ one, two, three, âŠ one-fact1. two-fact1. three-fact1. âŠ

### Numbering

Room number eight is the room having an â8â, the one marked with an â8â; so what we need is an adjective of possession. To distinguish this from a room having eight things, we enclose the numeral in quotes.

 sklĂxt <8>Ăy. the room with an â8â room (number) eight room-acc1 â8â-ben-acc2.

For consecutively numbered rooms, ordinal numerals (âthe eighth roomâ) are an alternative.

### Digit sequences

Digit sequences such as numbers with many positions after the decimal point (including recurring ones) â or, say, credit card numbers â are also read as quoted digits.

 <1,A51A662530â>Ă. 1.A51A662530âŠhex = 1.644934066848âŠ â1.64493406684778165â„â-acc1. rĂ. xĂk. dĂh. pnĂ. rĂ. dĂh. â one-acc1. point-acc1. ten-acc1. five-acc1. one-acc1. ten-acc1. âŠ

## Grammatical number

We can get close to the idea of grammatical number (singular, plural, dual and others) by using a numeral as a compound modifier and thus downtoning it. Some examples of compounding have already been shown in the chapters above; to grasp the difference to uncompounded constructions, it may help to think of them as weaker forms of numerals, just as âa roomâ is weaker than âone roomâ with respect to the number âoneâ.

 sklĂxt rĂy. â rĂ sklĂxty. â sklyxtrĂ. a/the room room-acc1 one-acc-acc2. â one-acc1 room-acc-acc2. â room-acc-one-acc1. sklyxtmlĂ. (the) rooms room-acc-several-acc1. wirĂŹ. you (singular) PInâ1-dat-one-dat1.

Donât be tempted to translate grammatical number like this on principle; in most situations, the number of things is irrelevant.

## Collective nouns

Compounds with the grouping numeral krĂj. ensemble-acc1. as head form collective nouns.

 krĂj kRĂqi. â kRĂq krĂŹjy. â krijkRĂq. an ensemble of tones, of musical notes melody ensemble-acc1 tone-acc-dat2. â tone-acc1 ensemble-dat-acc2. â ensemble-dat-tone-acc1.

This compound loses the tonesâ inner case, which is fine here. It can, however, cause problems with an ensemble of gifts-acc (as opposed to an ensemble of givers-nom) or an ensemble of hosts-nom (as opposed to an ensemble of guests-dat); those should not be compounded.

Switching head and modifier to give a construction parallel to the ones in the previous chapter is not a good idea: objects of the compound would then refer to the tones, not the melody, so adding an adjective would not yield âa beautiful melodyâ but âa melody of beautiful tonesâ

Other collective nouns include âteam, flock, mankind, lexicon (vocabulary)â.

## Strengthening, weakening and opposition

### Weighted words

Adjectival verbs generally denote properties that are on the âpositiveâ side of some scale. For example, prĂ j. is on the positive side of a beauty scale, mĂ v. is on the positive side of a wisdom scale, and fĂ t. is on the positive side of a speed scale. Compounds with the weighting numerals 5â8, 3â4 and 7â8 can be used to convey a more specific positive meaning, and 3â8, 1â4 and 1â8 indicate the less positive meanings âof little beauty or wisdomâ, âslowâ, and the like. These compounds work exactly like negated adjectives: they have an inner consecutive or factive case, depending on whether the underlying abstract nouns decribe consequences (âbeautyâ) or actions (âwisdom, speedâ). Thus, priljdmĂ. beautiful-cons-3/4-acc1. means âvery beautifulâ, mavxpĂj. wise-fact-7/8-acc1. describes an extremely wise deed, and mavxpĂšj. wise-fact-7/8-nom1. an extremely wise person (while mevxpĂšj. wise-nom-7/8-nom1. means âalmost all the wise onesâ).

The nonexistence negator nĂ. marks the zero point, and the opposition negator kĂ. is on the negative side: priljnĂ. beautiful-cons-not-acc1. ânot beautifulâ is definitely more impolite than priljcrĂ. beautiful-cons-1/4-acc1., and priljkĂ. beautiful-cons-opposition-acc1. is downright rude. And xacgnĂš. light-fact-not-nom1. means âdark, not giving out any lightâ. The weighting numeral rĂw. amount-acc1. marks an arbitrary point on the scale, which we will need in unit 11.

Uncompounded adjectives are another issue handled by pragmatics: literally, fĂšt. fast-nom1. just describes someone who is moving, speaking or otherwise acting, however slowly, but is usually taken to mean someone acting at a speed relevant to the context; lĂxw. green-acc1. is usually understood as something that is completely or predominantly green, and not just a bit greenish. This issue can also be understood as leaving out the weighting numeral if the weight is clear from context.

There is no generally applicable definition of the âpositiveâ side of an adjective; it is part of its lexical meaning. For example, there is no compelling reason why rĂc. ârightâ is expressed by an uncompounded word and rilckĂ. âleftâ is its opposition, and not the other way round. (See unit 12, Temporal and spatial verbs.)

Adjectives are not the only words that can be strengthened or weakened. The transition to nouns is smooth.

 dmĂ  prĂŹljy. â priljdmĂ. the beauty (abstract noun) is much a real beauty (concrete noun) 3/4-fact1 beautiful-cons-acc2. â beautiful-cons-3/4-acc1. crĂ  wĂŹlgwy. â wilgwcrĂ. the dog-ness (the consequence of dog-making) is a bit a bit of a dog 1/4-fact1 dog-cons-acc2. â dog-cons-1/4-acc1. jnĂ  anĂ y. â anajnĂ. the secrecy (the âmaking secretâ) is complete a complete secret 1/1-fact1 secret-fact-acc2. â secret-fact-1/1-acc1.

Weighted actions often, but not necessarily, have an epenthetic factive.

 jnĂ  lĂ xty. â laxtjnĂ . want at all costs 1/1-fact1 want-fact-acc2. â want-fact-1/1-fact1. crĂ  wĂ xy. â waxcrĂ . speak a bit 1/4-fact1 speak-fact-acc2. â speak-fact-1/4-fact1. cĂ wb RĂ jgy. â RajgcĂšwb. hardly alive 1/8-fact1 live-fact-acc2. â live-fact-1/8-nom1. nĂ  RĂ jgy. â RajgnĂš. dead not-fact1 live-fact-acc2. â live-fact-not-nom1. Ă v jnĂy. â jnĂ  Ăvy. â yvjnĂ . eat all eat up eat-fact1 1/1-acc-acc2. â 1/1-fact1 eat-acc-acc2. â eat-acc-1/1-fact1.

âHe eats a lot (= a large amount)â has the weighting numeral in the accusative, âHe eats a lot (= He does a lot of eating)â in the factive.

A grammatical form expressing strengthening is generally called augmentative or intensive, one expressing weakening is called diminutive. âeat upâ, expressing a completed action, is the Lemizh equivalent of the completive aspect.

### Modified objects

The sentence âShe doesnât eat it because of the vitaminsâ, with stress on the vitamins, is usually understood as âShe eats it, but not because of the vitaminsâ. The seemingly obvious translation avnĂ  crURĂjgOl. eat-fact-not-fact1 vitamin-acc-psu2. negates the whole sentence and consequently does not claim anything about the eating. Rather, it says âIt is not true that she eats it because of the vitaminsâ, effectively meaning âShe might eat it, but if so, itâs not because of the vitaminsâ. Instead, we need to negate the vitamins, yielding nĂ  crURĂjgy. â crURyjgnĂ. not-fact1 vitamin-acc-acc2. â vitamin-acc-not-acc1. âsomething that is not vitamins; non-vitaminsâ. Again, an epenthetic consecutive would be an alternative, but this time the concrete accusative seems more appropriate.

And for the sake of completeness: nĂ  avĂ crURĂjgOl. not-fact1 eat-fact-acc2 vitamin-acc-psu2., with the vitamins as an object of the negator, means âShe doesnât eat it, because of the vitaminsâ.

 Other modifiers and epenthetic cases also occur: Ă v crURyjg-nĂOl. She eats it because of something that is not vitamins / because of non-vitamins. She doesnât eat it because of the vitamins. eat-fact1 vitamin-acc-not-acc-psu2. Ă v crURyjgĂl djmynĂOl. (coordination) She eats it because of the vitamins, not the taste. eat-fact1 vitamin-acc-psu2 taste-acc-not-acc-psu2. Ă v crURaRjg-RĂbvOl. The times of vitamin-making are 3â8, i.e. she eats it because of something that is sometimes vitamins. She sometimes eats it because of the vitamins.She eats it, sometimes because of the vitamins. eat-fact1 vitamin-temp-3/8-acc-psu2.

The same type of construction, but with outer cases other than the persuasive, is found in the following sentences:

• âHe didnât give it to his brother [but to someone else].â (compound with nĂ . ânotâ, dat)
• âThey arenât talking to themselves [but to each other].â (nĂ ., dat â see reciprocity in unit 6)
• âI wonât come today [but maybe tomorrow].â (nĂ ., temp)
• âShe came without the mechanic.â (nĂ ., com)
• âIâm not paying you to ask questions.â (nĂ ., fin)
• âI can manage with just the tiniest bit of help.â (cĂ wb. â1â8â, ins)
• âNot many arrows hit the target.â (crĂ . â1â4â, acc â donât use a negation of dmĂ . â3â4â)

Likewise, âsomeone/something elseâ and âdifferentâ are negations of the definite pronoun, not of the whole sentence.

 dĂ  tynĂi. He gave it not to this one. He gave it to someone else. give-fact1 this-acc-not-acc-dat2. nĂ gw gwalpĂer tynĂy. She is drinking from a different cup. drink-fact1 cup-acc-ela2 this-acc-not-acc-acc3.

Objects can also be modified with modal verbs and adverbs (âShe should eat it because of the vitaminsâ, âMaybe she eats it because of the vitaminsâ, unit 13) or âthatâ-clauses (âThey say that she eats it because of the vitaminsâ, unit 15).

#### Modified objects vs. partitive

Modified objects cannot express that she eats it partly because of the vitamins, as this is the domain of the inner partitive. We can use the partitive alone or combine it with weighting numerals for specification (âmostly, marginallyâ). These constructions incidentally illustrate the subtleties of cumulative vs. partitive brackets with weighting numerals.

 Ă v crURynjgĂl djmĂnOl. She partly eats it because of the vitamins, partly because of the taste.She eats it because of the vitamins and the taste. eat-fact1 vitamin-partacc-psu2 taste-partacc-psu2. Ă v dmĂnOl crURĂjgy. Much of the reason for eating is vitamins. She mostly eats it because of the vitamins.She eats it, mostly because of the vitamins. eat-fact1 3/4-partacc-psu2 vitamin-acc-acc3.

The second example might look like it would mean âShe eats it because of many vitamins, among other thingsâ. However, the inner partitive indicates that the weighting numeral is taken from the set of reasons for eating, and the cumulative bracket with the vitamins equates âmuch from the reason for eatingâ with the vitamins.

Other examples of such partitive constructions include:

• âI wasnât speaking about you for the most partâ (crĂ . â1â4â, acc)
• âHe is mostly eating fishâ (dmĂ . â3â4â, acc)

## Fragmenting partitive

As you know, an object in an outer partitive case indicates a part of something in the sense of one or some of a set of things. But what about a fraction of a whole, as in âI see part of the hotelâ? While what I see is not taken from a set of hotels, it is taken from a set of things (walls, doors and windows, roofs, chimneys) that, taken together, form a hotel. So we have to use qmĂŹ vxĂzdy. group-dat1 hotel-acc-acc2. âthings grouped to form a hotelâ, the outer accusative equating the hotel with the group (as opposed to the grouped things). We can also compound: inversion yields vxĂzd qmĂy. hotel-acc1 group-acc-acc2. âa hotel, which is a groupâ â qmyvxĂŹzd. group-acc-hotel-dat1.. This loses the hotelâs inner case, which, as with collective nouns, can cause ambiguity. Whether or not we compound, we need an outer partitive to specify that we are only talking about some of these grouped things.

 dmĂ t qmĂŹen vxĂzdy. I see some of the things grouped to form a hotel. I see part of the hotel. see-fact1 group-dat-partnom2 hotel-acc-acc3. dmĂ t qmyvxĂŹzden. I see a hotel-part. see-fact1 group-acc-hotel-dat-partnom2.

## Exercises

Translate:
a few of the greenish rooms
a threefold duty (give three translations â which comes closest to the English phrase?)
the second skeleton (use the word tnĂk. âboneâ for translation)
the fourth room vs. the fourth â green â room
slowness
Iâm largely doing it because of the money (= the means of paying).
They met for the first time in the green part of the hotel.
She eats it because of many vitamins, among other things.
dmatnĂ  veĂŹ tĂe. vs. dmĂ t veĂŹ tynĂe. (dmĂ t. = âseeâ)