lemÌc. Lemizh grammar and dictionary

Lemizh / English dictionary

782 lemmata in dictionary – view complete dictionary on one page (slow!)multilingual dictionary


to make every, all, the whole (relative weight 1; see unit 7, Weighting numerals – usually with partitive bracket; see unit 8, Cardinal numerals), the Universe

Usage notes

This word has pejorative connotations when used with certain words (mainly flat things, but also faces), dating from Middle Lemizh:

  • ‘all the (sheets of) paper’ is a term for excessive bureaucracy.
  • ‘bringing all the tables into the restaurant’ or ‘laying out / using all the blankets/bedsheets’ indicates overactivity and disorganisation.
  • If someone puts ‘all the paintings in his (living) room’, he is overdoing it, or he simply has no taste.
  • ‘all the faces in the room’ is derogatory, unlike ‘all the people in the room’.

This list is far from complete.

The meaning ‘Universe’ is probably influenced by the unrelated but similar sounding xnàr. ‘land, (inhabited) world’.


irregular development of
NLem can‑a ‘complete, all’
LMLem, MLem can‑yr
OLem shand‑ ‘win’
PLem *sand‑ ‘succeed’, root aorist of
PIE *seh₂dʰ‑

The idiosyncratic development from NLem c to modern j could be a contamination from the neighbouring xpàj.. (It also avoids confusion with the near-antonym crà..)

See Ràbv. for information on Ghean weighting numerals.


Gk ἰθῡ́ς ‘straight, fair’, Ved sídhyati ‘succeeds’