lemÌc. Lemizh grammar and dictionary

Complete English / Lemizh dictionary with 1945 lemmata (1651 unique entries)

a, an

article: usually not translated;
(a single, one) rÌ.;
(a certain) tÌ.;
(like, as in ‘He is a Shakespeare’) translated with a qualitative case

preposition: twice a day dwyà djiltRÌoR. (see Distributive numerals)

able

phrase: be able to (know how to) gwìlt. (dat: do something-acc [with inner fact])

about

preposition: (with regard to, on the subject of) see unit 14, ‘about;
(approximately) qual object (see unit 11, Adjectives, attributes and approximations);
(on one’s person) scenic object (or) if the location is intentional; locative object (ar) with a fragmenting partitive

above

adverb, preposition: (at a place above) Ìfar. (something-nom);
(to a place above) — Ìfi(r). (something-nom);
(regarding clothing, worn on top of) gmÌar. (something-nom)

adverbial: above all (most importantly) prÌ jnÌe.

abstain

verb: lyxtnà. (from doing something-acc) lit. ‘The wanted action doesn’t exist’: parallel to ‘She didn’t manage to dance’, lit. ‘The tried action doesn’t exist’, on pragmatics page II

academic

noun: (university teacher/researcher, academic staff) tèkf.

accusation, criticism

noun: kfryjd-giljdkà. ( kfràjd giljdkÌy., see accuse and criticise on the constructions and how to distinguish the two meanings)

accuse

verb: kfràjd –alÌ {giljdkÌy}. (someone-dat of doing something-acc [with inner aff])
Include the coordination ‘bad’ (a predicate adjective, more or less) only if it isn’t clear from context that the accuser marks the action as being bad.
If the one accused isn’t the one addressed, make them the agentive object of the acc (see unit 13, The nominative object is someone else).

Compare criticise, which is translated with the inverted phrasing.

Achilles

proper noun: (hero of the Troyan War) axileÌs.

acid

noun, adjective: Ìtx.

acorn

noun: mexÌ.

acquaint

verb: nezà. (someone-dat with someone/something-acc)

acquaintance

noun: (person/people) nezÌ.;
(state) nezìl.

across, beyond

adverb, preposition: (at the far side of) pril-tÌcdar.; (to the far side of) — priltÌcdir. (both: something-qual; see unit 12, Comparison)

act

verb, noun: (do; deed, activity) là.

action; deed, behaviour

noun: là. (someone’s-nom; deed, behaviour often with a factive bracket)

actually

adverb: (correcting the previous statement: ‘Actually, not X but Y is true.’) fày. (plus the correct statement in a new sentence)

add

verb: (join, combine into a group, ensemble etc.) qmà., kràj. (both: something-dat [with inner partitive] to something-acc)

addict(ed)

noun, adjective: duxvìsk. (to something-acc)

addiction

noun: duxvìlsk. (to something-acc)

adequate, functional

adjective: srÌwd.

admiral, general

noun: acRèd.

adult

noun, adjective: xRÌ.

affection

noun: (attachment, love) màjw. (for someone-acc/dat)

afraid

adjective: xrètx. (of someone or something-acc/causal-transporting, also dat/causal-receiving; see unit 3, Ambiguous usage)

after

subordinating conjunction: prÌaR —. (temporal clause with ‘front’ as predicate; see unit 15, Clauses with other conjunctions)

adverb: (temporal, subsequently) — prÌaR., (spatial, behind) — prÌar.

preposition: (temporal, subsequently to) — prÌaR., (spatial, behind) — prÌar. (both: something-nom);
(causal, as a result of, because of, as in ‘After these events I’ll move to another house’) persuasive object;
(despite, as in ‘Even after these events I’ll stay in this house’) qualitative case with negation (see unit 11, ‘despite’ and ‘against’)

adverbial: after all (marking something as unexpected) tmÌa. (often compounded);
After all, … (giving a reason for the previous statement) à. plus persuasive clause

afternoon

noun: odnÌ.

again

adverb: prilkÌaRm. (‘[I am doing this] like earlier’, circumventing identity of one or more like actions in the past);
For the metalinguistic use (‘Again, have you seen the tortoise?’) see also pragmatics page III, Utterance modifiers: Pronoun referring to the parole.

against

preposition: (in opposition to) qualitative case with negation (see unit 11, ‘despite’ and ‘against’)
(in order to harm someone) wRàUl. (someone-dat)

agaric

noun: (lamelled mushroom) vmÌj.

aim, purpose

noun: lÙl.

aimless

adjective: (without a purpose) nÌUl.;
(without a temporal aim) — nÌUR.;
(without a spatial aim) — nÌUr. (all usually modifying gerund-like abstract nouns, i.e. those with inner fact);
if a bracket is necessary, typically for inner non-factives:
Rèjg nÌUl. ‘(one) living an aimless life’ etc.

air

noun: Ìk.

adverbials: in the air (above) Ìfar.;
into the air (upwards) — Ìfir.

air conditioner

noun: srywdèk. ( Ìk srÌwdy. ‘make the air okay’);
(brand of air conditioner, after which above word was formed) gyjdèk. ( Ìk gÌjdy. ‘make the air good’)

airplane

noun: ykhÌk. ( Ìkh Ùky. ‘ship benefitting from the air’)

alder

noun: olÌ.

alive

adjective: Rèjg.;
I’m alive. Ràjg vèe.

alkali metal

noun: Ricj-vnè.

all, every, (the) whole

adjective: jnÌ. (see unit 7, Weighting numerals – usually with partitive bracket; see unit 8, Cardinal numerals);
(all, the whole amount/substance, as opposed to ‘every’) jny.;
(every individual, as opposed to ‘the whole’) jnynmlÌ.

allow, permit

verb: kmà. (someone-dat to do something-acc; see unit 13, Overview of the modals)

almost, nearly

adverb: –anà prÌta. (negated verb plus ‘barely’: ‘to barely not do something’)

adjectival: almost/nearly every(thing) xpÌj. (see unit 7, Weighting numerals – usually with partitive bracket; see unit 8, Cardinal numerals)

adverbial: nearly always, nearly everywhere etc. xpÌj. with outer non-plot case

alone

adjective: (unaccompanied) mìl — nÌO. with the qualified noun in the acc (depictive, absorption possible) or dat (resultative) (see unit 12, Adjectivals, for analogous spatial and temporal examples);
(only, exclusive) nÌn. in ‘and’-coordination with the qualified word (which therefore also has an inner partitive)

adverb: (unaccompanied) — nÌO.;
(only, exclusively) nÌn. in ‘and’-coordination with the qualified object

already

adverb: tmÌaR. (lit. ‘at an unexpected time’);
prilcriltmÌaR. (lit. ‘at an unexpectedly early time’, if distinguishing from an unexpectedly late time is necessary) (or with other weighting numerals)

also, as well, too, similarly

adverb: pronoun referring to the model word, plus a qualitative object (see unit 11, Circumventing identity of action for an example)

(al)though

subordinating conjunction: qualitative case with negation (analogous to ‘despite’, see unit 11, ‘despite’ and ‘against’)

always

adverb: jnÌaR.

amble, stroll

verb: fràw. (self-transporting)

amount

noun: rÌw. (see unit 7, Weighting numerals – usually with partitive bracket; see unit 8, Cardinal numerals)

ampere

noun: (unit of electric current or magnetomotive force [‘magnetic voltage’]) 22.87 × potmÌs. (see appendix, Units of measurement)

amuse

verb: (comically, funnily) glàxw. (caus, causal-reflexive: someone-nom);
(please) spàz. (ditto)

ancient

adjective: mìl — xpÌjyR. with the qualified noun in the dat (resultative) (see unit 12, Adjectivals);
inversion may be necessary for attributive use (see Attributes)

and

conjunction: bracket or coordination; often inner partitives are necessary (see unit 4, ‘and’, and unit 5, Coordinations and brackets within brackets);
in the sense of
and therefore, and consequently: consecutive clause (il)

When joining sentences with a shared constituent, consider using a relative clause instead:
I forgot to hide the cake, and the children consumed it. = I forgot to hide the cake, which the children consumed.
She went to the yoga class and found it very calming. = She went to the yoga class, which she found very calming.

‘subordinating’ conjunction: typically accusative clause (y): Try and eat it! = Try to eat it! fna-dàxt àvy:

Andromeda, Triangulum and Lacerta

proper nouns: (constellations) text. (the Princess; see appendix, Constellations)

andwards

(used in: C. S. Lewis. The Dark Tower)

adverb: rÌcaR. (of something-nom)

adjective: mìl — rÌcaR. with the qualified noun in the acc (depictive, absorption possible) or dat (resultative) (see unit 12, Adjectivals);
inversion may be necessary for attributive use (see Attributes)

anger

verb: pqàb. (agentive caus, causal-reflexive: someone-nom)

noun: pqàb. (with someone-dat/causal-receiving, about something-acc/causal-transporting; see unit 3, Ambiguous usage)

angry

adjective: pqèb. (with someone-dat/causal-receiving, about something-acc/causal-transporting; see unit 3, Ambiguous usage)

animal

noun: qrÌ.

announce

verb: blàdj. (something-acc to someone-dat)

annoy

verb: àc. (someone-dat);
(colloquial, get on someone’s nerves) cmàbv. (someone-dat)

answer

verb: pÙla. (something-acc to someone-dat)

Antares

proper noun: (the star α Scorpii) memqxxalè. ( mèqx xalÌem. ‘the star like an apple; the Apple Star’)

antibacterial, antibiotic

nouns, adjectives: wRi-plOqkùj. ( wRà plOqkèji. ‘harm bacteria’)

Antlia and Pyxis

proper nouns: (constellations) roughly corrensponding to nenÌ. (the Runner; see appendix, Constellations)

anymore

adverbial: not anymore: topicalisation of the egressive (ìR)

anyway

adverb: (marking a subject change: to change the subject, …) ycvà. plus accusative clause (see pragmatics page III, Utterance modifiers: Verbs of communication);

(concessive: nevertheless, …) negated pronoun in qualitative case, referring to main predicate of previous sentence (like ‘despite’ and ‘against’; see pragmatics page III, Non–utterance modifiers);

(giving a reason for the previous statement: after all, …) à. plus persuasive clause

apple

noun: (fruit) xalÌ.;
(tree) xalè.

approach

verb, noun: jÙrx. (self-transporting; also with other verbs of movement)

approve

verb: bilà. (of something-acc/dat)

approximately

adverb: qual object (see unit 11, Adjectives, attributes and approximations)

Aquarius

proper noun: (constellation) zrOny-Ìx. (the Merman; see appendix, Constellations)

Aquila

proper noun: (constellation) ftnÌk. (the Eagle; see appendix, Constellations)

arccosine

noun: dy-prì. (of some value-acc; see unit 7, Mathematical functions)

archer

noun: fkrè.

archery

noun: fkrà.

arcsine

noun: dy-ìf. (of some value-acc; see unit 7, Mathematical functions)

arctangent

noun: dy-fìw. (of some value-acc; see unit 7, Mathematical functions)

Aries

proper noun: (constellation) edÌ. (the Ram; see appendix, Constellations)

arm

noun: (limb) wrÌxk.

arrange

verb: qtrà. (something-dat by some property-acc)

arrow

noun: fkrÌ.

art

noun: tàx.

artichoke

noun: (the vegetable) qkrÌdj.;
(the plant) qkrèdj.

artwork

noun: tÌx.

as

subordinating conjunction: causative (el), persuasive (Ol) or temporal clause (aR)

adverb: qualitative coordination (see unit 11, Positive); partitive bracket (see unit 15, Comparison clauses);
factive (a), affirmative (al) or consecutive clause (il) with inner plot case (see unit 16, Attributive and adverbial clauses)

ascend, ascent

verb, noun: (to a higher place) jirxàf. ( jàx Ìfir.), (from a lower place) jerxilfkà. (self-transporting: stairs etc. nom object of spatial verb; also with other verbs of movement; also with the corresponding agent-centered spatial cases)

ash

noun: trÌt.

phrase: smoke and ashes vnÌ.

ashamed

adjective: Rèxp. (in front of someone-dat of something-acc/causal-transporting)

ask

verb: (interrogate) pà. (someone-dat about something-acc; see unit 16, Questions, imperative and exclamations);
(request) pràk. (someone-dat for something / to do something-acc)

asleep

adjective: mìt.;
be asleep màt. (self-receiving)

assume

verb: tìlp. (dat: something-acc)

assumption

noun: (state of assuming) tìlp. (of something-acc);
(what is assumed) tÌp.

assure, convince

verb: dnàs. (someone-dat about something-acc)

astatine

noun: wycg-nÌs. (symbol: Μλ)

astonish

verb: fràx. (agentive caus, causal-reflexive: someone-nom)

astonishment

noun: fràx. (about something-acc/causal-transporting, also dat/causal-receiving, see Ambiguous usage)

at

preposition: (at a time) temporal object (aR); episodic object (oR) if the time is intentional;
(at a place) scenic object (or); locative object (ar) mostly for abstract locations (‘at the front’);
(towards) allative object (Ur)

atom

noun: admÌc.

Attersee

proper noun: (a glacial lake in Danubia) antaràx.

aubergine, eggplant

noun: (vegetable) zmymw-fisÌ.;
(plant) zmymwfisè.

audible

adjective: xOaj-gwèt.

aunt

noun: (related by blood) frÌs., frys. (of someone-nom)

Aunts are great partners for playing, especially disc games.

Auriga

proper noun: (constellation) rèt. (the Charioteer; see appendix, Constellations)

autumn

noun: hkÌt.

avoid

verb: dyxtnà., Ryksnà. (doing something-acc) lit. ‘The commanded/recommended action doesn’t exist’: parallel to ‘She didn’t manage to dance’, lit. ‘The tried action doesn’t exist’, on pragmatics page II;

(actively not do, without stating that the action was commanded or recommended) nà. (agentive: doing something-fact)

awake

adjective: matnì.

aware

adjective: (conscious) smìj. (of something-acc);

phrase: be aware (be conscious) smàj. (dat: of something-acc);
(having knowledge of) see know

away

adverb: (spatial) tÌer.

axe

noun: wnùd.

axis, axle

noun: xùxs.

baby, infant

noun: xmÌs. (of a parent-nom)

back

adverbial: at the back: prilkÌar.; to the back prilkÌi(r). (both: of something-nom)

adjectival: at the back mìl — prilkÌar. with the qualified noun in the acc (depictive, absorption possible) or dat (resultative) (see unit 12, Adjectivals);
inversion may be necessary for attributive use (see Attributes)

phrase: get back to the point bàx. plus accusative clause (see pragmatics page III, Utterance modifiers: Verbs of communication)

bacterium

noun: plOqkèj.

bad

adjective: (incompetent, acting harmfully or unethically, as in ‘bad [=incompetent or unethical] people’) gajdnè.;
(with agent nouns, as in ‘a bad speaker’) gajdnÌ. with outer fact (see unit 5, Attributes and adverbs that are not brackets);
(of low quality, harmful, ethically unsound, as in ‘a bad product, bad weather, a bad deed’) giljdnÌ.;

(inadequate, dysfunctional, as in ‘the food is bad, the batteries are bad’) srilwdnÌ.;
(aesthetically repulsive to the senses) priljnÌ.;
(unlikable, unpleasant) rahnì.

badger

noun: (Meles meles and, by extension, other species of this genus) proxÌ.

bail

verb: (give [typically money] security) saphàs. (to someone-dat)

noun: (security) saphÌs.;
(one giving security) saphès.
(release from prison in exchange for security) saphÙls.

bake

verb: (general) jexà. (something [e.g. bridecake]-acc from something [e.g. wheat, dough]-dat);
(bake bread) wàsp.

bald

adjective: cahwnè., cahwcèwb.

barely, just

adverb: prÌta.

phrases: barely/just do pràt. (something-acc);
barely/just happen pràt. (acc)

bark

noun: (of a tree) lÌf., lUfdrÌ.

base

noun: (mathematics: of an exponentiation) lrì.

be

full verb: (be there, exist) phrase the existing thing as the main predicate, typically with topicalisation of the consecutive (il) (see unit 10, Stative verbs)

copular verb: (He is a lace-maker. She is beautiful.) see unit 10, Predicative;
for temporal and spatial constructions (He
is old. The crane is in the dock.) see unit 12, Adjectivals

auxiliary verb: for expressing the passive see unit 3, Reception

beak

noun: fùst.

bear

verb: (carry) wrà. (something-acc to someone / somewhere-dat etc.);
(give birth) mesà. (a child-acc)

noun: (animal) vmlÌv.

beard

noun: nÌxt.

beat

verb: dwnàt., (to mark the action explicitly as repeating) dwnatmlà. (both: something-dat)
With an acc object, this verb means ‘shatter, smash’.

noun: (stroke, blow) dwnà[l]t.

phrases, nouns: the heart is beating, heartbeat kràd.;
beat one’s wings, wing beat qàxk.

beautiful

adjective: prÌj.

beautify

verb: pràj. (something-dat)

beauty

noun: (abstract) prìlj.;
(concrete: someone beautiful) prÌj.

beaver

noun: trÌxk.

because

subordinating conjunction: causative (el) or persuasive clause (Ol)

preposition: because of: causative or persuasive object

become

verb: mà. (dat: something-acc)

bed

noun: Ìh.

beef

noun: [mUw-]strÌ.

beer

noun: jÌsk.

beetle

noun: marnÌ.

before

subordinating conjunction: prilkÌaR —. (temporal clause with negated ‘front’ as predicate; see unit 15, Clauses with other conjunctions)

adverb, preposition: — prilkÌaR. (something-nom)

befriend

verb: zvèRc. (someone-dat)

begin

verb: topicalisation of the ingressive (eR)

beginning

noun: topicalisation of the ingressive (eR) or elative (er)

behave

verb: (act) là. (in some way-fact; like someone-qualnom);
(conduct oneself well) rÌha.

behind

adverb, preposition: (at the back of) prilkÌar.; (to the back of) — prilkÌir. (both: something-nom);
(across, beyond) (at the far side of) — priltÌcdar.; (to the far side of) — priltÌcdir. (both: something-qual; see unit 12, Comparison)

belief

noun: swnàt., swnìlt. (in something-acc; see unit 13, Verbs of certainty)

believe

verb: swnàt., swnìlt. (dat: someone-nom something-acc; dat: in something-acc; see unit 13, Verbs of certainty)
(think, reckon) qàzg. (something-acc)

phrase: believe it or not pytà —. (see pragmatics page III, Utterance modifiers: Pronoun referring to the parole)

belittle

verb: làgz. (someone-dat)

belladonna, deadly nightshade

noun: zmywpèbc.

below

adverb, preposition: (at a place below) ilfkÌar. (something-nom);
(to a place below) — ilfkÌi(r). (something-nom)

bend

verb: làjg. (dat; something-dat into some shape-acc [e.g. into a z])

To distinguish from the meaning ‘break by bending’, use an acc object or – often simpler – a nominal verb expressing a shape.

beneficiary

noun: lÙ.

between

adverb, preposition: nÌjar. (objects, places-nom), — nÌjaR. (times-nom) (see unit 12, Adjectivals and Attributes for special constructions)

beverage

noun: nÌgw.

bibliophile

noun, adjective: rihwètx.

bicycle, bike

noun: telmÌx.

big, large

adjective: mìl — dmÌyr., (specifically tall) mìl — Ìfyr., (specifically extensive) mìl — fÌwyr. with the qualified noun in the acc (depictive, absorption possible) or dat (resultative) (see unit 12, Adjectivals);
inversion may be necessary for attributive use (see Attributes)

bile

noun: jÌxw.

bind, tie

verb: (with a rope) màj. (something/someone-acc to something-dat)

biologist

noun: zvy-Rèjg.

biology

noun: zvy-Ràjg.

bird

noun: nÌzd.

birth

noun: mesà. (of a child-acc)

phrase: give birth mesà. (to a child-acc)

bite

verb, noun: snàq. (someone / [into] something-dat)

bitter

adjective: drÌph.

bittersweet nightshade

noun: zmyw-rèjd.

black

adjective: (‘active’ black, as in black fur or varnish) wÌcg.; (non-white, ‘passive’ black, as in ‘blackened by age, dark/black night’) lilbvnÌ.

noun: (black colour, blackness) wìlcg.; lilbvnìl.

blacken

verb: (make an ‘active’ black, as in black fur or varnish) wàcg.; (make non-white, a ‘passive’ black, as in ‘blackened by age, dark/black night’) lilbvnà. (dat; something-dat)

black nightshade

noun: zmyw-wècg.

blame

verb: modified object or weak linking with qàzg. ‘think’ or kfràjd. ‘claim’: e.g.
They blame the witch for the fire. vná trewqèzgel., lit. ‘[There was] a fire; they think it was caused by the witch’,
The king (aloud, openly) blames the witch for the fire. vnà kfrájdyl Recè váy trèwel.
(see unit 15, Playing around with dependencies and reality: weak linking)

noun: translate as a verb, e.g. ‘Blame came from all sides’ = ‘Everyone blamed her’.

blaze

verb: (burn brightly) gwlà. (nom [of fire]; dat [of a burning object])

noun: (blazing fire) gwlè.

bleed

verb: dyartà.

blood

noun: artÌ.

blossom, bloom

verb: wlàg.

noun: wlÌg.

blow

verb: plàw. (at someone/something-dat)

phrases: the wind blows xnàt.;
a strong breeze or gale blows xRàbv.

blue

adjective: flÌc.

noun: (blue colour, blueness) flìlc.

verb: flàc. (dat; something-dat)

blue-collar worker

noun: nexwaklè.

blue hour

noun: flàRc.

blunt

verb: xakkà. (something-ben)

adjective: (not very pointy) xilkcrÙ. (or with other weighting numerals);
(someone blunt, frank) èwb.; (a blunt or frank statement) Ìwb.

board

noun: (for playing a game) srUòr.

boat

noun: zgwÌj.

bone

noun: tnÌk.

Boojum

proper noun: (legendary creature) bucmÌ.

book

noun: wÌtx.

Boötes and Corona Borealis

proper nouns: (constellations) jhèj. (the Mechanic; see appendix, Constellations)

bore

verb: jnàj. (acc/causal-transporting, also dat/causal-receiving: someone-nom; see unit 3, Ambiguous usage)

bored

adjective: jnèj. (by something-acc/causal-transporting, also dat/causal-receiving; see unit 3, Ambiguous usage)

boss, chief

noun: nèd.

botanist

noun: zvy-fmèxt.

botany

noun: zvy-fmàxt.

bottle

noun: dwÌw.

verb: jixdwàw. (something-acc)

bow

noun: (for shooting arrows) fkrù.

box

noun: (small, cuboid container) strÌg.

boy

noun: (male before puberty) cnÌ., cnyÌx.

boyfriend

noun: (partner in a romantic relationship) lèwb., lewbèx. (of someone-dat)

braid

verb: ràzg. (something-dat)

noun: rÌzg.

brain

noun: qùzg.

branch

noun: weRdÌ.

bread

noun: wÌsp.

breadth, width

noun: mìl rÌcyr. (often better translated with the adjectives ‘broad, wide’)

break

verb: (by any means) skràp.;
(specifically break by bending) làjg.;
(specifically break by torsion) tràd. (all: dat; something-dat into something-acc [e.g. into parts, in two])

To distinguish the specific verbs from their ‘deforming’ meanings, use an acc object or – often simpler – a nominal verb such as skràp. ‘split, turn into parts’ or dwà. ‘turn into two [parts]’.

breakfast

noun: (action) àv djèRtaR.; (food) Ìv djèRtaR.

breast

noun: (female) xmlùg.

breastfeed, nurse, suckle

verb: xmlàg. (someone-dat)

breath

noun: (act of breathing) xàz.; (air from the lungs) xÌz.

breathe

verb: (breathe [out]) xàz. (at someone/something-dat);
(breathe [in]) xàz. (dat)

breeze

noun: (light to moderate breeze) xnÌt.;
(strong breeze, gale) xRÌbv.

brew

phrases: brew beer jàsk.;
brew coffee bunà.;
brew tea txà.

brewery, brewhouse

noun: jòrsk.

brick

noun: dmÌk.

bride, wife

noun: (traditional) dwìc.;
(modern) dwèc. (with outer partitive);
(In the modern translation and in gay marriages, explicit marking for gender may be useful.) dwic., dwecbè.

bridegroom, husband

noun: (traditional) dwèc.;
(modern) dwèc. (with outer partitive);
(In the modern translation and in gay marriages, explicit marking for gender may be useful.) dwecèx., dwicìx.

bridge

noun: sklÌ.

bright

adjective: (of a light source: sending much light) xècg.; (of radiation: containing much light) xÌcg.; (of an illuminated object, surface or scene: receiving much light) xìcg.

broad, wide

adjective: mìl — rÌcyr. with the qualified noun in the acc (depictive, absorption possible) or dat (resultative) (see unit 12, Adjectivals);
inversion may be necessary for attributive use (see Attributes)

broaden, widen

verb: mà — rilc-tÌncdyr. (dat; something-dat; compare unit 12, Adjectivals)

bromine

noun: wryf-nÌs. (symbol: Κ)

brother

noun: (younger brother) htrè., htreèx. (of someone-acc);
(older brother) htrÌ., htryÌx. (of someone-nom)

brother-in-law

noun: (sibling’s husband) xnrè., xnreèx. (of someone-acc);
(spouse’s brother) xnrÌ., xnryÌx. (of someone-nom)

brotherly

adjective: (like a younger brother) htrè., (like an older brother) htrÌ., both as a qualitative object

brown

adjective: wrÌf.

noun: (brown colour, brownness) wrìlf.

verb: wràf. (dat; something-dat)

brush

noun: (paintbrush) mrùxt.

build

verb: mà. (something-acc from something-dat; can often absorb its accusative object)

bull

noun: strÌ., stryÌx.

burn

verb: vnà. (nom [of fire]; dat [of a burning object]; agentive caus: something-dat to something-acc [e.g. ashes])
(burn down as opposed to ‘set fire to’) vnajnà. (ditto)

burst

verb: nàwb. (dat; something-dat into something-acc [e.g. parts, dust])

To distinguish from the meaning ‘inflate’, use an acc object or – often simpler – a nominal verb such as skràp. ‘split, turn into parts’ or cnàxw. ‘turn into dust’.

bus

noun: banÌ.

bush, shrub

noun: drulÌ.

but

conjunction: (denial of expectation) tmÌ. (often in a compound with the unexpected object; see pragmatics page II, Pragmatic adverbs and expressives);
(contrast without denial of expectation) untranslated, e.g. ‘Portia is tall but Nerissa is short’ = ‘Portia is tall and Nerissa is short’;
(correction) untranslated; the word or phrase to be corrected is a modified object; e.g. I don’t see mice but cats. dmàt mysnyè kÌte.

butcher

noun: skmèw.

butter

noun: slÌc.

button

noun: (to push) rÌwb.

buy

verb: djà. (dat: something-acc from someone-nom)

cackle

verb: huràj. (at someone-dat)

caesium

noun: flic-vnè. (symbol: Γλ) ( vnè flìce. ‘making fire blue’)

calculate

verb: làg. (agentive ins: something-dat to give some result-acc; see unit 7, Mathematical functions)

calf

noun: (young cow or bull) stry-cnÌ.

call

verb: (shout at) khnà. (someone-dat)

(name) jàt. (someone-dat something-acc after someone-psu)
(passive: be called) jìlt. (dat: something-acc)

phrase: call upon gmàj. (someone-dat saying something-acc)

camel

noun: kamlÌ.; (one-humped camel, dromedary) kamlÌc.; (two-humped or Bactrian camel) kamlÌj.

Camelopardalis

proper noun: (constellation) roughly corresponding to stnÌt. and part of zrOnÌ. (the Sparrow and the Mermaid; see appendix, Constellations)

camera

noun: (film camera) wlotù.

can

verb: (be able to, know how to) gwìlt. (dat: do something-acc [with inner fact]);
(have the opportunity to) màqk. (dat: do something-acc)
(see unit 13, Overview of the modals)

Cancer

proper noun: (constellation) krÌb. (the Crab; see appendix, Constellations)

candela

noun: (unit of luminous intensity) 0.5205 × natlU-dmÌt. (see appendix, Units of measurement)

candidate

noun: jbatmìqk. (for an office-acc)

Canes Venatici and Coma Berenices

proper noun: (constellation) swmilÌ. (the Moth; see appendix, Constellations)

canine

adjective: (a dog’s) wÌgw., (a hound’s) RÌw. as a genitive attribute;
(like a dog, a hound) wÌgw., RÌw. as a qualitative object

Canis Major

proper noun: (constellation) oRwxÌf. (thr Poodle; see appendix, Constellations)

Canis Minor

proper noun: (constellation) part of trÌxk. (the Beaver; see appendix, Constellations)

Cape gooseberry, goldenberry

noun: (fruit) zmymw-grosÌ.;
(plant) zmymwgrosè.

Capricornus

proper noun: (constellation) kobrÌ. (the Ibex; see appendix, Constellations)

captain

verb: tnàdw. (a ship or crew-dat)

noun: tnèdw.

car

noun: (automobile; railroad car) labÌt.

carbon

noun: gwlykhÌc. (symbol: Α)

care

verb: (deem important) kfrà. (for something/someone-acc/dat);
(want, like, as in ‘Would you care for some tea?’) làxt. (for something-acc)

phrase: take care (be cautious, attentive to error or harm) gwàsk.

careful

adjective: (cautious, attentive to error or harm) gwèsk.

Carina

proper noun: (constellation) corresponds to wmùb. and part of Ìkh. (the Loom and Shuttle and the Ship; see appendix, Constellations)

carpenter, woodworker

noun: kRidrèt. ( kRè drÌti. ‘one working with wood or timber’)

carpet, rug

noun: dobÌ.

carrot

noun: grÌt.

carry

verb: wrà. (something-acc to someone / somewhere-dat etc.)

carve

verb: gràbv. (something-acc from something-dat)

Cassiopeia

proper noun: (constellation) dwec-Rìc., part of it corresponds to drulygwrÌjd., and part to the head of zrOnÌ. (the Queen, the Rosebush and the Mermaid; see appendix, Constellations)

castle

noun: kroblÌj.

cat

noun: kÌt.

catch

verb: krÙlt. (something-dat)

noun: (something caught) lì krÙlta.

cattle

noun: strÌ.

cause

verb: (cause someone do something) agentive caus
(cause something) agentive caus with ‘something’ as the main predicate (or, if not possible, as a pseudo-desorption)

noun: (direct cause) lèl.

causeless

adjective: nÌel. (usually modifying abstract nouns, i.e. those with inner fact)

celebrate, celebration

verb, noun: mràw. ([of] something-acc/caus)

cell

noun: (basic unit of an organism) sklontÌ.

centaur

noun: mRÌkh.

Centaurus and Crux

proper nouns: (constellations) mRÌkh. (the Centaur; see appendix, Constellations)

centre, middle

noun, adjective: (between left and right) rilcnÌ., (between top and bottom) ilfnÌ., (between back and front) prilnÌ.; (in the middle between several objects) nilj-jnÌ. (all: of something-nom)

Cepheus

proper noun: (constellation) roughly corresponding to Rèc. (the King; see appendix, Constellations)

certain

adjective: (sure) (person) dnìs. (about/of something-acc); (fact) dnÌs.;
as in ‘a certain gentleman’ (indeterminate, indefinite) gwÌ.; (known to the speaker but not communicated) qÌzg.

certainty

noun: dnìls. (about/of something-acc)

cerulean

adjective: (blue-green, between blue and cyan/turquoise) yphilkÌ.

noun: (cerulean colour) yphilkìl.

Cetus

proper noun: (constellation) gydpÌsk. (the Whale-fish; see appendix, Constellations)

chair

noun: drÌzd.

chance

noun: (opportunity) màqk., màlqk.; mÌqk.;
(luck) tUxà., tUxàl.

adverbial: by chance — tUxàa.

change

verb: (turn into) mà. (something-dat into something-acc; dat: into something-acc)

phrase: to change the subject, … ycvà. plus accusative clause (see pragmatics page III, Utterance modifiers: Verbs of communication)

chase

verb, noun: kràt. ([for] someone/something-acc)

see also wild-goose chase

cheap

adjective: dypq-crÙl.

cheese

noun: gwÌs.

cherry

noun: (fruit) grosÌ.;
(tree) grosè.

chess

noun: jvelà.

chess board

noun: jvelòr.

chess piece

noun: jvelÌ.

chew

verb: vnàt. (something-dat into something-acc [e.g. mush])

chick

noun: (young bird) nyzd-cnÌ.;
(young chicken) gryccnÌ.

chicken

noun: grÌc.

child

noun: (son or daughter of someone) psrÌb. (of a father-nom and a mother-dat); mesÌ. (of a mother-nom);
(human or other living being before puberty) cnÌ. (of a parent-nom)

chin

noun: wrÌdj.

chloric acid, other halogenic acids, and other acids in the oxidation state two lower than the highest one, such as sulfurous acid, nitrous acid, formic acid, etc.

noun: Ìtx dyv-nÌsu. and analogously with other element names

chlorine

noun: dyv-nÌs. (symbol: Χ)

chlorous acid, other halogenous acids, and other acids in the oxidation state four lower than the highest one

noun: Ìtx dyv-nÌsO. and analogously with other element names

choose

verb: vàq. (something-acc/dat)

church

noun: (monotheistic temple) loxwÌc.

circle

verb: dàsk. ([around] something-dat)

noun: dÌsk.

cirrocumulus cloud

noun: frymj-edÌ.

cirrus cloud

noun: frymj-cnÌzd.

citrus

noun: (fruit) drÌj.
(tree, shrub) drèj.

city, town

noun: tÌj.

claim

verb: kfràjd. (something-acc)

class

noun: (sort, type) mÌh.;
(group of students) anÌgz.;
(series of lessons on a subject) translate only the subject

classroom, lecture hall

noun: anòrgz.

clean

verb: hàc. (something-dat)

adjective: hÌc.

climb

verb: wràgc. (self-transporting: somewhere-dat etc.)

clock

noun: ksfelù.

close

verb: (prevent access) natkà. (acc, occasionally self-transporting; something-acc, also non-sending; also metaphorically, as for opportunities);
(of arms, wings) mà — tilcdnÌyr. (dat; something-dat; compare unit 12, Adjectivals)

clothes, clothing

noun: bvrÌc.

cloud

noun: (rain cloud) wzèc.;
(snow cloud) snèw.;
(hail cloud) zmès.;
(‘non-productive’ cloud; cloud in general, without regard to rain, snow or hail) frÌj.

clumsy

adjective: (someone clumsy) kraxt-crè.; (a clumsy action) kraxtcrÌ. (or with other weighting numerals)

coal

noun: gwlÌk.

coat

noun: (garment) wmÌf.

cobalt

noun: redmÌ. (symbol: Μ)

coffee

noun: (beverage) bunÌ.;
(coffee beans, ground coffee) bunì.; (specifically ground coffee) bunì trìdi.

cold

noun: (property of being cold) gmril-crìl.;
(cold location) gmrilcrÌ. (or with other weighting numerals)

adjective: gmrilcrÌ. (or with other weighting numerals);
(feeling cold) gmrilcrì.

colour

verb: Ràcj. (something-dat)

noun: Rìlcj.;
(paint) Rùcj.

Columba and Caelum

proper nouns: (constellations) correspond roughly to xajRÌ. (the Crane; see appendix, Constellations)

come, arrive

verb: (arrive, regarding only the arrival) jìrx., (travel here, regarding the whole journey) jàx. (self-transporting; the first translation is perferred as the second typically needs an ill object for clarification; also with other verbs of movement)

phrase: come of age xRà. (dat)

comet

noun: xUxtrÌ.

command

verb: dàxt. (someone-dat to do something-acc; see unit 13, Overview of the modals)

noun: (action of commanding) dàxt., (what is commanded) dÌxt. (both: to someone-dat)

company

noun: lÒ.

comparatively

adverb: comparative without a qualitative object, e.g. ‘Last winter was comparatively mild’ = ‘Last winter was milder [than others]’.

compass

noun: (tool for determining the cardinal directions) xisk-rùc. ( xùsk rÌci. ‘means for searching south’);
(tool for drawing circles) dùsk.

competent

adjective: gèjd.

complete

verb: see finish

adjective: jnÌ.

component

noun: krìj. (with outer part to denote one or some of more components of an ensemble)

compress, squeeze

verb: yzàj. (something-dat into some shape-acc [e.g. flat])

To distinguish from the meaning ‘crush’, use an acc object or – often simpler – a nominal verb expressing a shape.

conceive

verb: (become pregnant) psràb. (dat: a child-acc)

condense

adjective: àfx. (something-dat)

cone

noun: (geometry) dmÌpx.

confidentially

adverb: anyà —. (see pragmatics page III, Utterance modifiers: Pronoun referring to the parole)

conscious

adjective: (aware) smìj. (of something-acc)

consequence, effect

noun: (direct consequence/effect) lìl.

consequently

adverb: (as a result, thus, sentence-initial, announcing a consequence) ìl. plus consecutive clause (il)

constellation

noun: (of stars) krij-mÌqx.

content

noun: (of an action) lÌ.

continue

verb: negated topicalisation of the egressive (–iRnà.)

contract

verb: yzàj. (dat: into some shape-acc [e.g. flat])

To distinguish from the meaning ‘crush’, use an acc object or – often simpler – a nominal verb expressing a shape.

cook

verb: sàx. (something-dat [for the ingredients] / -acc [for the dish])

noun: sèx.

cool

verb: gmril-crà. (or with other weighting numerals), gmrakà. (dat; something-dat)

adjective: gmrilRÌbv. (or with other weighting numerals);
(feeling cool) gmrilRìbv.

cope

verb: klàj. (not agentive: with something/someone-dat)

copper

noun: (metal) blÌc. (symbol: Χα)

copy

verb: mlàw. (agentive ins: something-nom about something-acc somewhere-dat [like non-sending ‘read’ in unit 14, Objects related to language])

noun: mlìw.

corner

noun: dnÌk.

Corona Australis

proper noun: (constellation) dirÌ. (the Tiara; see appendix, Constellations)

correct

verb: pàt. (something-dat)

adjective: pÌt.

Corvus

proper noun: (constellation) part of kryst-rÙjd. (the Robin; see appendix, Constellations)

cosine

noun: dy-prÌ. (of an angle etc.-dat; see unit 7, Mathematical functions)

cost

verb: dÌpq. (fin: an amount/price-acc)

noun: dÌpq. (of something-fin)

coulomb

noun: (unit of electric charge or flux) 17.35 × oÌs. (see appendix, Units of measurement)

council

noun: krijomÌj.

councillor

noun: omèj.

count

verb: pqàht. (something-dat)

country

noun: (sovereign state) gzlÌs.

courtyard

noun: nÌj. (of a castle etc.-nom), nejkroblÌj.

cover

verb: (put over) wmà. (something-dat with something-acc);
(be over) wmìl. (acc: something-dat)

noun: (lid, covering cloth, etc.) wmÌ.;
(hiding place) esfìs.

cow

noun: strÌ., stry.

crab

noun: krÌb.

crane

noun: (bird) xajRÌ.;
(lifting device) rirxp-ùf.

Crater

proper noun: (constellation) gwalpÌ. (the Cup; see appendix, Constellations)

creak

verb, noun: (said of timber, when no one is stepping on it) màxk.

create, invent

verb: wàwb.; (specifically images or concepts) kfusà. (both: something-acc from something-dat)

creative, inventive

adjective: wèwb.; (specifically of images or concepts) kfusè.

creativity

adjective: wàwb.; (specifically making new images or concepts) kfusà.

creature

noun: (living being, including plants, bacteria etc.) Rèjg.;
(animal) qrÌ.

Crimea

proper noun: (peninsula) stràrz.

Crimean

proper noun, adjective: (person from Crimea, pertaining to Crimea) strÌz.

criticise

verb: –à kfrÌjdal giljdkÌy. (the criticised action being the main predicate, the criticiser the nom of kfràjd. ‘claim’, and the one criticised either its dat or the main predicate’s agentive)

Compare accuse, which is translated with the inverted phrasing.

crooked

adjective: pilvcrÌ. (or with other weighting numerals)

crush

verb: yzàj. (dat; something-dat to something-acc [e.g. parts, dust])

To distinguish from the meaning ‘(com)press, squeeze’, use an acc object or – often simpler – a nominal verb such as skràp. ‘split, turn into parts’ or cnàxw. ‘turn into dust’.

crust

noun: (of bread) lÌf., lUfwÌsp.

cry

verb: (weep) kàst.;
(shout) khnà. (something-acc at someone-dat)

crystal

noun: rOsÌc.

cube

noun: (mathematical function) lre-trÌ. (of some value-dat; see unit 7, Mathematical functions)

cubic root

noun: lre-trì. (of some value-acc; see unit 7, Mathematical functions)

cup

noun: gwalpÌ.

curiosity

noun: jnàgc. (about something-acc/causal-transporting, also dat/causal-receiving, see Ambiguous usage)

curious

adjective: jnègc. (about something-acc/causal-transporting, also dat/causal-receiving; see unit 3, Ambiguous usage)

curl

noun: (mathematics) xàxs. (of a vector field-acc; curl F = ∇[mFn] ≡ ∇m Fn − ∇n Fm)

customer

noun: (in a restaurant) mìwd.

cut

verb: (cut with a knife) gwrà.;
(cut with scissors) pslà.;
(cut with a scythe) yhà.;
(cut with a sickle) yhlàgz. (all: something-dat into something-acc [e.g. pieces, in two])

noun: the same words with inner consecutive (il)

cyan

adjective: (blue-green) riljdkÌ.

noun: (cyan colour) riljdkìl.

cyclist

noun: telmèx.

Cygnus

proper noun: (constellation) xaxpqÌ. (the Swan; see appendix, Constellations)

dad(dy)

noun: pèp.

daisy

noun: (Bellis perennis) lepxÌ.

dam

noun: wemÌ.

damn, darn, bloody

adjective: (generic) rahkÌ.; (euphemistic) pslì.; (slang) nèxt.; (slightly vulgar) pìbc.

dance

verb, noun: dràw. (with someone-dat. In couple dances, the man is usually in the nom and the lady in the dat; in group dances, we use the nom, or possibly the acc if seen as self-transporting, with a partitive ‘and’)

dance floor

noun: dròrw.

dance partner

noun: (man) drèw.; (lady) drìw.

Danube

proper noun: dnujrÌ.

dare

verb: wràj. ([to do] something-acc)

dark

adjective: (of a light source: sending little light) xacgcrè.; (of radiation: containing little light) xacgcrÌ.; (of an object, surface or scene: receiving little light) xacgcrì. (or with other weighting numerals);
(dark colour) rÌgw.

dark …

adjective: dark blue flilc-rÌgw. ( rìlgw flìlcil. ‘the blueness / blue colour = the dark colour’, compare unit 5, Coordinations and brackets within brackets);
dark green etc. analogously

noun: (dark blue colour) flilcrìlgw. etc.

dark matter

noun: canxwÌ.

daughter

noun: psrÌb., psryb. (of a father-nom and a mother-dat); mesÌ., mesybÌ. (of a mother-nom)

day

noun: (daytime) djÌt.;
(a 24-hour period) kril-mrÌj.

dead

adjective: (not living) Rajgnè.;
(having died) lè RìRjga.

deal

verb: klàj. (agentive: with something/someone-dat)

dear

adjective: (term of endearment) (liked) rìh., (beloved) iì.; (somewhat patronising) lÌgz.

death

noun: (the act of dying) RìRjg.;
(the state of being dead, of not living) Rajgnàl.

death cap

noun: vmyj-crÌ.

decide

verb: wàv. (something-acc)

deep

adjective: (extending horizontally, as a wardrobe) mìl — prÌyr., (extending downwards, as a pond) mìl — Ìfyr., with the qualified noun in the acc (depictive, absorption possible) or dat (resultative) (see unit 12, Adjectivals);
inversion may be necessary for attributive use (see Attributes)

deepen

verb: (horizontally, as a wardrobe) mà — pril-tÌncdyr., (downwards, as a pond) mà — ilftÌcdyr. (both: something-dat; compare unit 12, Adjectivals)

deer

noun: (red deer, Cervus elaphus and, by extension, other species of Old World deer) prÌxt.;
(roe deer) jrÌk.

deform

verb: znàg. (something-dat into some shape-acc [e.g. flat, into a z])

degree

noun: (academic degree) tÙlkf.;

(amount, extent) rÌw. (to express ‘a low/medium/high degree’, use the appropriate bare weighting numeral – usually with partitive bracket; see unit 8, Cardinal numerals);

(unit of angle) 2.13̅ × selÌ.;
degree Celsius (unit of temperature) 0.879 × qàc. − 273.15 (see appendix, Units of measurement)

Delphinus

proper noun: (constellation) spÌsk. (the Dolphin; see appendix, Constellations)

dense

adjective: Ìfx.

depart

verb: see leave

deprive

verb: (take away) dà., dìl. (agentive dat: something-acc from someone-nom);
(keep away) ná — dày. (agentive nom/caus of nà.: something-acc from someone-dat [the latter two are objects of dà.]);

(deprive of an action) ná — lÌxty. (agentive nom/caus of nà.: someone-nom of some action-acc [objects of lÌxt.]) lit. ‘The wanted action doesn’t exist because of the depriver’: parallel to ‘She didn’t manage to dance’, lit. ‘The tried action doesn’t exist’, on pragmatics page II;
(without stating that the action was wanted) nà. (agentive caus: some action-fact)

depth

noun: (extending horizontally, as a wardrobe) mìl prÌyr., (extending downwards, as a pond) mìl Ìfyr. (often better translated with the adjective ‘deep’)

descend, descent

verb, noun: (from a higher place) jerxàf. ( jàx Ìfer.), (to a lower place) jirxilfkà. (self-transporting: stairs etc.-nom object of spatial verb; also with other verbs of movement; also with the corresponding agent-centered spatial cases)

despite, in spite of

preposition: qualitative case with negation (see unit 11, ‘despite’ and ‘against’)

develop

verb: pifà. (dat);
(progress, improve) pifprà. (dat)

Devil

noun: jfèxw. (used by adherents of monotheism; see also Lord)

Diana, Artemis

proper noun: (goddess) xyrtksÌ.

die

verb: RìRjg. (nom)

different, (an)other

adjective: negated pronoun (e.g. ‘I live in Stratford’ – ‘I live in another town’ with a negated relative pronoun referring to Stratford; see unit 8, Modified objects);
pronoun with inner qual (e.g. ‘I live in this town’ – ‘I live in another one’ with the pronoun referring to ‘town’; see unit 11, Circumventing identity of action);

(further, additional) pronoun in a qualitative case (see pragmatics page II, Conventional ‘implicatures’ and below that)

difficult

adjective: grÌ.

difficulty

noun: grìl.

dig

verb: xtàj. (something-acc [e.g. a hole, a trench] somewhere-dat)

digress

verb: Ràjd. (by saying something-acc; see pragmatics page III, Utterance modifiers: Verbs of communication)

dimension

noun: (mathematics) lÙr.

dinner

noun: (action) àv djìRtaR.; (food) Ìv djìRtaR.

dirty

adjective: hilc

discover

verb: (by investigation) gwàt. (agentive dat: something-acc);
(accidentally) ràdj. (dat: something-acc)

disgust

verb: àjb. (agentive caus, causal-reflexive: someone-nom)

noun: àjb. (about something-acc/causal-transporting)

dish

noun: (cooked dish) sÌx.

divide

verb: (split) skràp. (something-dat into something-acc [e.g. in two])

Dniester

proper noun: grUrÌ.

do

verb: là. (something-fact)

doe

noun: (female deer) prÌxt., pryxt.;
(female hare) xÌd., xydbÌ.;
(female squirrel) ksmÌs., ksmysbÌ.;
(female kangaroo) markÌw., markywbÌ.

dog

noun: wÌgw.; (hunting dog, hound) RÌw.

dolphin

noun: spÌsk.

donkey

noun: hzÌd.

door

noun: jmÌs.

phrase: doors and windows jmÌ.

double, binary

adjective: (twofold) dwÌ.;
(to highlight the composite aspect, i.e. two parts forming a whole as opposed to one thing in two parts) krijdwì. (see unit 8, Composite numerals)

doubt

verb, noun: dwàtx. (something-acc)

down

adverb, preposition: (from a place above) Ìfer., (to a place below) — ilfkÌir. (down something-nom; see unit 12, Adjectivals and Attributes for special constructions)

Draco

proper noun: (constellation) part of fxÌc. (the Dragon; see appendix, Constellations)

dragon

noun: fxÌc.

dragonfly, damselfly

noun: lanÌg.

dream

verb: (experience in one’s sleep) Ràst. (self-receiving: [of] something-acc)

noun: (act of dreaming) Ràst., (content of dreaming) RÌst. (of something-acc)

dress

verb: bvràc. (someone-dat in something-acc; also self-receiving)

drift

verb: (drift/float quickly) nenà. (acc: somewhere-dat etc. in water etc.-nom [or agentive caus])

drink

verb: nàgw. (self-receiving: something-acc)

noun: nÌgw.

drive

verb: (go on wheels) kàk. (self-transporting: somewhere-dat etc.);
(steer) see steer

dromedary

noun: kamlÌc.

duck

noun: RÌxt.

due

preposition: due to: causative object

duration

noun: lÌR.

during

preposition: temporal object (aR);
to specify that an event occurs while another is in progress: gmilkÌaR. (something-nom) (or fragmenting partitive), or episodic object (oR) if the time is intentional (analogously to ‘while’ in unit 15, Clauses with other conjunctions)

dust

noun: cnÌxw.

dwarf

noun: brÌk.

each, respective, separate

adjective: RÌ. (see also unit 6, Reflexivity vs. reciprocity)

eager

adjective: gwnè.

eagle

noun: ftnÌk.

ear

noun: xOùj.

early, soon

adverb: prilcrÌaR. (see ‘late’ in unit 12, Adjectivals and ‘inside’ constructions) (or with other weighting numerals);
(as in ‘He came early’) (too early) comparative (see unit 13, ‘enough’ and ‘too’); (earlier than expected) see already

adjective: (with eventive abstract nouns, as in ‘an early breakfast’) translated like the adverb;
(with ‘morning, evening’) see morning, evening;
(with ‘train’ or the like) e.g.
rìR tÙcsy. (lit. ‘first train’)

phrase: early waker, early bird pevrÌ. (lit. ‘lark’)

earth, Earth

noun: ([surface of the] earth, land, inhabited/habitable world as opposed to the sky or mythological/religious places) xnàr.;
(Earth when explicitly referred to as a planet among the others) djingmesrÌ. (symbol: Ã);
(soil) djnÌ.

earthly

adjective: xnÌ.

east

noun: pre-xnÌ. (‘the front in Earth’s coordinate system’, as east is the direction in which Earth interacts with the Sun[rise], and – equivalently – the direction in which its surface is moving; symbol: p)

adverb: (we went east) — prexnÌUr. (allative object)

Just use prÌ. if the context is clear.

easy

adjective: grilnÌ., grilcrÌ. (or with other weighting numerals)

easygoing, nonconformist

noun, adjective: khwè.

eat

verb: àv., (eat daintily) àqsk. (self-receiving: something-acc)

eckwards

(used in: C. S. Lewis. The Dark Tower)

adverb: rilckÌaR. (of something-nom)

adjective: mìl — rilckÌaR. with the qualified noun in the acc (depictive, absorption possible) or dat (resultative) (see unit 12, Adjectivals);
inversion may be necessary for attributive use (see Attributes)

edible

adjective: av-gwÌt.

egg

noun: skrÌ.

eight

adjective, noun: xtÌ.;
(in counting) xtà.

eighth

noun: (1⁄8) ligzxtÌ. (see unit 7, Fractions)

adjective: xtìR|r. (head noun as acc object; see unit 8, Ordinal numerals)

elect

verb: jbÙlt. (someone-dat for some office-acc)

election

noun: mu-jbàt. (of someone-dat for some office-acc)

elephant

noun: elefÌ.

elevator

noun: rirxp-ùf.

eleven

adjective, noun: omÌ.;
(in counting) omà.

eleventh

noun: (1⁄11) ligzomÌ. (see unit 7, Fractions)

adjective: omìR|r. (head noun as acc object; see unit 8, Ordinal numerals)

elm

noun: linÌ.

else

phrase: someone/something else tynÌ. (or with other pronouns; see unit 8, Modified objects)

(over)emphasise

phrase: it must be emphasised that, it cannot be overemphasised that kfrycà —., prÌa jnyé —. (see pragmatics page III, Utterance modifiers: Pronoun referring to the parole)

employee, subordinate

noun: (with little distance in rank, and/or informally) nìd.;
(with a large distance in rank, and/or formally) igcìd.

empty

verb:milcnà., mackà. (something-dat of something-acc; something-acc out of something-dat)

adjective: milcnì.

end, stop

verb: topicalisation of the egressive (iR)

noun: topicalisation of the egressive or illative (ir)

endless

adjective: (in time) nÌiR.;
(in space, a road) — nÌir.

energy

noun: sxarÌ.

engage

verb phrase: get engaged dwòc. (a more informal Lemizh concept simply meaning ‘intend to marry’)

enjoy

verb: àsw. something-acc/dat

enlarge

verb: mà — tÌcdyr., (specifically make taller) mà — ilftÌncdyr., (specifically extend) mà — filwtÌcdyr. (all: something-dat; compare unit 12, Adjectivals)

enough

adjective, adverb: (mostly partitive) bracket with various modal verbs (see unit 13, ‘enough’ and ‘too’)

ensemble

noun: krÌj. (of things-dat; see unit 7, Grouping numerals)

enthusiasm

noun: dwàcj. (about something-acc/causal-transporting, also dat/causal-receiving; see unit 3, Ambiguous usage)

enthusiastic

adjective: dwècj. (about something-acc/causal-transporting, also dat/causal-receiving; see unit 3, Ambiguous usage)

entity, thing; stuff

noun: mÌ.;
(entity, thing as opposed to ‘stuff’) rÌ. or other definite or indefinite numerals (see unit 7, Individuals)

Epicurus

proper noun: (Ancient Greek philosopher) epikurÌs.

episode

noun: (in the generic sense) lòR.

er, uh, um

interjection: (hesitation marker used to signal that one is pausing to think but has not finished speaking; request to get a turn in a conversation) wà., (repeated) — wày. (see pragmatics page III, Conversation structure)

Eridanus

proper noun: (constellation) argÌ. (the River; see appendix, Constellations)

err

verb: vàsk. (in something-dat [the thing made wrong] or -acc [the wrong thing])

erratic, random

adjective: (producing erratic, unpredictable outcomes) èzw.;
(being subject to randomness) Ìzw., ìzw.

error, mistake

noun: (the act of erring) vàsk.
(the action or thing going/made wrong) vìsk., (the wrong thing) vÌsk.

adverbial: by mistake — vìska., — vÌska. (or with other outer cases to distinguish e.g. ‘She gave me the poodle by mistake-datvs. ‘She gave me the poodle by mistake-acc’, forming a coordination with the object that contains the error)

Ethiyn

proper noun: (the federation of Ethiyn) eqinàr.

Ethiynic

proper noun, adjective: (person from Ethiyn, pertaining to Ethiyn) eqinÌ.

even

adverb: (marking an extreme/unexpected example) tmÌ. (often in a compound with the unexpected object, which has an inner partitive; see pragmatics page II, Pragmatic adverbs and expressives)

evening

noun: (early evening, the end of daytime) djìRt.;
(when viewed as the beginning of nighttime) ytfèR.;
(late evening, the time roughly between 9 p.m. and midnight) atxypkÌ.

event

noun: là.

everywhere

adverb: jnÌar.

evidence

noun: khùv.

evident, clear

adjective: khÌv.

evil

noun: jfàxw., jfàlxw.

adjective: (doing evil) jfèxw.; (of an evil quality, as in ‘an evil deed’) jfÌxw.

evolution

noun: (biology) pifnà. (of some living being-dat)

evolve

verb: (biology) pifnà. (dat);
(develop in general) pifà. (dat);
(progress, improve) pifprà. (dat)

ewe

noun: edÌ., edy.

example, instance

noun: with partitive bracket: A is an example/instance of B: AÌ BÌyn. lit. ‘B is the set from which A is taken’;
or with an inversion of a partitive bracket, e.g. He helped me a lot. For example, he cleaned my bicycle. làcw dmÌa. à hànca telmÌxi. (see pragmatics page III, Non–utterance modifiers)

exist

verb: phrase the existing thing as the main predicate (see unit 10, Topic)

expect

verb: tìlp. (dat: something-acc to happen; or with other verbs of certainty);
Ràks., dàxt. (something-acc of someone-dat; or with the ‘someone’ as the agent of the acc; see unit 13, Overview of the modals: The nominative object is someone else)

expensive

adjective: dypq-dmÙl.

exponent, power

noun: (mathematics: in an exponentiation) lrè.

exponentiate

verb: lrà. (agentive ins: some value-dat by some value-nom to give some result-acc; see unit 7, Mathematical functions)

extend, spread (out)

verb: (temporal) mà — tÌcdyR., (extend far into the past and/or future) mà — filwtÌcdyR.;
(spatial) mà — tÌcdyr., (extend to regions far away) mà — filwtÌcdyr. (all: dat; something-dat; compare unit 12, Adjectivals)

extensive

adjective: (temporal) mìl — dmÌyR., (extending far into the past and/or future) mìl — fÌwyR.;
(spatial) mìl — dmÌyr., (extending to regions far away) mìl — fÌwyr., all with the qualified noun in the acc (depictive, absorption possible) or dat (resultative) (see unit 12, Adjectivals);
inversion may be necessary for attributive use (see Attributes)

eye

noun: dmùt.

fabric

noun: (woven fabric) wmÌb.

fact

noun: làl.

fairy, fae

noun: lejcÌ.

fake

adjective: outer qualitative case for the noun

fall

verb: (to a lower place) jirxilfkà. ( jàx ilfkÌir.), (from a higher place) jerxàf. (acc, occasionally self-transporting; also with the corresponding agent-centered spatial cases);
(move to a horizontal position, as of a tree) àf prÌi –e. ‘make the area in front of an object into an area upwards’ (see unit 12, Orientation)

noun: (autumn) hkÌt.

family

noun: (also the biological rank) krij-fnÌwb. (of someone-dat with inner partitive)

fantasise

verb: pqxarà. (about something-acc)

fantasy

noun: (action of fantasising) pqxarà.; (content of fantasising) pqxarÌ. (both: about something-acc)

far (away)

adverb: (at a time far away) fÌwaR. (from some time-nom);
(at a place far away) — fÌwar. (from something-nom);
(from a place far away) — fÌwer. (from something-nom);
(to a place far away) — fÌwir. (from something-nom);
(distant in degree) cÌwb. or other weighting numerals (from something: bracket or compound)

adjective: mìl — fÌwar. (or other outer spatial/temporal cases) with the qualified noun in the acc (depictive, absorption possible) or dat (resultative) (see unit 12, Adjectivals);
inversion may be necessary for attributive use (see Attributes)

farad

noun: (unit of electric capacitance) 1.116 × telmÌ. (see appendix, Units of measurement)

fast

adjective: (someone fast) fèt.; (a fast action) fÌt.

fat

noun: mÌzd.

adjective: (plump, thick) mìl — prÌyr. with the qualified noun in the acc (depictive, absorption possible) or dat (resultative) (see unit 12, Adjectivals);
inversion may be necessary for attributive use (see Attributes)

fate

noun: hnàxt., hnàlxt.

father

verb: psràb. (a child-acc)

noun: psrèb. (of someone-acc)

fatherly

adjective: (like a father) psrèb. as a qualitative object

fatten

verb: mà — pril-tÌncdyr. (dat; something-dat; compare unit 12, Adjectivals)

faun

noun: pnÌb.

Faunus, Pan

noun: pnèb.

fear

verb: xràtx. (someone or something-acc/causal-transporting, also dat/causal-receiving; see unit 3, Ambiguous usage)

noun: xràtx. (of someone or something ditto)

feather

noun: cnÌzd.

feed

verb: àv., (daintily) àqsk. (someone-dat with something-acc; self-receiving: on something-acc)

feel

verb: (an emotion) fnàsf. (something-acc)

feline

adjective: (a cat’s) kÌt. as a genitive attribute;
(like a cat) kÌt. as a qualitative object

female, woman

noun, adjective: bÌ. (symbol: Ã)

ferromagnet(ic)

noun, adjective: (being attracted by magnets) manwÌ.

few, little, a bit

adjective: crÌ. (see unit 7, Weighting numerals – usually with partitive bracket; see unit 8, Cardinal numerals);
(a small amount, little substance, as opposed to ‘few’) cry.;
(few individuals, as opposed to ‘a small amount’) crynmlÌ.

see also small

fiancé(e)

noun: dwocwè. (tends to mean the man), dwocwì. (tends to mean the woman)
The second w is a pronoun referring to the parole and has to be adjusted for the word’s level. See ‘spilt milk’ in unit 10, Perfect, which is the same type of construction only with a cons instead of a ten.

field

noun: (for growing crops) cÌx.

fifteen

adjective, noun: gcÌ.;
(in counting) gcà.

fifteenth

noun: (1⁄15) ligzgcÌ. (see unit 7, Fractions)

adjective: gcìR|r. (head noun as acc object; see unit 8, Ordinal numerals)

fifth

noun: (1⁄5) ligzpnÌ. (see unit 7, Fractions)

adjective: pnìR|r. (head noun as acc object; see unit 8, Ordinal numerals)

fight

verb, noun: wdràg. ([with] someone-dat)

fill

verb: (add content to make something full) màc. (something-dat with something-acc; something-acc into something-dat);
(enter something to make it full) màc. (acc: something-dat);
(occupy fully) mìlc. (acc: something-dat)

film

verb: wlotà.

noun: (motion picture) wlotÌ.

finally

adverb: (at the end) pronoun, linking to the action whose end is meant, in the egressive (iR)

(later than expected, as in ‘He has finally come’) tmÌaR. (lit. ‘at an unexpected time’);
prildmiltmÌaR. (lit. ‘at an unexpectedly late time’, if distinguishing from an unexpectedly early time is necessary) (or with other weighting numerals)

(ending an enumeration) jniRà —. (see pragmatics page III, Utterance modifiers: Pronoun referring to the parole)

find

verb: (locate something searched for) xÙlsk. (something-dat),
(learn, discover by investigation) gwàt. (dat: something-acc)

noun: (something found that was being searched for) lì xÙlska.

finger

noun: skrùc.

finish

verb: (finish [doing] something) jnÌ. as a fact object, typically compounded, of the finished action: e.g. avjnà. ( àv jnÌa.) ‘finish eating’; sometimes as an acc object: yvjnà. ( àv jnÌy.) ‘eat all = finish eating’

(end) topicalisation of the egressive (iR)

fir

noun: khrÌ.

fire

noun: vnè.

fireplace, hearth

noun: vnòr.

first

adjective: rìR|r. (head noun as acc object; see unit 8, Ordinal numerals)

adverb, adverbial: (starting an enumeration) firstly, first of all rìRa (jnyýn) —. (see pragmatics page III, Utterance modifiers: Pronoun referring to the parole)

fish

noun: pÌsk.

verb: krytpàsk.

five

adjective, noun: pnÌ.;
(in counting) pnà.

fix, repair

verb: pàt. (something-dat)

flamingo

noun: nymzd-lÌb. ( nÌzd lÌbym. ‘a bird like a flower’)

flat

adjective: pxlÌj.

flee

verb: spràdj. (self-transporting: somewhere-dat etc.)

flerovium

noun: htenÌ. (symbol: Sτ)

flight

noun: (act of flying) qàxk.

float, afloat

verb: (be afloat) zdìls., (be capable of floating, will float) zdasgwìlt. (acc: in water etc.-nom [or agentive caus]), compounded zdesxìlf. etc.;
(float quickly) nenà. (acc: somewhere-dat etc. in water etc.-nom [or agentive caus])

flour

noun: dÌp.

flow

verb: (of a fluid or something like a fluid) wràxf. (self-transporting: somewhere-dat etc.);
(work/go smoothly) hràw. (acc/dat)

flower

noun: (small, herbaceous flowering plant) lÌb.;
(blossom, bloom) wlÌg.

flowering plant, fruiting plant

noun: frèxk.

fluorine

noun: lybv-nÌs. (symbol: Ω)

fly

verb: qàxk. (self-transporting: somewhere-dat etc.)

noun: (insect) mÌz.

fly agaric

noun: vmyj-krÌgw.

foal

noun: yhw-cnÌ.

foam

verb: psràxk.

noun: psrÌxk.

fog

noun: Ìgc.

fold

verb: pàw. (something-dat into something-acc [e.g. in two])

noun: pìlw.

follow

verb: (I am running after you.) nenà viÙr [prilkÌer nenáe cìy]. (self-transporting; or with other verbs of movement; see unit 12, Orientation)

food, meal

noun: Ìv.; Ìqsk.

fool

noun: milv-crè. (or with other weighting numerals)

foolish

adjective: (someone foolish) milv-crè.; (a foolish deed, saying, thought) milvcrÌ. (or with other weighting numerals)

foot

noun: pÌz.

for

preposition: (for the benefit of the witch) benefactive object (U);
(because of, Achilles likes the tortoise for many reasons.) causative (el) or persuasive object (Ol);
(with the purpose of, for Turkish Delight) final object (Ul);
(over a period of time, for three weeks) durative object (yR);
(throughout an extent of space, for miles) extensive object (yr);
(in the direction of, aiming at, to run for the trees) allative object (Ur);
(by the standards of, beautiful for a racer) partitive coordination (see unit 10, Predicate adjective and participle);
(compared to someone’s requirements, enough / too much light for me) nominative object (e) of a modal verb (see unit 13, ‘enough’ and ‘too’);
(as judged by someone, That’s blue for me.) with a verb such as qàzg. ‘think’ or fràdj. ‘perceive’: ‘I think that is blue’, ‘I-dat perceive that-nom [as] blue-acc’ — but for ‘That’s new for me’ see new;
(a place for eating sweets) see unit 6, Compounding Rule Three

subordinating conjunction: (because) causative (el) or persuasive clause (Ol)

forefather, foremother

noun: krij-fnèwb. (of a family-acc, of someone-dat with inner partitive)

foreign

adjective: mesortynÌ.

forest

noun: tfÌd.

forever

adverb: nÌiR.

forget

verb: (forget to do = don’t remember to do, unintentionally not to do) smajnà. (dat: something-acc [with inner fact]); frequently untranslated, e.g. ‘I forgot to buy the artichokes’ = ‘I didn’t buy the artichokes’;
(forget that = cease remembering; including forget doing something) smìRj. (dat: something-acc [with inner non-fact, e.g. aff for actions]);

(forget completely, cease knowing) gwatkà. (dat: about something-acc [with inner non-fact]; dat: how to do something-acc [with inner fact]), or with other translations of ‘know

See also ‘remember’ in unit 14, Differences between infinitives and gerunds.

four

adjective, noun: gwÌq.;
(in counting) gwàq.

fourteen

adjective, noun: Ìb.;
(in counting) àb.

fourteenth

noun: (1⁄14) ligzÌb. (see unit 7, Fractions)

adjective: ìR|rb. (head noun as acc object; see unit 8, Ordinal numerals)

fourth

noun: (1⁄4) ligzgwÌq. (see unit 7, Fractions)

adjective: gwìR|rq. (head noun as acc object; see unit 8, Ordinal numerals)

four thousand ninety-six (4096)

adjective, noun: jÌs.;
(in counting) jàs.

four thousand ninety-sixth

noun: (1⁄4096) ligzjÌs. (see unit 7, Fractions)

adjective: (4096th) jìR|rs. (head noun as acc object; see unit 8, Ordinal numerals)

fragment, piece, scrap

noun: skrÌp.

francium

noun: lilxw-ki-vnè. (symbol: Φο) ( vnè lilxwkìe. ‘making fire magenta’)

frank

adjective: (someone frank) èwb.; (a frank statement) Ìwb.

fraternal

adjective: (younger brother’s) htrè., (older brother’s) htrÌ., both as a genitive attribute;
(like a brother) htrè., htrÌ. as a qualitative object

free

adjective: (as in free speech) wrÌw.;
(as in free beer) dypqnÙl.

freedom

noun: wrìlw.

freeze

verb: (of water or bodies of water) jmàx.;
(be/feel very cold) gmril-càwb. (dat);
(stop moving) jìRx. (acc)

Friday

proper noun: corresponds to djUt-xsrÌ. (‘Venerian day’, symbol: Â; see appendix, Date)

friend

noun: zvèc.

friendship

noun: zvàc.

fright

noun: bvmàp.

phrases: give (someone-nom) a fright (agentive caus, causal-reflexive);
take fright bvmàp. (because of someone or something-acc/causal-transporting; also dat/causal-receiving; see unit 3, Ambiguous usage)

frighten, scare

verb: (cause to be afraid) xràtx. (agentive caus, causal-reflexive: someone-nom)
(shock) bvmàp. (ditto)

from

preposition: (take/get something from a person etc.) nominative object (e);

(from a time) ingressive object (eR) only if the time is continuous (such as ‘daytime’ or ‘nighttime’);
gmilkÌeR –e. (‘inside’ in the ingressive case, plus a reference object in the nominative; see unit 12, Adjectivals and ‘inside’ constructions);
ingressive object with a fragmenting partitive;

(from a place) analogous, with the elative (er)

front

adverbial: in front, at the front: prÌar.; to the front prÌi(r). (both: of something-nom)

adjectival: in front, at the front mìl — prÌar. with the qualified noun in the acc (depictive, absorption possible) or dat (resultative) (see unit 12, Adjectivals);
inversion may be necessary for attributive use (see Attributes)

frost

noun: (cover of small ice crystals) rÌs.

froth

verb: psràxk. (something-dat)

noun: psrÌxk.

fruit

verb: (produce fruit) fràxk.

noun: frÌxk.

fuel

noun: vnì.; (archaic: petrol, gasoline) sxrÌ.

full

adjective: mìc.

Lemizh full stop (.)

noun: xyk-dwÌ.

function

verb: (be in operation) smrà.

funny

adjective: (amusing, comical) glèlxw., glÌxw. (for/to someone-nom);
(strange, odd) (someone funny) xlèj.; (a funny deed, action, event) xlÌj.

fur

noun: cÌhw., krijcÌhw.

further

adjective: (more, additional) pronoun in a qualitative case (see pragmatics page II, Conventional ‘implicatures’ and below that)

furthermore, besides, moreover

adverb: krijàn —. plus accusative clause dependent on the pronoun (see pragmatics page III, Utterance modifiers: Pronoun referring to the parole)

futile, vain

adjective: ylÌs.

gale

noun: xRÌbv.

game

noun: (child’s play without fixed rules, recreational activity) ftàx.;
(recreational or competitive, rule-governed game) srUà.;
(playing equipment) srUÌ., srUù.

garden

verb: bàj.

noun: bÌj.

Gemini

proper noun: (constellation) dwjÌw. (the Twins; see appendix, Constellations)

geographer

noun: zvy-xnè.

geography

noun: zvy-xnà.

get

verb: (receive) dà. (dat, not agentive: something-acc from someone-nom)

phrase: get lost jirxvìrsk. (self-transporting: somewhere-dat etc.) ( vàsk jìrxi. ‘put erroneously’)

girl

noun: (female before puberty) cnÌ., cny.

girlfriend

noun: (partner in a romantic relationship) lèwb., lewb. (of someone-dat)

give

verb: dà. (something-acc to someone-dat)

glad

adjective: swèzw. (about something-acc/causal-transporting, also dat/causal-receiving; see unit 3, Ambiguous usage)

glass

noun: lÌx.

go

verb: jàx., (walk) dnà., (on wheels) kàk. (all self-transporting: somewhere-dat etc.);
(leave, depart) see leave

goat

noun: ysrÌ.

god(dess)

noun: (polytheistic) djiÌ.; (monotheistic) igcèd.

gold

noun: (metal) Ìpq. (symbol: Χρ);
(colour) RymcjÌpq.

good, fine

adjective: (competent, acting beneficially or ethically, as in ‘good [=competent or ethical] people’) gèjd.,
(with agent nouns, as in ‘a good speaker’) gÌjd. with outer fact (see unit 5, Attributes and adverbs that are not brackets);
(of high quality, beneficial, ethically sound, as in ‘a good product, good weather, a good deed’) gÌjd.;

(adequate, functional, okay, as in ‘the food is good, the batteries are good’) srÌwd.;
(aesthetically pleasing to the senses) prÌj.;
(likable, enjoyable, pleasant) rìh.;
(large, as in ‘a good number of things, a good part of the day’) dmÌ. (or with other weighting numerals)

interjection: xècg:

goose

noun: RÌj.

govern

verb: txoixà. (a country, a people etc.-dat)

government

noun: (body of power) txoixè.; (act of governing) txoixà. (both: of a country, a people etc.-dat)

grapefruit

noun: (the fruit) dryj-glÌst., white grapefruit dryjlÌbv.;
(grapefruit tree) dryjglèst., dryjlèbv.

grasp

verb: (take, e.g. into one’s hands) tàk. (agentive dat: something-acc);
(seize) kàfk. (agentive dat: something-acc from someone-nom)

grass

noun: xÌj.

gravel, pebble

noun: hrÌk.

great!

interjection: xècg:

Greece

proper noun: jloàr.

Greek

proper noun, adjective: (person from Greece, pertaining to Greece) jloÌ.

green

adjective: lÌxw.

noun: (green colour, greenness) lìlxw.

verb: làxw. (dat; something-dat)

greet

verb: gcrà., (informally) gà. (someone-dat)

greeting, hello, welcome; farewell, goodbye

noun: gcrà., (informal) gà.

phrases: (say) hello, (say) farewell etc. gcrà., gà.

greeting phrases and interjections: How do you do? Good morning/afternoon/evening/night! Goodbye! gcrà.;
welcome gcrà. (to someplace-sce);
Hello! Hi! Bye! gà. (gesture: 🖖 for the letter g)

see also you’re welcome

grey

adjective: ksrÌ.

noun: (grey colour, greyness) ksrìl.

verb: ksrà. (dat; something-dat)

ground, floor

noun: rÌsk.

group

verb: qmà. (something-dat into something-acc)

noun: qmÌ. (of some things-dat);
(mathematics) krÌj. (of objects-dat)

grow

verb: dmÌyr., (in height) Ìfyr., (in extent) fÌwyr. (all: acc);
(prosper, thrive) Ràdj. (nom);
(become) mà. (acc)

guard

verb: wlàt. (dat: something-nom)

noun: wlìt.

guest

noun: ìvd.;
(one being served in a restaurant) mìwd.

guide

verb: zmàxt. (someone-dat in something-acc)

noun: zmèxt.

habit

noun: nàjw.

habitual

adjective: –anèjw. (e.g. a habitual lace-maker khlanèjw.)

hail

verb: (send hail[stones]) zmàs. (somewhere-dat etc.)

noun: zmÌs.

hailstone

noun: zmys.

hair

noun: cÌhw.

half

noun: (1⁄2) ligzdwÌ. (see unit 7, Fractions)

halogen

noun: Rycj-nÌs.

hand

noun: cmùk.

handle

verb: (deal, cope with) klàj. (something/someone-dat);
(work with) là. (a tool, a machine-ins)

happen

verb: là. (fact);
(happen to do = do by chance) tUxàa.

happy

adjective: spèz. (about something-acc/causal-transporting, also dat/causal-receiving; see unit 3, Ambiguous usage)

hard

adjective: (not yielding to pressure) stÌjg.;
(difficult) grÌ.

harden

verb: stàjg. (dat; something-dat)

hardly

adverb: cÌwba.

adjectival: hardly any(thing) cÌwb. (see unit 7, Weighting numerals – usually with partitive bracket; see unit 8, Cardinal numerals)

adverbial: hardly ever, hardly anywhere etc. cÌwb. with outer non-plot case

hare

noun: xÌd.

harm

verb: wRà. (someone-dat)

harpy

noun: xarpÌ.

hat

noun: dmÌpx.

have

full verb: (have got) translated as a genitive: Lucy has (got) a bottle. dwÌw lusÌU. (see unit 10, Stative verbs)

auxiliary verb: see unit 10, Perfect;
(have to) dàxt. (dat: do something-acc; see unit 13, Overview of the modals)

hazel

noun: (tree, shrub) weRè.

hazelnut

noun: weRÌ.

he, him

personal pronoun: definite or relative pronoun or Ìx. (see unit 6, Demonstrative pronouns)

heal

verb: gwàb. (someone-dat)

health

noun: gwìlb.

healthy

adjective: gwÌb.

hear

verb: xOàj. (dat: something-nom, the sound of something-acc)

heart

noun: krèd.

heartbeat

noun: kràd.

heat

verb: gmrà., gmrildmà. (dat; something-dat; or with other weighting numerals)

noun: (property of being hot) gmrildmìl.; (hot location) gmrildmÌ. (or with other weighting numerals)

heavy

adjective: lÌt.

height

noun: mìl Ìfyr. (often better translated with the adjective ‘high’)

help

verb: làcw. (someone-dat with something-acc)

noun: làcw. (for someone-dat with something-acc)

helpful

adjective: (giving help) lècw.;
(useful, can be used) lagwùt. (for something: replace the compound’s head, là., with a more specific verb)

hen

noun: grÌc., gryc.

henry

noun: (unit of inductance) 0.5154 × ytÌs. (see appendix, Units of measurement)

her

personal pronoun: (I see her.) definite or relative pronoun or bÌ. (see unit 6, Demonstrative pronouns)

possessive adjective: (her tortoise) definite or relative pronoun or bÌ. as a genitive attribute, i.e. mostly with benefactive (U)
For an example see unit 6, Relative pronouns.

here

adverb: tÌar. (see unit 6, Demonstrative pronouns);
(as opposed to ‘there’) filw-crÌar. (or with other weighting numerals; see unit 12, Temporal and spatial verbs)

hero

noun: bèst.

heroic

adjective: (like a hero) bèst. as a qualitative object

hers

possessive pronoun: definite or relative pronoun or bÌ. as a genitive, i.e. mostly with benefactive (U)
For examples see unit 10, Stative verbs, and unit 11, Inner qualitative.

herself

reflexive pronoun: see unit 6, Relative pronouns and Reflexivity vs. reciprocity

hertz, becquerel

noun: (unit of frequency or radioactivity, respectively) 1.318 × ligzkrÌ. (see appendix, Units of measurement)

hide

verb: (move into concealment) esfàs. (something-acc, or self-transporting: somewhere-dat etc.);
(conceal oneself) xàsk. (agentive acc: from someone-nom)

(be hidden, be in concealment) esfìls., xìlsk.

noun: (skin) lÌf.

high, tall

adjective: mìl — Ìfyr. with the qualified noun in the acc (depictive, absorption possible) or dat (resultative) (see unit 12, Adjectivals);
inversion may be necessary for attributive use (see Attributes)

himself

reflexive pronoun: see unit 6, Relative pronouns and Reflexivity vs. reciprocity

his

possessive adjective: (his tortoise) definite or relative pronoun or Ìx. as a genitive attribute, i.e. mostly with benefactive (U)
For an example see unit 6, Relative pronouns.

possessive pronoun: (The tortoise is his.) definite or relative pronoun or Ìx. as a genitive
For examples see unit 10, Stative verbs, and unit 11, Inner qualitative.

hit

verb: dwnàt. (something-dat)
With an acc object, this verb means ‘shatter, smash’.

hobble, limp, totter

verb: stnàg. (self-transporting [nom for the hobbling action, acc for walking in a hobbling fashion, for hobbling along]: somewhere-dat etc.)

noun: stnàg., stnàlg.
He has a limp. stná(l)g tÌe.

hobby

noun: xwà.

hoist, raise

verb: see lift

hold

verb: (e.g. in one’s hands) tìlk. (dat: something-acc)

honour

verb: gmàw. (someone-dat)

noun: (recognition, respect) translate as a verb: give honour, show respect gmàw. (to someone-dat);
(acting beneficially or ethically) also best translated as a verb: have honour, be a good person gàjd. (nom)

hook

verb: xràp. (something-acc/dat)

noun: xrùp.

hope

verb, noun: ràtx., rìltx. (dat: something-acc; see unit 13, Verbs of certainty)

horn

noun: kÌcx.

horned

adjective: kècx.

horse

noun: Ìhw.

host

verb: (receive guests) àvd. (someone-dat)

noun: (one who receives guests) èvd.

hot

adjective: (temperature) gmril-dmÌ. (or with other weighting numerals);
(feeling hot) gmrildmì.;
(taste: spicy, stinging) cnÌdj.

hot dog

noun: (usually with mustard, onions and curry powder) notÌ.

hotel

noun: vxÌzd.

hound

noun: RÌw.

hour

noun: 10.67 × kril-skmÌ. (see appendix, Time and Units of measurement)

house

noun: lÌj.

how

interrogative adverb: pà. plus accusative object, typically with inner factive (or compounded; see unit 16, ‘What about’-questions)

see also How do you do?

however

adverb: (denial of expectation) tmÌ. (often in a compound with the unexpected main predicate; see pragmatics page III, Non–utterance modifiers);
(contrast without denial of expectation) untranslated

relative adverb: gwà. forming a partitive bracket with an object having an inner factive (see unit 16, Headless relative clauses)

human, person

noun, adjective: cOÌc.

hummingbird

noun: kolÌb.

hundred

adjective, noun: 64hex ilj-swynhè gwÌnqe.

hundredth

noun: (1⁄100 = 1⁄64hex) lÌgz iljswynhì gwÌnqi. (see unit 7, Fractions)

adjective: mìR|r ilj-swynhÌ gwÌnqy. (head noun as acc object; see unit 8, Ordinal numerals)

hunt

verb, noun: kràt. ([for] someone/something-acc)

hurl

verb: (throw recklessly, aggressively) swàv. (something-acc somewhere-dat etc., also non-sending)

hurt

verb: cmàbv. (someone-dat)

hydrochloric acid, other hydrohalogenic acids, and other acids in the oxidation state eight lower than the highest one

noun: Ìtx dyv-nÌsi. and analogously with other element names

hydrogen

noun: ètx. (symbol: Ο)

hyperbola

noun: xprÌj.

hyperbolic cosine

noun: xpry-prÌ. (of some value-dat; see unit 7, Mathematical functions)

hyperbolic sine

noun: xpry-Ìf. (of some value-dat; see unit 7, Mathematical functions)

hyperbolic tangent

noun: xpry-fÌw. (of some value-dat; see unit 7, Mathematical functions)

hypochlorous acid, other hypohalogenous acids, and other acids in the oxidation state six lower than the highest one

noun: Ìtx dyv-nÌso. and analogously with other element names

I, me

personal pronoun: relative pronoun with inner nominative (see unit 6, Relative pronouns)

ibex

noun: kobrÌ.

ice

noun: jmÌx.

iceberg

noun: xijqjmÌx. ( xÌjq jmÌxi. ‘mountain made from ice’)

idea

noun: djemÌ.

phrase: have an idea djemà.

identity

noun: Ìd. (see unit 16, wh-questions)

if

subordinating conjunction: weak linking of a causative clause (see unit 15, Conditional clauses); among other possibilities (see Alternative translations)

ill, sick

adjective: gwilbkÌ.

imagination

noun: (creativity, making new images or concepts) kfusà.; (something creatively imagined) kfusÌ.;
(fantasising, making false images or concepts) pqxarà.; (something fantasised) pqxarÌ.

imagine

verb: (be creative, make new images or concepts) kfusà. (something-acc);
(fantasise, make false images or concepts) pqxarà. (something-acc)

important

adjective: kfrÌc. (for something/someone-ben);
(important to someone) kfrÌ., kfrì. (to someone-nom; see unit 3, Ambiguous plot usage)

imprison

verb: jsàj. (someone-dat)

improve

verb: pifprà. (dat; something-dat)

in

preposition: scenic object (or) if the location is intentional;
locative object (ar) if the location is either continuous or filled completely;
gmilkÌar –e. (‘inside’ in the locative case, plus a reference object in the nominative; see unit 12, Adjectivals and ‘inside’ constructions);
locative object with a fragmenting partitive

incidentally, by the way

adverb: Ràjd. plus accusative clause (see pragmatics page III, Utterance modifiers: Verbs of communication)

indeed

adverb: (truly, in fact) topicalisation of the affirmative; (stronger) pytà —. (see pragmatics page III, Utterance modifiers: Pronoun referring to the parole)

individual; dose, portion, quantum

noun: (also the term ‘quantum’ in physics) rÌ. or other definite or indefinite numerals (see unit 7, Individuals)

infect

verb: (of bacteria) plOqkàj. someone-dat

inflate, stretch

verb: nàwb. (dat; something-dat into some shape-acc)

To distinguish from the meaning ‘burst, rip, tear’, use an acc object or – often simpler – a nominal verb expressing a shape.

in order that

subordinating conjunction: final clause (Ul) (see unit 15, Clauses with other conjunctions)

insect

noun: entÌw.

inside

noun: gmilkÌ. (of something-nom)

adverb, preposition: gmilkÌar. (something-nom)

adjective: mìl — gmilkÌar. with the qualified noun in the acc (depictive, absorption possible) or dat (resultative) (see unit 12, Adjectivals);
inversion may be necessary for attributive use (see Attributes)

intelligent

adjective: (someone intelligent) kèf.; (an intelligent deed, saying, thought) kÌf.

intend

verb: topicalisation of the tentive (o)

intention

noun: lò.

interest

verb: vàbv. (acc/causal-transporting, also dat/causal-receiving: someone-nom; see unit 3, Ambiguous usage)

noun: vàbv. (someone’s-nom in something ditto)

interested

adjective: vèbv. (in something-acc/causal-transporting, also dat/causal-receiving; see unit 3, Ambiguous usage)

intestine, gut

noun: xalÌv.

into

preposition: allative object (Ur) only if reaching the destination does not need to be expressed;
illative object (ir) only if the location is either continuous or filled completely;
gmilkÌir –e. (‘inside’ in the illative case, plus a reference object in the nominative; see unit 12, Adjectivals and ‘inside’ constructions);
illative object with a fragmenting partitive

inverse hyperbolic cosine

noun: xpry-prì. (of some value-acc; see unit 7, Mathematical functions)

inverse hyperbolic sine

noun: xpry-ìf. (of some value-acc; see unit 7, Mathematical functions)

inverse hyperbolic tangent

noun: xpry-fìw. (of some value-acc; see unit 7, Mathematical functions)

iodine

noun: glyst-nÌs. (symbol: Ι)

iron

noun: (metal) bRÌj. (symbol: Σ)

island

noun: dmÌd.

it

personal pronoun: definite or relative pronoun (see unit 6, Demonstrative pronouns)

its

possessive adjective: (its [the house’s] roof) definite or relative pronoun as a genitive attribute, i.e. mostly with benefactive (U)
For an example see unit 6, Relative pronouns.

possessive pronoun: (The roof is its [the house’s].) definite or relative pronoun as a genitive
For examples see unit 10, Stative verbs, and unit 11, Inner qualitative.

itself

reflexive pronoun: see unit 6, Relative pronouns and Reflexivity vs. reciprocity

ivory

noun: txeklÌw.

jaguar

noun: jawrÌ.

jail

verb: jsàj. (someone-dat)

noun: jsòrj.

January, February etc.

proper nouns: The Lemizh calendar is not organised by months but by weeks; see appendix, Date.

joke

verb: (tell a joke) àxh. (to someone-dat)

noun: Ìxh.

joule

noun: (unit of energy) 269.7 × iotÌ. (see appendix, Units of measurement)

jumble

verb: qnadkà. (something-dat)

jump

verb, noun: làk., (reckless, aggressive) swàv. (self-transporting: somewhere-dat etc.)

Jupiter, Zeus

proper noun: (god, planet) djeipysrÌd. (symbol: Å)

justly

phrase: justly claim kfrÌjda. (inversion of ‘claim something’, making the claimed fact the predicate; or with other verbs of communication, especially verbs of certainty, ‘accuse, blame’)

kangaroo

noun: markÌw.

keep

verb: (continue doing something [‘keep going’] / being in some state [‘keep quiet’]) negated topicalisation of the egressive (–iRnà.); (transitive [‘keep someone happy’]) ditto, with agentive caus;
(repeatedly do something [‘keep coming back’]) iterative aspect (–amlà.), habitual aspect (–anàjw.);

(possess, have in stock) translated as a genitive: Edmund keeps dogs. wÌgw edmÌjdU. (see unit 10, Stative verbs);

(keep somewhere) miRnà. (agentive caus: something-acc/dat somewhere-loc/sce: like spatial adjectivals and with negated topicalisation of the egressive);

keep from see deprive

phrase: keep a promise wxÙljg. (to someone-dat)

kelvin

noun: (unit of temperature) 0.879 × qàc. (see appendix, Units of measurement)

key

noun: (means for locking and unlocking) plùk.;
(button or lever to push on a keyboard or musical instrument) rÌwb.;
(metaphorical: a crucial requirement) nùt.

keyboard

noun: krij-rÌwb.

kill

verb, noun: là RìRjga. (someone-nom of Ràjg.)

kilogram

noun: (unit of mass) 1.314 × lÌq. (see appendix, Units of measurement)

king

noun: Rèc., Recèx. (someone’s-dat)

kiss

verb: fàs. (someone-dat)

kitchen

noun: sòrx.

kitten

noun: kyt-cnÌ.

knife

noun: gwrù.

knight

noun: (chess) Ìhw.

knot

verb: snràk. (a piece of string etc.-dat)

noun: snrÌk.

know

verb: (have learned) gwìlt.; (know from school, have learned in school) skholìl. (both: dat: about something-acc [with inner non-fact, e.g. aff for actions]; dat: how to do something-acc [with inner fact]);

(have heard, know from hearsay) xOìlj. (dat: about something-acc [with inner non-fact, e.g. aff for having been told it]; dat: something-nom);
(have seen, know by sight) dmìlt. (dat: something-nom);
(have read) ìlsh. (dat: about something-acc)

(know personally / from one’s own experience, be acquainted with) nezìl. (dat: someone/something-acc);

or untranslated, especially with verbs of communication, e.g. know that one must do dìlxt. (dat: something-acc)

see also unit 14, ‘about’, and unit 10, Stative verbs

on ‘know’ not presupposing the truth of the known thing (the acc object), see Grammatical reality on the pragmatics pages

Kroblizh

proper noun: (Shabar Castle, the royal castle of Lemaria’s capital) kroblÌc.

lace

noun: khlÌ.

lake

noun: (technically: glacial lake, informally: large lake) antÌ.;
(small lake, pond) amÌ.

land

noun: (inhabited/habitable world as opposed to the sky or mythological/religious places) xnàr.;
(sovereign state) gzlÌs.;
(dry land as opposed to the sea) tÌcs.

language

noun: wùx.

lapdog

noun: (jocular) RywnÌ. (lit. ‘not-hound’)

lark

noun: pevrÌ.

laser

noun: xycg-myhrè. ( myhrÌ xÌcgi. ‘one sort of light’)

laser light, laser beam

noun: xycg-myhrÌ. ( myhrÌ xÌcgi. ‘one sort of light’)

last

adjective: (previous) tilcd-ril-kìR|r. (head noun as acc object; see unit 8, Ordinal numerals)
tilcdrilkìR djUtfrÌgy. is the Tuesday with the next lower week number, i.e. the one last week. Tuesday this week is tilcdnìR djUtfrÌgy.. Just use ‘Tuesday’ when clear from context (e.g. say ‘He came Tuesday’ for ‘He came last [= on the preceding] Tuesday’).

last but one tilcddwilkìR|r.
etc.;

(ultimate) jnìR|r. (head noun as acc object)

late

adverb: prildmÌaR. (see unit 12, Adjectivals and ‘inside’ constructions) (or with other weighting numerals);
(as in ‘He came late’) (too late) comparative (see unit 13, ‘enough’ and ‘too’); (later than expected) see finally

adjective: (with eventive abstract nouns, as in ‘a late breakfast’) translated like the adverb;
(with ‘morning, evening’) see morning, evening;
(with ‘train’ or the like) e.g.
jnìR tÙcsy. (lit. ‘last train’)

laugh, laughter

verb, noun: (laugh aloud, loud laughter) eà. (at someone-dat/psu [not necessarily derisively])

law

noun: crÌw.

lawks!

interjection: igcàks:

lay, fell

verb: (position horizontally, fell a tree) àf prÌi –e. ‘make the area in front of an object into an area upwards’, or with other spatial verbs depending on the orientation of the object’s coordinate system (see unit 12, Orientation);
(put to rest) làgc. (agentive caus or nom: someone-dat)

phrases: lay eggs skrà.;
lay a table àwd.

lead

verb: (as a boss, chief: lower in rank, or more informal, than the next entry) nàd.;
(as a master: higher in rank, or more formal, than the previous entry) igcàd. (both: someone-dat)

noun: (metal) liwÌ. (symbol: Μο)

leaf

noun: (of a plant) pÌx.;
(something flat, such as a sheet of a book or a gold leaf) pxlÌj.

leap day

noun: djyt-tÌcd. (see appendix, Date)

learn

verb: (general) gwàt.; (specifically in school) skholà. (both: dat: about something-acc [with inner non-fact, e.g. aff for actions]; dat: doing something-acc [with inner fact])

leave

verb: (depart, regarding only the departure) jèrx., (go away, regarding the whole journey) jàx. (self-transporting; the first translation is perferred as the second typically needs an ela object for clarification; also with other verbs of movement)

noun: (vacation) anàkf.

left

adverbial: at the left: rilckÌar.; to the left rilckÌi(r). (both: of something-nom)

adjective: mìl — rilckÌar. with the qualified noun in the acc (depictive, absorption possible) or dat (resultative) (see unit 12, Adjectivals);
inversion may be necessary for attributive use (see Attributes)

leg

noun: dnù.

legend

noun: stedrÌc. (about something-dat, or as a sibling acc object in certain constructions that have ‘legend’ in the fact; like ‘poem’ in unit 14, Objects related to language)

Lemaria

proper noun: (home country of the Lemizh) lemàrc.

Lemizh

proper noun, adjective: (person from Lemaria, pertaining to Lemaria) lemÌc.

lemon

noun: (the fruit) dryj-dÌv.;
(lemon tree) dryjdèv.

lemur

noun: RenÌc.

length

noun: (temporal) mìl prÌyR., mìl dmÌyR., (spatial) mìl prÌyr. (often better translated with the adjective ‘long’)

lengthen

verb: (temporal) mà — tÌcdyR., (spatial) mà — priltÌncdyr. (dat; something-dat; compare unit 12, Adjectivals)

Leo

proper noun: (constellation) lÌw. (the Lion; see appendix, Constellations)

Leo Minor

proper noun: (constellation) corresponds to part of ksmÌs. (the Squirrel; see appendix, Constellations)

Lepus

proper noun: (constellation) xÌd. (the Hare; see appendix, Constellations)

lesson

noun: (in school) skhola-.; (at university) takfrà.

lest

subordinating conjunction: negated final clause (Ul) (see unit 15, Clauses with other conjunctions)

lexicon, vocabulary

noun: krij-wrÌt.

lick

verb: smàv. (something-dat)

lie

verb: (be positioned horizontally) ìlf prÌi –e. ‘having made the area in front of an object into an area upwards’, or with other spatial verbs depending on the orientation of the object’s coordinate system (see unit 12, Orientation);
(go to rest) làgc., (rest, be resting) lìlgc. (self-receiving, mainly dat)

verb, noun: (intentionally tell falsehoods) màxk. (to someone-dat about something-acc)

life

noun: (living, being alive) Ràjg.; (living beings) Rèjg., Rejgjnè.

lift

verb: (to a higher place) jirxàf. ( jàx Ìfir.), (from a lower place) jerxilfkà. (something-acc; also with other verbs of movement, especially ràxp. and ràwb.; also with the corresponding agent-centered spatial cases)

noun: (elevator) rirxpùf.

light

verb: (illuminate) xàcg. (something-dat);
(light a fire) vnà. (agentive caus)

noun: (light source) xècg.; (radiation) xÌcg.

adjective: (of a light source: sending much light) xècg.; (of radiation: containing much light) xÌcg.; (of an illuminated object or surface: receiving much light) xìcg.;
(light/pale colour) lÌbv.;
(having low weight) lilt-crÌ. (or with other weighting numerals)

light …, pale …

adjective: light/pale blue flilc-lÌbv. ( lìlbv flìlcil. ‘the blueness / blue colour = the light colour’, compare unit 5, Coordinations and brackets within brackets);
light/pale green etc. analogously

noun: light/pale blue (colour) flilclìlbv. etc.

like

verb: ràh. (something or someone-acc/dat);
(want, as in ‘Would you like some tea?’) làxt. (something-acc)

adjective, preposition: qualitative case (see unit 11, Comparison)

lime

adjective: (lime green, yellow-green) glilstkÌ.

noun: (the fruit) dryj-lÌxw.;
(lime tree) dryjlèxw.;
(lime green colour) glilstkìl.

verb: sràc. (something-acc to something-dat)

noun: srùc.

lion

noun: lÌw.

lip

noun: lÌc.

listen

verb: xOàj. (agentive dat: to something-nom, to the sound of something-acc);
listen for xàsk {xOàja}. (something-acc)

lithium

noun: rijd-vnè. (symbol: Ε) ( vnè rìjde. ‘making fire red’)

live

verb: (be alive) Ràjg.;
(reside) xtrà. (somewhere-loc/sce)

liver

noun: jèxw.

lizard

noun: fxyrcrÌ.

lock

verb: plilknà. (something-dat, a lock-acc to something-dat)

noun: plÌk.

logarithm

noun: lrè. (of some value-acc to some base-dat; see unit 7, Mathematical functions)

long

adjective: (temporal) mìl — prÌyR., mìl — dmÌyR., (spatial) mìl — prÌyr., with the qualified noun in the acc (depictive, absorption possible) or dat (resultative) (see unit 12, Adjectivals; or with other weighting numerals);
inversion may be necessary for attributive use (see Attributes)

adverbial: for a long time — dmÌyR. (or with other weighting numerals)

look

verb: dmàt. (agentive dat: at something-nom, at the image of something-acc);
look for xàsk.; look out for xàsk dmàta. (both: something-acc)

loop

verb: khràxt.

noun: khrÌxt.

loud

adjective: (someone, something loud) txèsk.; (a loud noise or sound) txÌsk.

louse

noun: zdnÌk.

love

verb: ià. (someone-acc/dat)

low

adjective: mìl — ilf-crÌyr. with the qualified noun in the acc (depictive, absorption possible) or dat (resultative) (see unit 12, Adjectivals; or with other weighting numerals);
inversion may be necessary for attributive use (see Attributes)

lower

verb: (to a lower place) jirxilfkà. ( jàx ilfkÌir.), (from a higher place) jerxàf. (something-acc; also with other verbs of movement, especially ràxp. and ràwb.; also with the corresponding agent-centered spatial cases)

adjective: mìl — ilfkÌar. with the qualified noun in the acc (depictive, absorption possible) or dat (resultative) (see unit 12, Adjectivals);
inversion may be necessary for attributive use (see Attributes)

luck

noun: tUxà., tUxàl.

lumen

noun: (unit of luminous flux) 0.5205 × melUs-dmÌt. (see appendix, Units of measurement)

lung

noun: xùz.

Lupus

proper noun: (constellation) xrÌw. (the Wolf; see appendix, Constellations)

lux

noun: (unit of illuminance) 4.408 × 10−3 × gomUs-dmÌt. (see appendix, Units of measurement)

lynx, Lynx

noun: lÌxh.

proper noun: (constellation) corresponds to part of zrOnÌ. and part of ksmÌs. (the Mermaid and the Squirrel; see appendix, Constellations)

Lyra and Hercules

proper nouns: (constellations) prÌxt. (the Stag; see appendix, Constellations)

machine

noun: jhÌj.

mad

adjective: (insane) krègw.;
(angry) pqèb. (at/with someone-dat/causal-receiving, about something-acc/causal-transporting)

madman

adjective: krègw.

magenta

adjective: lilxwkÌ.

noun: (magenta colour) lilxwkìl.

magnesium

noun: drèph. (symbol: Π)

magnet(ic)

noun, adjective: (general; in its capacity as repelling agent) manwè., (in its capacity as attracting agent) manwì.;
(ferromagnet[ic], being attracted by magnets) manwÌ.

magnetism

noun: manwà.

majestic

adjective: Rèc. as a qualitative object

make

verb: mà. (something-acc from something-dat; can often absorb its accusative object);
make someone do something: agentive caus

male

noun, adjective: Ìx. (symbol: Å)

mammal

noun: xmlèg.

man

noun: (male) Ìx. (symbol: Å)

manage, succeed

verb: fnÌ., fnÙl. (to do something, in doing something-acc; see also pragmatics page II, ‘She didn’t manage to dance’)

manganese

noun: xfÌft. (symbol: Ιχ)

manner

noun: (mode of action, behaviour etc.) untranslated: strange manner(s) = strangeness xlìlj.,
in a strange manner = strangely — xlÌja.,
in what manner? = how?

many, much

adjective: dmÌ. (see unit 7, Weighting numerals – usually with partitive bracket; see unit 8, Cardinal numerals);
(much of an amount/substance, as opposed to ‘many’) dmy.;
(many individuals, as opposed to ‘much’) dmynmlÌ.

mare

noun: Ìhw., yhw.

marriage

noun: (state of being married) dwìlc.;
(wedding) dwàc.

marry

verb: dwàc. (Traditionally, the man is usually in the nom and the woman in the dat; the more modern approach is to use the nom for both, combined with a partitive ‘and’.

Mars, Ares

proper noun: (god, planet) frekrÌf. (symbol: Ä)

master; Lord

noun: igcèd. (by adherents of monotheism only used as a title for their god; see also Devil)

maternal

adjective: (mother’s) mesè. as a genitive attribute;
(like a mother) mesè. as a qualitative object;
(maternal uncle/aunt) (younger) htrè mesèi., (elder) htrì mesèe.

may

verb: kmà. (dat: do something-acc; see unit 13, Overview of the modals)

mean

verb: (convey meaning) smà. (something-acc to someone-dat)

means, tool

noun: lù.

mechanic

noun: jhèj.

medium

phrase: a medium number of things, a medium amount bvÌ. (see unit 7, Weighting numerals – usually with partitive bracket; see unit 8, Cardinal numerals);
a medium amount (as opposed to a medium number) bvy.;
a medium number (of individuals, as opposed to a medium amount) bvynmlÌ.

adverbial: in a medium amount of time, space etc. bvÌ. with outer non-plot case

meet

verb: sràj. (someone-dat)

melody

noun: krijkRÌq.

melt

verb: mlàtx. (dat; something-dat)

mention

phrase: don’t mention it (answer to ‘thank you’) Olnà. ( fÒly. ‘no reason [to thank]’);

adverbial: as mentioned see again and its mention on pragmatics page III, Utterance modifiers: Pronoun referring to the parole

Mercury, Hermes

proper noun: (god, planet) OnkrÌt. (symbol: Á)

mermaid

noun: zrOnÌ.

merman

noun: zrOny-Ìx.

metaphor

noun: wrOnÌ.

metaphorical

adjective: wrOnÌ.

meteor, falling star, shooting star

noun: wÌhs.

metre

noun: (unit of length) 10.87 × xrÌ. (see appendix, Units of measurement)

Microscopium and Piscis Austrinus

proper nouns: (constellations) roughly corrensponding to sriqmÌs. (the Queue of Mice; see appendix, Constellations)

midday, noon

noun: prilnedjÌt. ( prilnÌ djÌte.)

midnight

noun: prilneytfÌ. ( prilnÌ ytfÌe.)

midsummer

noun: filpskÌ.

midwinter

noun: fÌps.

Midwinter God; Father Christmas, Santa Claus

proper noun: (the Lemizh deity roughly corresponding to Father Christmas) fOpysrÌf. (symbol: È); children generally call him psrèb fÌpse.

milk

verb: xmlàg. (agentive dat: an animal-nom)

noun: xmlÌg.

Milky Way

noun: RizwsnÌw.

mine

possessive pronoun: relative pronoun with inner nominative as a genitive, i.e. mostly with benefactive (U)
For examples see unit 10, Stative verbs, and unit 11, Inner qualitative.

Minerva, Athena

proper noun: minÌ.

minister

noun: (politics) sèsp.

ministry

noun: (government department) sìsp.; (ministry building) sòrsp.

minute

noun: 2.848 × kril-Ìj. (see appendix, Time and Units of measurement)

misplace

verb: jirxvìrsk. (something-acc somewhere-dat etc.) ( vàsk jìrxi. ‘put erroneously’)

miss

verb: wàf. (someone-acc)

Mister (Mr), Mistress (Mrs)

noun: not translated; a formal address usually consists of just the surname. To distinguish the partners of a married couple, compound with Ìx., bÌ., respectively.

phrase: Mr and Mrs … compound the surname with dwÌ.

mole

noun: (unit of amount of substance) (officially) 0.4981 × xÌps.;
(for all practical purposes) 1.314⁄1000 × lÌq. per molar mass unit (see appendix, Units of measurement: Amount of substance)

momentary

adjective: nÌyR. (usually modifying abstract nouns, i.e. those with inner fact)

monarch

noun: Rèc. (someone’s-dat king or queen)

Monday

proper noun: corresponds to djUt-nÌt. (‘Saturnian day’, symbol: Æ; see appendix, Date)

money, currency

noun: dùpq.

monkey, ape

noun: RenÌj.

Monoceros

proper noun: (constellation) fkrÌj. (the Tortoise; see appendix, Constellations)

monocle

noun: (archaic) yglùc.

month

noun: (synodic month, time span from one new moon to the next, i.e. of 29.53 days on average) xarÌhk. (see appendix, Moon calendar and Units of measurement for usage)

Moon; Luna, Selene

proper noun: (Earth’s satellite, goddess) ihkè. (symbol: É)

moonlight, moonshine; moonbeam

noun: ihkÌ.

moonbeam as distinguished from moonlight, moonshine ihky.

more

adverb: tÌcd. (often with qualitative; often compounded; see unit 11, Verbs of comparison and Comparative);

(further, additional) pronoun in a qualitative case (see pragmatics page II, Conventional ‘implicatures’ and below that)

morning

noun: (early morning, the beginning of daytime) djèRt.;
(when viewed as the end of nighttime) ytfìR.;
(mid-morning, late morning, the time roughly between 9 a.m. and midday) atxÌp.

mortar

noun: dniÌ.

most

adverb: Ìst. (often with partitive; often compounded; see unit 11, Verbs of comparison and Superlative)

moth

noun: swmilÌ.

mother

noun: mesè., rarely psrìb. (of someone-acc)

motherly

adjective: (like a mother) mesè. as a qualitative object

motive

noun: lÒl., (motivational context) lùl.

mould

noun: plÌvg.

mount

noun: (animal used to ride on) xìc., xÌc.

mountain

noun: xÌjq.

mountain range

noun: krijxÌjq.

mouse

noun: (also computer mouse) mÌs.

mouth

noun: jÌk.

move

verb: jàx. (something-acc somewhere-dat etc., also non-sending; a body part-acc; over a distance self-transporting)

noun: (literal sense) jàx.

phrase: make a bad move dnà trÌtir.

movie

noun: wlotÌ.

mum(my), mom

noun: memè.

muscle, flesh, meat

noun: (of animals, including humans) mÌw.

museum

noun: pridnÌ.

music

noun: (specific music, piece of music) trÌgc.;
(art form) tràgc.

must

verb: dàxt. (dat: do something-acc; see unit 13, Overview of the modals)

my

possessive adjective: relative pronoun with inner nominative as a genitive attribute, i.e. mostly with benefactive (U)
For an example see unit 6, Relative pronouns.

myself

reflexive pronoun: see unit 6, Relative pronouns and Reflexivity vs. reciprocity

nabu

proper noun: (European currency unit) nabÌ. (see appendix, Units of measurement)

name

verb: jàt. (someone-dat something-acc after someone-psu)

noun: jÌt.

narrow

adjective: mìl — rilc-crÌyr. with the qualified noun in the acc (depictive, absorption possible) or dat (resultative) (see unit 12, Adjectivals; or with other weighting numerals);
inversion may be necessary for attributive use (see Attributes)

native

noun, adjective: (with specification of the homeland) mesÌ. (to somewhere-loc/sce);
(without specification of the homeland) mesor.

near(by)

adverb: (at a time nearby) filw-crÌaR. (to some time-nom);
(at a place nearby) — filwcrÌar. (to something-nom);
(to a place nearby) — filwcrÌir. (to something-nom);
(near in degree) xpÌj. (to something: bracket or compound)
(or with other weighting numerals; see unit 12, Temporal and spatial verbs)

adjective: mìl — filwcrÌar. (or other outer spatial/temporal cases) with the qualified noun in the acc (depictive, absorption possible) or dat (resultative) (see unit 12, Adjectivals);
inversion may be necessary for attributive use (see Attributes)

necessary; necessity, duty

adjective, noun: dÌxt.

need

verb: dàxt. (ben: something-acc from someone-dat)

needle

noun: (sewing tool) sjù.;
(leaf, e.g. of conifers) pÌx., pyxxÌk. ( pÌx xÙky. ‘pointy leaf’);
(something pointy without regard to function, such as a crystal or rock) xÙk.

needless

adjective: daxtnÌ.

adverbial: needless to say daxtnyà —. (see pragmatics page III, Utterance modifiers: Pronoun referring to the parole)

nephew

noun: frès., fresèx. (of someone-acc)

Neptune, Poseidon

proper noun: (god) niftnÌj. (symbol: Ç);
(planet) fOpysrÌf. (symbol: È)

net

noun: wÌb.

never

adverb: nÌaR.

nevertheless, nonetheless

adverb: negated pronoun in qualitative case, referring to main predicate of previous sentence (like ‘despite’ and ‘against’; see pragmatics page III, Non–utterance modifiers)

new, young

adjective: mìl — crÌyR. with the qualified noun in the dat (resultative) or possibly acc (depictive, absorption possible) (see unit 12, Adjectivals; or with other weighting numerals);
inversion may be necessary for attributive use (see Attributes)

phrase: That’s new to me. gwaRt vèi.

newton

noun: (unit of force) 24.81 × emblÌ. (see appendix, Units of measurement)

New Year

noun: OtòR.

New Year’s Eve

noun: corresponds to djUtfÌps. (‘Neptunian day’, symbol: È; see appendix, Date)

next

adjective: tilcd-rìR|r. (head noun as acc object; see unit 8, Ordinal numerals)
tilcdrìR djUtfrÌgy. is the Tuesday with the next higher week number, i.e. the one next week. Tuesday this week is tilcdnìR djUtfrÌgy.. Just use ‘Tuesday’ when clear from context (e.g. say ‘See you Tuesday’ for ‘See you next [= on the following] Tuesday’).

next but one tilcddwìR|r.
etc.

nice

adjective: (beautiful, aesthetically pleasing to the senses) prÌj.;
(likable, enjoyable, pleasant) rìh.

nickel

noun: itrÌh. (symbol: Ιτ)

niece

noun: frès., fres. (of someone-acc)

night

noun: ytfÌ.

nightmare

noun: (act of dreaming) Rest-hràk., (content of dreaming) ResthrÌk. ( Ràst hrèke. ‘dream sent by an ogre’)

nightshade

noun: (plant) zmèw.

nimble

adjective: (someone nimble) krèxt.; (a nimble action) krÌxt.

nine

adjective, noun: nÌh.;
(in counting) nàh.

ninth

noun: (1⁄9) ligznÌh. (see unit 7, Fractions)

adjective: nìR|rh. (head noun as acc object; see unit 8, Ordinal numerals)

no

pronoun: (for no reason, we sell no hot dogs etc.) nÌ. in a bracket, or nà. as predicate (see unit 9, Inversion ban)

adverb: (no wiser, bigger etc.) nà. as predicate, plus comparative

particle: (answering a question) nà. (see unit 16, Polar questions)

nobody, none, nothing, nought, zero

adjective, pronoun: nÌ.

noise, sound

noun: (anything that can be heard) xOÌj.;
(noise level, regarding loudness) txÌsk.

nomad

noun: djnirè.

Norma

proper noun: (constellation) yhlùgz. (the Sickle; see appendix, Constellations)

north

noun: rilckexnÌ. (‘the left in Earth’s coordinate system’, as east is the direction in which Earth interacts with the Sun[rise], and – equivalently – the direction in which its surface is moving; symbol: X)

adverb: (we went north) — rilckexnÌUr. (allative object)

Just use rilckÌ. if the context is clear.

nose

noun: nùs.

not

adverb: nà. (not to do, do not do something-acc; see unit 6, Negators)

note, tone

noun: (music) kRÌq.

novel

noun: stedrÌj. (about something-dat, or as a sibling acc object in certain constructions that have ‘novel’ in the fact; like ‘poem’ in unit 14, Objects related to language)

now

adverb: — vàaR. (pronoun with outer temporal), –aRwà. (compound with pronoun and epenthetic temporal; see unit 12, Tense);
filwnÌaR. (see unit 12, Temporal and spatial verbs)

nowhere

adverb: nÌar.

number

noun: pqùht.

nutshell

adverbial: in a nutshell cywbÌR —. (see pragmatics page III, Utterance modifiers: Pronoun referring to the parole)

oak

noun: mexè.

object

noun: (grammar) Rìc. (of a predicate-nom)

obstacle

noun: grèl.

Octans and Hydrus

proper nouns: (constellations) roughly corresponding to fokÌj. (the Seal; see appendix, Constellations)

odd

adjective: (someone odd) xlèj.; (a odd deed, action, event) xlÌj.

of

preposition: genitive attribute, i.e. mostly with benefactive (U)

often

adverb: dmÌaR.

ohm

noun: (unit of electric resistance) 0.6795 × fragmÌ. (see appendix, Units of measurement)

okay

adjective: srÌwd.

interjection: srìlwd:

old

adjective: mìl — dmÌyR. with the qualified noun in the dat (resultative) (see unit 12, Adjectivals; or with other weighting numerals);
inversion may be necessary for attributive use (see Attributes)

on

adjective: (operating, functioning) smrè.

preposition: (time: on a day) temporal object (aR), or episodic object (oR) if the time is intentional, or gmilkÌaR. (something-nom) (see unit 12, Adjectivals and ‘inside’ constructions, and appendix, Date);

(location: on the surface of) gmilnÌar. (something-nom: ‘at the surface of’ in the locative case, plus a reference object in the nominative);
(at, in) see in

once

adverb: rÌa. (often a factive bracket; see unit 8, Multiplicative numerals)

one

adjective, noun: rÌ.;
(in counting) rà.

one-dimensional, two-dimensional etc.

adjective: lUr-., lUrdwÙ. etc. (see unit 5, Adjectives of possession)

only

adjective: nÌn. in ‘and’-coordination with the qualified word (which therefore also has an inner partitive)

onto

preposition: gmilnÌir –e. (‘at the surface of’ in the illative case, plus a reference object in the nominative; see unit 12, Adjectivals and ‘inside’ constructions)

oolong (tea)

noun: (drink) txi-flÌc., ([dried] leaves) txiflìc.

open

verb: (enable access) nàt. (acc, occasionally self-transporting; something-acc, also non-sending; also metaphorically, as for opportunities);
(extend, spread out, as of arms, wings) mà — tÌcdyr. (dat; something-dat; compare unit 12, Adjectivals)

adjective: (enabling access) nÌt.;
(extended, spread out) mìl — fÌwyr., with the qualified noun in the dat (resultative) or possibly acc (depictive, absorption possible) (see unit 12, Adjectivals); inversion may be necessary for attributive use (see Attributes)

Ophiuchus

proper noun: (constellation) mèv. (the Wise One; see appendix, Constellations)

opportunity

noun: màqk., màlqk.; mÌqk.

or

inclusive conjunction: (and/or) coordination with inner and outer partitives (see unit 4, Inclusive ‘or’, or unit 16, Alternative questions)

exclusive conjunction: (either … or) partitive bracket of ‘one’, ‘some’ or another suitable numeral with an inclusive ‘or’ (see either unit 5, Partitive bracket and coordination, or again unit 16, Alternative questions)

orange

adjective: (yellow-red) yphÌ.

noun: (the fruit) dryjyphÌ.;
(orange tree) dryjyphè.;
(orange colour) yphìl.

orangutan

noun: oranutnÌ.

order

verb: (command) dàxt. (someone-dat to do something-acc; see unit 13, Overview of the modals);
(put in order) qnàd. (something-dat to give some result-acc)

see also in order that

Orion

proper noun: (constellation) krèt. (see appendix, Constellations)

our

possessive adjective: relative pronoun with inner partitive nominative as a genitive attribute, i.e. mostly with benefactive (U)
For an example see unit 6, Relative pronouns.

ours

possessive pronoun: relative pronoun with inner partitive nominative as a genitive, i.e. mostly with benefactive (U)
For examples see unit 10, Stative verbs, and unit 11, Inner qualitative.

ourselves

reflexive pronoun: see unit 6, Relative pronouns and Reflexivity vs. reciprocity

out

adverb: gmÌir. (of something-nom)

outside

noun: gmÌ. (of something-nom)

adverb, preposition: — gmÌar. (something-nom), niljkÌar. (a group of things-nom)

adjective: mìl — gmÌar., mìl — niljkÌar. with the qualified noun in the acc (depictive, absorption possible) or dat (resultative) (see unit 12, Adjectivals);
inversion may be necessary for attributive use (see Attributes)

over

preposition: (above) Ìfar.;

(past a point above) — Ìfur. (both: something-nom; see unit 12, Adjectivals and Attributes for special constructions);
(regarding clothing, worn on top of) gmÌar. (something-nom)

overtake

verb: jàx prÌir. (self-transporting: someone-nom of prà.)

owl

noun: mÌsw.

ox

noun: gwÌk.

oxygen

noun: mlèv. (symbol: Γ)

pain

noun: cmàbv. (someone’s-dat)

paint

verb: mràxt. (something-dat with some colour, pattern, motif etc.-acc;
some pattern, motif, picture etc.-acc somewhere-dat etc.)

noun: Rùcj.

paint roller

noun: mruxtxùxs. ( xÌxs mrùxty. ‘rotating/rolling brush’)

pale

adjective: lÌbv.

verb: (turn pale/white) làbv. (dat)

Pallas

proper noun: (minor planet) xyrtksÌ.

paper

noun: kÌb.

parliament

noun: (institution) blàqk., blàlqk.;
(building) blòrqk.

parliamentarian

noun: (member of parliament) blèqk.

parole

noun: wàx.

parrot

noun: bÌbj.

part

noun: (of which something consists; component) krìj.;
(into which something is split; fragment, scrap) skrÌp.

pascal

noun: (unit of pressure) 0.2101 × arÌc. (see appendix, Units of measurement)

password

noun: wryt-plÌk. ( wrÌt plùky. ‘a word, a means for unlocking’)

paternal

adjective: (father’s) psrèb. as a genitive attribute;
(like a father) psrèb. as a qualitative object;
(paternal uncle/aunt) (younger) htrè psrèbi., (elder) htrì psrèbe.

Pavo, Tucana, Grus, and Phoenix

proper nouns: (constellations) roughly corresponding to markÌw. (the Kangaroo; see appendix, Constellations), zmÌsk. (the Shark; see appendix, Constellations), and kolÌb. (the Hummingbird; see appendix, Constellations)

pay

verb: dàpq. (an amount/price-acc to someone-dat for something-fin)

phrase: pay taxes ohrà. (to someone-dat)

peace

noun: (one being actively kept) nrà.; (one which just exists) nrìl.

pear

noun: (fruit) fisÌ.;
(tree) fisè.

peck

verb: fàst. (at something-dat)

pedestrian

noun: dnÌ.; (one without a specific aim) frÌw.

Pegasus

proper noun: (constellation) Ìhw. (the Horse; see appendix, Constellations)

pen, quill

noun: cnùzd.

pencil

noun: zdrù.

pendulum

noun: keltÌj.

people

noun: (persons) cOÌc.; (group of persons) cOycqmÌ.;
(folk, nation) xpÌf.

pepper

noun: (black pepper) brÌp.; (black pepper plant) brèp.;
(chili) zmywcnÌdj.; (chili plant) zmywcnèdj.;
(sweet pepper, bell pepper) zmywmlÌv.; (sweet pepper plant) zmywmlèv.

perceive, sense

verb: (via sensory organs) fràdj. (dat: something-nom)

percent

adverb: 2.56 × ligzskmÌ. (see unit 7, Fractions)

perchloric acid, other perhalogenic acids, and other acids in the highest oxidation state, such as sulfuric acid, nitric acid, carbonic acid, permanganic acid, etc.

noun: Ìtx dyv-nÌsU. and analogously with other element names

perhaps

adverb: dnilscrÌa. (or with other verbs of certainty and weighting numerals)

permission

noun: kmà., kmàl.

Perseus

proper noun: (constellation) textèx. (the Prince; see appendix, Constellations)

petrol, gasoline

noun: (archaic) sxrÌ.

photon

noun: xycg-. (or compounds with other definite or indefinite numerals; see unit 7, Individuals)

pi (π)

mathematical constant: equals τ⁄2 in Lemizh mathematical terminology

Pictor and Volans

proper nouns: (constellations) roughly corresponding to elefÌ. (the Elephant; see appendix, Constellations)

picture

noun: (painting, drawing, print, photograph etc.) klÌf.;
(image shown on a painting etc.) mÌ. plus a verb of painting etc. (analogous to ‘text’; see unit 14, Objects related to language)

pig

noun: hÌt.

pine

noun: ixtxÌ.

pipe

noun: (tobacco pipe) qentù.

Pisces

proper noun: (constellation) pyskdwÌ. (the Fishes; see appendix, Constellations)

place

verb: jìrx. (something-acc somewhere-dat etc.)

noun: làr.

plain

noun, adjective: pxlÌj.

(clear, evident) see evident

plane

noun: (geometry) pxlÌj.;
(airplane) ykhÌk. ( Ìkh Ùky. ‘ship benefitting from the air’)

planet

noun: xtrÌj.

plant

noun: fmÌxt.

plastic

noun: psreb-qlÌp. ( psrÌb qlÌpe. ‘child of tar’)

platypus

noun: malanÌj.

play

verb: (child’s play without fixed rules, recreational activity) ftàx.;
(recreational or competitive, rule-governed games) srUà.;
(music) tràgc. (a note, a piece of music etc.-acc to someone-dat)

please

verb: ràh., spàz. (agentive caus, causal-reflexive: someone-nom)

adverb: use polite forms of requesting, for example with a weakening numeral (see unit 16, Imperative)

Pleiades

proper noun: (star cluster) ivdmlì. (the Guests; see appendix, Constellations)

plug

verb: dàcj. (something [e.g. a leak]-dat; something-acc in[to something-dat])

noun: dÌcj.

plumage

noun: krij-cnÌzd.

Pluto

proper noun: (dwarf planet) minÌ.

poem

noun: osÌsh. (about something-dat, or as a sibling acc object in certain constructions that have ‘poem’ in the fact; see unit 14, Objects related to language)

point; Lemizh comma, hexadecimal separator (,)

noun: (also in geometry) xÌk.

phrase: get back to the point bàx. plus accusative clause (see pragmatics page III, Utterance modifiers: Verbs of communication)

pointless

adjective: (without a purpose) nÌUl. (usually modifying gerund-like abstract nouns, i.e. those with inner fact)

pointy

adjective: xÙk.

poison

noun: pÌbc.

verb: jyxpàbc. (someone/something-dat)

poisonous, venomous

adjective: (producing poison/venom) pèbc., (being the benefactor of a poison) pÙbc. (see unit 5, Adjectives of possession), (poisoned) jyxpìbc.

poncho

noun: (lady’s garment) wmÌ. (note: wmà. is not a nominal verb; it means ‘to cover, to put over’)

pond

noun: amÌ.

poodle

noun: oRwxÌf.

pork

noun: [mUw-]hÌt.

possess

verb: translated as a genitive: Lucy possesses a bottle. dwÌw lusÌU. (see unit 10, Stative verbs)

potato

noun: (vegetable) zmywkÌxw.;
(plant) zmywkèxw.

pour, spill

verb: fmàxk. (something-acc somewhere-dat etc.)

powder

noun: dapÌ.

praise

verb: –à kfrÌjdal gÌjdy. (the praised action being the main predicate, the praiser the nom of kfràjd. ‘claim’, and the one praised either its dat or the main predicate’s agentive)

Compare criticise.

noun: kfryjdgàjd. ( kfràjd gÌjdy.)

pray

verb: gmàj. (to someone-dat saying something-acc)

prayer, invocation

noun: (act of praying) gmàj.; (content of praying) gmÌj. (both: to someone-dat saying something-acc)

predicate

noun: (grammar) Rèc. (of an object-dat)

press

verb: (exert force) ràwb. (against something-dat; also non-sending);
(compress, squeeze) yzàj. (something-dat into some shape-acc [e.g. flat])To distinguish from the meaning ‘crush’, use an acc object or – often simpler – a nominal verb expressing a shape.

noun: (device for pressing) yzùj.

prevent

verb: nà. (agentive caus: something-acc);
(do something to prevent something) final object (Ul)

previous

adjective: tilcd-ril-kìR|r. (head noun as acc object; see unit 8, Ordinal numerals)

price

noun: dÌpq. (of something-fin)

prick, sting

verb: skràj. (someone-dat)

noun: (instrument or body part for stinging) skrùj.
(hole, indentation or other effect of pricking or stinging) skrìlj.

primate

noun: RenÌ.

prime minister

noun: rìr sèspy.

prince

noun: tèxt., textèx.

princess

noun: tèxt., text.

prison

noun: jsòrj.

prisoner

noun: jsìj.

probable

adjective: (pretty certain) dnilsdmÌ., (pretty evident) khilvdmÌ., (to be assumed) tilpdmÌ. (or with other weighting numerals; see also unit 13, Verbs of certainty)

profession

noun: xràj.

progress

verb, noun: pifprà. (dat)

promise

verb: wxàjg. (something-acc to someone-dat)

noun: (act of promising) wxàjg.; (what is promised) wxÌjg.

Proserpina, Persephone

proper noun: (goddess) bvyrgcÌ.

prosper, thrive

verb: Ràdj.

protect

verb: (protect from minor harm) wzà.;
(protect with an umbrella) wzàhk. (both: someone/something-dat)

prove

verb: (turn out, manifest) sklàg. (dat: to be something-acc; dat: difficult etc.-acc)

pull

verb: ràxp. (something-acc somewhere-dat etc. [dat can be ambiguous]; at something-dat; also non-sending)

pulverise

verb: dapà. (something-dat)

punctiform

adjective: mìl — nÌyr. with the qualified noun in the acc (depictive, absorption possible) or dat (resultative) (see unit 12, Adjectivals);
inversion may be necessary for attributive use (see Attributes)

pupil

noun: skholì.

Puppis and Vela

proper nouns: (constellations) part of these constellations corresponds to Ìkh. (the Ship; see appendix, Constellations)

puppy

noun: wygw-cnÌ.

purchase

verb: djà. (dat: something-acc from someone-nom)

noun: (the act of buying) djà.;
(something bought) djÌ.; (something for which has been paid) dÙlpq.

purple

adjective: (purple/violet) glÌst.; (purple/magenta) lilxwkÌ.

noun: (purple/violet colour) glìlst.; (purple/magenta colour) lilxwkìl.

push

verb: ràwb. (something-acc somewhere-dat etc. [dat can be ambiguous]; against something-dat; also non-sending)

put

verb: (regarding only the placement) jìrx., (regarding the whole movement) jàx. (something-acc somewhere-dat etc.)

quark

noun: (physics) grÌc.

quarter

noun: (1⁄4) ligzgwÌq. (see unit 7, Fractions)

queen

noun: (ruling queen) Rèc., Rec. (someone’s-dat);
(king’s wife) dwecRìc. (, dwecRecbè.)

quest

noun: (hero’s journey) bast-jàx.

queue

verb: (form a queue) sràq. (dat)
(stand in a queue) srìlq. (dat)

noun: srÌq.

mercury, quicksilver

noun: txatxÌf. (symbol: Υ)

quiet

adjective: (someone, something quiet) txilsk-crè.; (a quiet noise or sound) txilskcrÌ. (or with other weighting numerals)

quite

adverb: (quite good, quite interesting etc.) dmÌja.

adjectival: quite a lot (of) dmÌj. (see unit 7, Weighting numerals – usually with partitive bracket; see unit 8, Cardinal numerals)

adverbial: quite often, in quite a number of places etc. dmÌj. with outer non-plot case

race

verb, noun: làqk. (self-transporting: someone-dat/com)

radian

noun: (unit of angle) rÌ. (see appendix, Units of measurement)

radio

noun: (medium; radio receiver) xOejfùw. ( xOàj fÌwe. ‘hear something far away’)

rain

verb: wzàc. (somewhere-dat etc.)

noun: wzÌc.

raindrop

noun: wzyc.

ram

noun: (male sheep) edÌ., edyÌx.

Ramo

proper noun: (pen name of the author of the Tlöngö̀l, the epic novel defining the onset of New Lemizh) ramòc.

rat

noun: grÌws.

read

verb: àsh. ([about] something-acc to someone-dat;
or agentive ins: something-nom about something-acc to someone-dat [see unit 14, Objects related to language])

really!? you don’t say!

interjection: (colloquial, sarcastic answer to something obvious) anà:

reason

noun: lÒl.

receive

verb: dà. (dat: something-acc from someone-nom)

recipient

noun: lì., dì.

reciprocal

noun: (mathematical function) lÌgz. (of some value-dat; see unit 7, Mathematical functions)

recommend

verb: Ràks. (someone-dat [to do] something-acc; see unit 13, Overview of the modals)

recommendation

noun: Ràks.

red

adjective: rÌjd.

noun: (red colour, redness) rìljd.

redden

verb: ràjd. (dat: with embarrassment-caus/psu; something-dat)

reductionism

noun: dnysskrìlp.

reductionist

noun: dnysskrìp.

region

noun: làr.

regret

verb, noun: kàxk. (something-acc)

related

adjective: (younger family member) fnèwb. (to someone-acc);
(older family member) fnÌwb. (to someone-nom)

relative

noun: (younger family member) fnèwb. (of someone-acc);
(older family member) fnÌwb. (of someone-nom)

remedy

noun: (medicine/appliance/treatment against a disease) gwùb.

remember

verb: (remember to do = not forget to do) smàj. (dat: something-acc [with inner fact]; frequently untranslated: ‘Remember to buy the artichockes!’ = ‘Buy the artichokes!’);
(remember that = be aware of, have in mind; including remember doing something) smàj. (dat: something-acc [with inner non-fact, e.g. aff for actions]);
(recall to mind) smèRj. (dat: something-acc [with inner non-fact])

See also unit 14, Differences between infinitives and gerunds.

request

verb: pràk. (something-acc from someone-dat)

noun: pràk.

research

verb, noun: (academically, at university) xasktàkf. ([for] something-acc)

reside

verb: xtrà. (somewhere-loc/sce)

rest

verb: lìlgc. (self-receiving, mainly dat)

noun: làgc.

Reticulum

proper noun: (constellation) part of sklÌ. (the Bridge; see appendix, Constellations)

rhinoceros

noun: korncx-nès.

rice

noun: wÌcz.

ride

verb, noun: xàc. (a horse etc.-dat [focusing on the horse being directed] or -acc [focusing on the horse moving]);
(be transported) jàx. (a train etc.-ins);
ride a bicycle telmàx.

right

adverbial: at the right: rÌcar.; to the right rÌci(r). (both: of something-nom)

adjective: (right side) mìl — rÌcar. with the qualified noun in the acc (depictive, absorption possible) or dat (resultative) (see unit 12, Adjectivals);
inversion may be necessary for attributive use (see Attributes)
;

(correct) pÌt.

interjection: (agreeing to a statement) fÌ. (see pragmatics page III, Conversation structure)

rind

noun: lÌf.;
(specifically of cheese) lUfgwÌs.;
(specifically of citrus fruit) lUfdrÌj.;
(specifically tree’s bark) lUfdrÌ.;
etc.

rip

verb: nàwb. (dat; something-dat into something-acc [e.g. into parts, two])

To distinguish from the meaning ‘stretch’, use an acc object or – often simpler – a nominal verb such as skràp. ‘split, turn into parts’ or dwà. ‘turn into two [parts]’.

rise

verb: (to a higher place) jirxàf. ( jàx Ìfir.), (from a lower place) jerxilfkà. (self-transporting; also with the corresponding agent-centered spatial cases)

river

noun: argÌ.

road, street

noun: RÌzw.

roar

verb, noun: ujrà. (at someone-dat)

robin; redthroat

noun: (Erithacus rubecula; Pyrrholaemus brunneus) kryst-rÙjd. (see unit 6, Bahuvrihi compounds)

roe deer

noun: jrÌk.

rogue, rascal

noun, adjective: khwèc.

roll

verb: xàxs. (something-acc somewhere-dat etc., also non-sending; self-transporting: somewhere ditto)

room

noun: (walled section of a building) sklÌxt.

(space for doing something) topicalisation of the scenic (or);
(space for an object) mòr. with the object in the acc if it has been made there (depictive) or dat otherwise (resultative) (see unit 12, Adjectivals)

rooster

noun: grÌc., grycÌx.

root

noun: (of a tree; botanical: of any plant) xepÌz.;
(root vegetable) grÌtf.;
(mathematical function: the nth-nom root) lrì. (of some value-acc; see unit 7, Mathematical functions)

rope

verb: (bind/tie with a rope) màj. (something/someone-acc to something-dat)

noun: mùj.

rose

noun: gwrÌjd.

rot, decay

verb: srà. (dat; something-dat)

rotate

verb: xàxs. (self-transporting; something-acc)

rotten

adjective: (decaying, decayed) srì.;
(bad) see bad, terrible

rough

adjective: (of a surface or action) hrywnÌ., hrywkÌ.;
(in seafaring) hrÌw. with various weighting numerals

rubidium

noun: glist-vnè. (symbol: Ια) ( vnè glìste. ‘making fire violet’)

rule

verb, noun: (as a monarch) Ràc. (over someone-dat);
(govern) txoixà. (a country, a people etc.-dat)

ruminant

noun: vnat-mlè.

run

verb: (move quickly on foot) nenà. (self-transporting: somewhere-dat etc.);
(be in operation) smrà.;

(be a candidate in an election) jbatmàqk. (agentive dat: for an office-acc)

rustle

verb: fpràf.

sad

adjective: spèj. (about something-acc/causal-transporting, also dat/causal-receiving; see unit 3, Ambiguous usage)

sadden

verb: spàj. (agentive caus, causal-reflexive: someone-nom)

Sagitta

proper noun: (constellation) saxùf. (the Trumpet; see appendix, Constellations)

Sagittarius

proper noun: (constellation) fkrè. (the Archer; see appendix, Constellations)

sail

verb: jstà. (a ship-acc somewhere-dat etc.)

noun: jstù.

salad

noun: mÌhk.

salt

noun: hlÌ.

verb: (put salt into) jyxhlà.;
(give a salty taste to) àhp. (both: something-dat)

salty

adjective: Ìhp.

same

adjective, pronoun: (the identical thing) pronoun, e.g. ‘I live in Stratford’ – ‘I live in the same town’ with a relative pronoun referring to Stratford (see also unit 11, Objects in comparisons for another example)
or omitted, e.g.
‘Are you the same person who phoned me?’ = ‘Are you the person who phoned me?’;

(something similar, something of the same type) pronoun with inner qual (see unit 11, Circumventing identity of action)

sand

noun: qmÌxz.

Saturday

proper noun: corresponds to djUt-xnÌ. (‘Terrestrial day’, symbol: Ã; see appendix, Date)

Saturn, Kronos

proper noun: (god, planet) djistnÌt. (symbol: Æ)

say

verb: wàx. (something-acc to someone-dat [in some language-ins]; see unit 14, ‘about’)

scarecrow

noun: sprydj-nèlzd.

scatter

verb: jàx wÌOr. (self-transporting: somewhere-ill etc.: people or things-acc somewhere ditto)

scene

noun: (in the generic sense) lòr.

school

verb: (teach in school) skholà. (someone-dat something-acc)

noun: (institution) skholà., skholàl.;
(building, campus) skholòr.

phrase: go to school skholà. (dat)

science

noun: zvormàv.

phrase: do science zvormàv. (on something-acc)

scientist

noun: zvormèv.

scissors

noun: pslù.

Scorpio and Libra

proper noun: (constellations) plUpÌ. (the Scorpion; see appendix, Constellations)

scorpion

noun: plUpÌ.

scratch

verb: kràx. (someone/something-dat)

noun: krÌx.

Scutum

proper noun: (constellation) part of xarpÌ. (the Harpy, which extends to parts of Sagittarius and Ophiuchus; see appendix, Constellations)

scythe

noun: yhù.

sea

noun: mrÌ.

seal

noun: (animal) fokÌj.

search

verb, noun: xàsk. ([for] something-acc)

seat

verb: zdàs. (agentive caus: someone-acc somewhere-dat etc.)

noun: zdòrs.

second

noun: (unit of time) 0.7585 × krÌ. (see appendix, Time and Units of measurement)

adjective: (2nd) dwìR|r. (head noun as acc object; see unit 8, Ordinal numerals)

secret

noun, adjective: anÌ.

see

verb: dmàt. (dat: something-nom, the image of something-acc)

seem

verb: dmàt., fràdj. (to someone-dat [to be] somehow / like someone-qualnom;
to do something-qualnom with appropriate inner case, e.g.
‘He seems to be laughing’ = ‘He acts like a laugher-nom’, ‘She seems to be running’ = ‘She acts like a runner-acc;
or with other perceptual verbs)

seize

verb: kàfk. (agentive dat: something-acc from someone-nom)

seldom

adverb: crÌaR.

sell

verb: djà. (something-acc to someone-dat)

sensory organ

noun: frùdj.

sentence

noun: (grammar) Recwìx. ( wàx Rèca. ‘the parole is the predicate’)

sergeant

noun: oshèc.

Serpens

proper noun: (constellation) RÌz. (the Serpent; see appendix, Constellations)

set

noun: (mathematics) qmÌ. (of objects-dat)

phrase: set fire vnà. (agentive caus: to something-dat)

seven

adjective, noun: qÌf.;
(in counting) qàf.

seventh

noun: (1⁄7) ligzqÌf. (see unit 7, Fractions)

adjective: qìR|rf. (head noun as acc object; see unit 8, Ordinal numerals)

several

adjective, noun: mlÌ.

sew

verb: sjà. (something-dat into [i.e. to make] something-acc)

Shabar

proper noun: (the capital of Lemaria) habÌ.

Shabazean

adjective: (of Shabar, the capital of Lemaria) habÌ. as a genitive attribute

shade

verb: ksàf. (someone/something-dat)

noun: ksÌf.

shadow

noun: ksÌf.

shall, should

verb: (I should; shall, should we?) Ràks. (dat: do something-acc; see unit 13, Overview of the modals and The fuzziness of English modals)

shallow

adjective: (not much extending horizontally, as a wardrobe) mìl — pril-crÌyr., (not much extending downwards, as a pond) mìl — ilfcrÌyr. with the qualified noun in the acc (depictive, absorption possible) or dat (resultative) (see unit 12, Adjectivals; or with other weighting numerals);
inversion may be necessary for attributive use (see Attributes)

shame

noun: (feeling of shame) Ràxp. (in front of someone-dat because of something-acc/causal-transporting);
(object of / cause for this feeling) RÌxp., RÒlxp.;
(something to regret) kÌxk.;
(absence / opposite of honour) gmilwnìl., gmilwkìl.

shard

noun: skÌqk.

shark

noun: zmÌsk.

sharp

adjective: (pointy) xÙk.

sharpen

verb: (to a point, like a pencil) xàk. (something-ben)

shatter, smash

verb: (by hitting something) dwnàt. (dat; something-dat into something-acc [e.g. shards]) — To distinguish from the meaning ‘hit’, use an acc object or – often simpler – a nominal verb such as skràp. ‘split, turn into parts’ or skàqk. ‘turn into shards’;
(dreams) nà. (dat)

she

personal pronoun: definite or relative pronoun or bÌ. (see unit 6, Demonstrative pronouns)

sheep

noun: edÌ.

shh!

interjection: hh:

shine

verb: xàcg. (at something-dat)

phrases: the Moon shines ihkà.;
a star shines, (the) stars shine màqx.;
the Sun shines sxnàz. (all: at something-dat)

ship

noun: Ìkh.

shipyard, space dock

noun: mÌg., (clarifying compound used by landlubbers) mUgÌkh.

shock

verb, noun: (frighten, fright) bvmàp. (agentive caus, causal-reflexive: someone-nom)

shoe

noun: xpÌd.

shoot

phrases: shoot an arrow or arrows fkrà. (at something-dat);
shoot a film, a movie wlotà.;
(metaphorically) shoot oneself in the foot fkrÌj skrìjy.

shop

noun: djòr.

shore

noun: splÌj.

short

adjective: (time) mìl — crÌyR., (distance) mìl — prilcrÌyr., (height) mìl — ilfcrÌyr. with the qualified noun in the acc (depictive, absorption possible) or dat (resultative) (see unit 12, Adjectivals; or with other weighting numerals);
inversion may be necessary for attributive use (see Attributes)

adverbial: for a short time — crÌyR. (or with other weighting numerals)

shoulder

noun: RÌxt.

verb: jixRàxt. (something-acc)

shout

verb, noun: khnà. (something-acc at someone-dat)

show

verb: dmàt. (agentive caus: someone-dat something-nom, the image of something-acc)

Shrek

proper noun: (legendary, ogre-like creature) hrèk. (lit. ‘gravel-maker’)

sibling

noun: (younger sibling) htrè. (of someone-acc);
(older sibling) htrÌ. (of someone-nom)

sibling-in-law

noun: (sibling’s spouse) xnrè. (of someone-acc);
(spouse’s sibling) xnrÌ. (of someone-nom)

sibling object

noun: (in Lemizh grammar) (later [right] sibling object) htrè. (of another-acc);
(earlier [left] sibling object) htrÌ. (of another-nom)

sickle

noun: yhlùgz.

siemens

noun: (unit of electrical conductance) 1.472 × ligzfragmÌ. (see appendix, Units of measurement)

sign

noun: smù.

silence

noun: txilsknìl.

silent

adjective: txilsknè.

silicon

noun: qmy-hrìk. (symbol: Ψ)

silver

noun: (metal) etxÌt. (symbol: Αρ);
(colour) RymcjetxÌt.

simple

adjective: (uncompounded) krijrÌ. (see unit 8, Composite numerals)

simply

adverb: (unconditionally) jnÌyl.;
(absolutely, very much) (for actions) — jnÌa., (for states/properties) — jnÌil. (or with other weighting numerals);
(evidently, obviously) khÌva., — khÌvil.

sin

verb, noun: (act unethically, an unethical act) gajdkà.

since

preposition: ingressive object (eR)

subordinating conjunction: causative (el), persuasive (Ol) or ingressive clause

sine

noun: dy-Ìf. (of an angle etc.-dat; see unit 7, Mathematical functions)

sing

verb: ganà. (to someone-dat about something-acc)

single

adjective: (one [individual]) rÌ.;
(uncompounded) krijrÌ. (see unit 8, Composite numerals)

sink

verb: ji/Urxilfkà. ( jàx ilfkÌi/Ur.) (acc, occasionally self-transporting; something-acc; also with other verbs of movement, especially ràxp.)

noun: (of an action) lì.

sister

noun: (younger sister) htrè., htre. (of someone-acc);
(older sister) htrÌ., htrybÌ. (of someone-nom)

sister-in-law

noun: (sibling’s wife) xnrè., xnre. (of someone-acc);
(spouse’s sister) xnrÌ., xnrybÌ. (of someone-nom)

sit

verb: zdìls.; (sit down) zdàs. (self-transporting: somewhere-dat etc.)

six

adjective, noun: swÌh.;
(in counting) swàh.

sixteen

adjective, noun: Ìj.;
(in counting) àj.

sixteenth

noun: (1⁄16) ligzÌj. (see unit 7, Fractions)

adjective: ìR|rj. (head noun as acc object; see unit 8, Ordinal numerals)

sixth

noun: (1⁄6) ligzswÌh. (see unit 7, Fractions)

adjective: swìR|rh. (head noun as acc object; see unit 8, Ordinal numerals)

sixty-five thousand five hundred thirty-six (65536)

adjective, noun: mrÌj.;
(in counting) mràj.

sixty-five thousand five hundred thirty-sixth

noun: (1⁄65536) ligzmrÌj. (see unit 7, Fractions)

adjective: (65536th) mrìR|rj. (head noun as acc object; see unit 8, Ordinal numerals)

skeleton

noun: krij-tnÌk.

skin, peel

noun: lÌf.

verb: dylàf. (agentive dat: something-nom)

sky

noun: fplÌx.

skyscraper

noun: krix-fplèx.

sleep

verb, noun: màt. (self-receiving)

slide

verb: xoà. (something-acc somewhere-dat etc., also non-sending; over a distance self-transporting)

slip

verb: xoà. (acc: on something-nom/caus)

slow

adjective: (someone slow) fat-crè.; (a slow action) fatcrÌ. (or with other weighting numerals)

small

adjective: mìl — crÌyr., (in height) mìl — ilfcrÌyr., (in extension) mìl — filwcrÌyr. with the qualified noun in the acc (depictive, absorption possible) or dat (resultative) (see unit 12, Adjectivals; or with other weighting numerals);
inversion may be necessary for attributive use (see Attributes)

smell

verb: nàs. (dat: something-nom; nom: of something-acc)

noun: nÌs.

smile

verb, noun: ejlà. (at someone-dat)

smoke

verb: (give off smoke) qnàt.; (smoke tobacco) qentà. (self-receiving)

noun: qnÌt.; (tobacco smoke) qentÌ.

phrase: smoke and ashes vnÌ.

smooth

adjective: (of a surface or action) hrÌw.;
(in seafaring) hrÌw. with various weighting numerals

snake

noun: RÌz.

sneak in

verb: (slyly and secretly introduce) xikà. (something-acc somewhere-dat)

sneeze

verb, noun: ftràsk.

snow

verb: snàw. (somewhere-dat etc.)

noun: snÌw.

snowflake

noun: snyw.

so

adverb: (sentence-initial, announcing a consequence) ìl. plus consecutive clause (il)

subordinating conjunction: consecutive (il) or final clause (Ul);
so that final clause

soap

noun: xklÌj.

social critic

noun: prèxt. (lit. ‘deer-maker’)

Socrates

proper noun: sokrateÌs.

sodium

noun: èhp. (symbol: Αλ)

soft

adjective: (yielding to pressure) stiljg-crÌ. (or with other weighting numerals)

soften

verb: stiljg-crà. (or with other weighting numerals), stajgkà. (dat; something-dat)

soil

noun: djnÌ.

some…, any…

indefinite adjective and pronoun: some/any, someone/anyone, somebody/anybody, something/anything: leave untranslated if possible (see unit 2, Inversion), or gwÌ. (see unit 6, Demonstrative pronouns);
some (several, more than one) mlÌ.;
some (a fairly small amount) RÌbv. (see unit 7, Weighting numerals – usually with partitive bracket; see unit 8, Cardinal numerals);
some of…: partitive object (see unit 2, Partitive cases)

indefinite adverb(ial): some time / any time, somewhere/anywhere, etc. gwÌ. with outer non-plot case;
sometimes, in some places etc. RÌbv. with outer non-plot case

indefinite adverb: somewhat — RÌbva.

son

noun: psrÌb., psrybÌx. (of a father-nom and a mother-dat); mesÌ., mesyÌx. (of a mother-nom)

song

noun: (act of singing) ganà. (to someone-dat about something-acc);
(something sung, concrete noun) mÌ ganàa. (ditto; like ‘text’ in unit 14, Objects related to language; see also the sixth exercise there)

sort, type

verb: màh. (something-dat into something-acc)

noun: mÌh.

so that

subordinating conjunction: consecutive clause (il) (see unit 15, Clauses with other conjunctions)

soul and related concepts

noun: (similar to C.G. Jung’s anima/animus and dæmon as used in Philip Pullman’s His Dark Materials) Règ.;
(‘metaphysic shadow’, psyche in the Ancient Greek sense) psÌx.

sour, acidic

adjective: Ìtx.

source, sender

noun: lè.

south

noun: rec-xnÌ. (‘the right in Earth’s coordinate system’, as east is the direction in which Earth interacts with the Sun[rise], and – equivalently – the direction in which its surface is moving; symbol: r)

adverb: (we went south) — recxnÌUr. (allative object)

Just use rÌc. if the context is clear.

sow

noun: (female pig) hÌt., hyt.

space

noun: (for doing something) topicalisation of the scenic (or);
(for an object) mòr. with the object in the acc if it has been made there (depictive) or dat otherwise (resultative) (see unit 12, Adjectivals)

(outer space) gme-xnÌ. (Just use gmÌ. if the context is clear.)

(board games) cÌx.

spare

verb: (keep away) ná — dày. (agentive nom/caus of nà.: someone-dat something-acc [the latter two are objects of dà.]);

(spare someone an action) ná — laxtnÌy. (agentive nom/caus of nà.: someone-nom some action-acc [objects of laxtnÌ.]) lit. ‘The unwanted action doesn’t exist because of the sparer’: parallel to ‘She didn’t manage to dance’, lit. ‘The tried action doesn’t exist’, on pragmatics page II;
(without stating that the action was unwanted) nà. (agentive caus: some action-fact)

sparrow

noun: stnÌt.

speak, talk

verb: wàx. (to someone-dat about something-acc; [in] some language-ins; see unit 14, ‘about’)

For sentence-initial phrases such as ‘speaking as your friend; metaphorically/logically/botanically speaking’, see pragmatics page III, Utterance modifiers: Pronoun referring to the parole.

speckled

adjective: (irregularly coloured) Racj-Ìzw. ( Ràcj Ìzwa. ‘colour erratically’)

spectacles, glasses

noun: yglùj.

spectator

noun: dmít (wìi). (‘inner agentive’)

speed, velocity

noun: fàt.

spicy

adjective: (hot, stinging) cnÌdj.

split

verb: (generally divide, break) skràp.;
(specifically split with an axe) wnàd. (both: dat; something-dat into something-acc [e.g. in two])

spoon

verb: (scoop with a spoon) leàg. (something-acc somewhere-dat etc.)

noun: leùg.

spouse

noun: dwèc. (tends to mean ‘husband’), dwìc. (tends to mean ‘wife’)

spring

noun: (season) RÌsw.

square

noun: (chess) cÌx.;
(mathematical function) lre-dwÌ. (of some value-dat; see unit 7, Mathematical functions)

square root

noun: lre-dwì. (of some value-acc; see unit 7, Mathematical functions)

squirrel

noun: (tree squirrel) ksmÌs.

stag

noun: prÌxt., pryxtÌx.

stallion

noun: Ìhw., yhwÌx.

stand

verb: (place a person upright) pàf. (someone-acc somewhere-dat etc.);
(of a person: stand upright) pìlf., (stand up, get up) pàf. (self-transporting: somewhere ditto)

(place an object upright, position vertically) àf Ìfi –e. ‘make the area upwards of the object into an area upwards [in the default coordinate system]’, or with other spatial verbs depending on the orientation of the object’s coordinate system (see unit 12, Orientation);
(of an object: stand upright, be positioned vertically) ìlf Ìfi –e.

(don’t move, stand still) jaxnà., (stop moving) jìRx. (self-transporting: somewhere ditto; or with other verbs of movement)

star

noun: mèqx.

starlight

noun: mÌqx.

start

verb: topicalisation of the ingressive (eR)

noun: (of an activity) inner ingressive

statue

noun: agmÌ.

steal

verb: klà. (dat: something-acc)

steer

verb: ràt. (something, especially a vehicle-acc, or someone; acc for the thing moved or dat for the thing manoeuvred, also metaphorically)

steradian

noun: (unit of solid angle) lre-dwÌ rÌi. (see appendix, Units of measurement)

still

adjective: (not moving) jaxnÌ.

adverb: (as before) negated topicalisation of the egressive (–iRnà.)

(concessive: nevertheless, …) negated pronoun in qualitative case, referring to main predicate of previous sentence (like ‘despite’ and ‘against’; see pragmatics page III, Non–utterance modifiers)

stone

noun: zmÌj.

story

noun: stÌd. (about something-dat, or as a sibling acc object in certain constructions that have ‘story’ in the fact; like ‘poem’ in unit 14, Objects related to language)

straight

adjective: pÌv.

straighten

verb: pàv. (dat; something-dat)

strange

adjective: (odd) (someone strange) xlèj.; (a strange deed, action, event) xlÌj.;
(foreign) mesortynÌ.

strength

noun: blìl.

strengthen

verb: blà. (dat; something-dat)

strong

adjective: blÌ.

stubborn

adjective: wèxp.

student

noun: (at school) skholì.; (at university) tìkf.

subject

noun: (someone ruled over) Rìc. (of a king or queen-nom);
(grammar) There is no difference between a subject and an object in Lemizh, i.e. Rìc. (of a predicate-nom)

suburb

noun: tyj-gmÌ. ( tÌj gmÌy. ‘a town outside’)

such

preposition: such as with partitive bracket (see example)

suck

phrase: suck milk xmlàg. (agentive dat: from a woman-nom)

sugar

noun: srÌx.

verb: jyxsràx. (something-dat)

suggest

verb: Ràks. (someone-dat [to do] something-acc; see unit 13, Overview of the modals)

suggestion

noun: Ràks.

sulfur

noun: zwlÌc. (symbol: Θ)

summarise

verb: rendà. (something-dat to somthing [a summary]-acc)

summary

noun: rendÌ.

Sun; Sol, Helios

proper noun: (star, god) sxnèz. (symbol: À)

Sunday

proper noun: corresponds to djUt-xmÌj. (‘Uranian day’, symbol: Ç; see appendix, Date)

sunlight, sunshine; sunbeam, sunray

noun: sxnÌz.

sunbeam, sunray as distinguished from sunlight, sunshine sxnyz.

sure

adjective: (person) dnìs.; (fact) dnÌs.

surface

noun: (overside, up-side) ilfnÌ., (outside hull) gmilnÌ. (of something-nom)

surprise

verb: fràx. (agentive caus, causal-reflexive: someone-nom)

noun: (feeling of surprise) fràx. (about something-acc/causal-transporting, also dat/causal-receiving; see unit 3, Ambiguous usage), (reason for surprise, something surprising) frÌx., frÒlx., also frìx. (ambiguous usage)

swan

noun: xaxpqÌ.

sweet

adjective: mlÌv.

noun: (sweetmeat, dessert) mlÌv.; (specifically sweetmeat, candy) Ìqt.

sweeten

verb: mlàv. (dat; something-dat)

sweetener

noun: mlùv.

sweetmeat, candy

noun: Ìqt.

sweet pepper, bell pepper

noun: (vegetable) zmyw-mlÌv.
(plant) zmywmlèv.

swell

verb: wlàgc. (self-transporting)

swim

verb, noun: (swim actively, propel through water) cnàk. (self-transporting: somewhere-dat etc.);
(swim passively, float) see float

swing

phrase: a pendulum swings keltàj.

sword

noun: glùt.

table

noun: Ìwd.

tail

noun: klÌt.

take

verb: dà. (agentive dat: something-acc from someone-nom)

phrases: take a breath xàz rÌy.; take a deep breath xàz rydmÌy. (both used literally)

tan

verb: wràf. (dat; something-dat)

noun: wrìlf.

tangent

noun: (trigonometric function) dy-fÌw. (of an angle etc.-dat; see unit 7, Mathematical functions)

tango

verb, noun: tamgà. (with someone-dat – the leader [usually the man] is in the nom and the follower [usually the lady] in the dat)

tar

noun: qlÌp.

taste

verb: djmà. (dat: something-nom; nom: of something-acc)

noun: djmÌ.

Taurus

proper noun: (constellation) strÌ. (the Bull; see appendix, Constellations)

tax

verb: ohrà. (dat: someone-nom)

noun: ohrÌ.

tea

noun: black/green/white tea (from the plant Camellia sinensis), spiced tea (beverage) txÌ.;
([dried] leaves) txì.

See txà. for different types of tea.

teach

verb: (general) gwàt.; (specifically in school) skholà. (both: someone-dat something-acc; something-acc to someone-dat [the latter could be translated as a progressive aspect])

teacher

noun: (general) gwèt.; (school teacher) skholè.

teacup

noun: gwalpUltxÌ.

tear

verb: (rip, rend) see rip

noun: (drop of liquid produced by the eyes) kÌst.

(tele)phone

noun: wixfùw. ( wàx fÌwi. ‘talk to someone far away’)

television, TV

noun: (medium; TV set) dmet-fùw. ( dmàt fÌwe. ‘see something far away’)

tell

verb: (say, narrate) wàx. (someone-dat [a story etc.-fact] about something-acc [in some language-ins]; see unit 14, ‘about’);
(command) dàxt. (someone-dat to do something-acc; see unit 13, Overview of the modals)

temple

noun: (house of worship) loxwÌ.; (monotheistic) loxwÌc.; (polytheistic) loxwÌj.;
(region of the head) melÌj.

ten

adjective, noun: dÌh.;
(in counting) dàh.

tennessine

noun: ksry-nÌs. (symbol: Πο)

tenth

noun: (1⁄10) ligzdÌh. (see unit 7, Fractions)

adjective: dìR|rh. (head noun as acc object; see unit 8, Ordinal numerals)

Terra, Tellus, Gaia

proper noun: (goddess, also the Earth when explicitly referred to as a planet among the others) djingmesrÌ. (symbol: Ã)

terrible

adjective: (someone terrible, someone doing terrible deeds) pnègc.; (a terrible deed, event) pnÌgc.

tesla

noun: (unit of magnetic flux density) 0.09983 × UdreÌ. (see appendix, Units of measurement)

testify

verb: xudjàs. (something-acc to someone-dat)

tetchy

adjective: (acting tetchily, in a hurt or bewildered way, in order to sneakishly get the better of someone) mrègz. (at someone-acc/dat)

text

noun: sràba., (loosely) srÌb. (by someone-nom; see unit 14, Objects related to language)

than

subordinating conjunction, preposition: qualitative coordination following the predicate tàcd. (see unit 11, Verbs of comparison), or a predicate compounded with tàcd. (see units 11, Comparative, and 15, Comparison clauses)

thank

verb: klàp. (someone-dat for something-acc)

phrase: thank you! klàp:

that

subordinating conjunction: accusative or sometimes persuasive (Ol) clause (see unit 15, ‘that’-clauses);
see also in order that, so that

demonstrative adjective and pronoun: (that one) tÌ. (or with a relative pronoun, if possible; see unit 6, Pronouns);
(that [one] there as opposed to ‘this [one] here’) fÌw. (see unit 12, Temporal and spatial verbs: Pronouns)

restrictive relative pronoun: partitive bracket or coordination with inner plot case (see unit 16, Restrictive relative clauses)

adverbial: that is (in other words) fà. plus accusative clause (see pragmatics page III, Utterance modifiers: Pronoun referring to the parole)

the

article: not translated; use a pronoun to translate the accompanied noun when possible. Using pronouns to refer to things that have already been introduced ensures that we are referring to the same things, not to new ones of the same kind: see these two examples in unit 6.
If the accompanied noun hasn’t been introduced, to expressly state that it exists (‘He sees the white mice’) use a topicalisation.

adverb: (indicating that something resulted in an increase of some property) consecutive clause with comparative e.g. … but I’m the wiser for it. mav-tácdil zèe.;
the … the …: positive comparison (see unit 11, Comparative)

their

possessive adjective: definite or relative pronoun or (male) Ìx., (female) bÌ., all as a genitive attribute, i.e. mostly with benefactive (U)
For an example see unit 6, Relative pronouns.

theirs

possessive pronoun: definite or relative pronoun or (male) Ìx., (female) bÌ., all as a genitive, i.e. mostly with benefactive (U)
For examples see unit 10, Stative verbs, and unit 11, Inner qualitative.

themselves

reflexive pronoun: see unit 6, Relative pronouns and Reflexivity vs. reciprocity

then

adverb: relative pronoun with outer temporal, referring to the relevant action;
tÌaR.;
(at a distant time) fÌwaR. (see unit 12, Temporal and spatial verbs)

there

adverb: (deictic: at this/that place) tÌar. (or with a relative pronoun, if possible; see unit 6, Pronouns);
(as opposed to ‘here’) fÌwar. (see unit 12, Temporal and spatial verbs)

(existential) untranslated, e.g. There is a strange war. nàgc xlÌja. (lit. ‘A strange war exists.’)

therefore

adverb: (expressing a causal relationship) tÌel., — tÌOl. (or with a relative pronoun, if possible; see unit 6, Pronouns);
(confirming an expectation) tmakÌ. (often in a bracket or compound with the expected object; see pragmatics page II, Pragmatic adverbs and expressives)

they, them

personal pronoun: definite or relative pronoun or (male) Ìx., (female) bÌ. (see unit 6, Demonstrative pronouns)

thick

adjective: (broad, wide) see broad (or with other spatial verbs depending on orientation);
(dense) Ìfx.

thief

noun: klè.

thimble

noun: wzinskrùc. ( wzù skrùci. ‘means of protecting a finger’)

thin

adjective: (not fat) mìl — pril-crÌyr. with the qualified noun in the acc (depictive, absorption possible) or dat (resultative) (see unit 12, Adjectivals; or with other weighting numerals);
inversion may be necessary for attributive use (see Attributes)

(not dense) ilfxcrÌ. (or with other weighting numerals)

think, thought

verb, noun: qàzg. ([about] something-acc [to oneself-dat])

third

noun: (1⁄3) ligztrÌ. (see unit 7, Fractions)

adjective: trìR|r. (head noun as acc object; see unit 8, Ordinal numerals)

thirteen

adjective, noun: Ìhs.;
(in counting) àhs.

thirteenth

noun: (1⁄13) ligzÌhs. (see unit 7, Fractions)

adjective: ìR|rhs. (head noun as acc object; see unit 8, Ordinal numerals)

this (one)

demonstrative adjective and pronoun: tÌ. (or with a relative pronoun, if possible; see unit 6, Pronouns);
(this [one] here as opposed to ‘that [one] there’) filw-crÌ. (or with other weighting numerals; see unit 12, Temporal and spatial verbs: Pronouns);
this week, year, Tuesday (= Tuesday this week) etc. tilcdnìR. (head noun as acc object; see unit 8, Ordinal numerals) Just use ‘Tuesday’ when clear from context.

thousand

adjective, noun: 3E8hex skmil-trynè ilj-ynbè xtÌne.

thousandth

noun: (1⁄1000 = 1⁄3E8hex) lÌgz skmiltrynì iljynbì xtÌni. (see unit 7, Fractions)

adjective: mìR|r skmil-trynÌ ilj-ynbÌ xtÌny. (head noun as acc object; see unit 8, Ordinal numerals)

thread

noun: grÌw.

three

adjective, noun: trÌ.;
(in counting) trà.

thrice

adverb: trÌa. (often a factive bracket; see unit 8, Multiplicative numerals)
thrice as fast etc. filttrìl. etc. (see unit 11, Comparative)

throat

noun: krÌst.

throw

verb, noun: làk., (reckless, aggressive) swàv. (something-acc somewhere-dat etc., also non-sending)

Thursday

proper noun: corresponds to djUt-xÌps. (‘Jovian day’, symbol: Å; see appendix, Date)

thus

adverb: (as a result, consequently, sentence-initial, announcing a consequence) ìl. plus consecutive clause (il);
(in this way) taà.

tiara

noun: dirÌ.

timber

noun: drÌt.

time

noun: làR.

adverbial: three times etc. trÌa. etc. (often a factive bracket; see unit 8, Multiplicative numerals)
three times as fast etc. filttrìl. etc. (see unit 11, Comparative)

tire

verb: jmRàs. (dat; someone-dat)

tired

adjective: jmRÌs.

Tlöngö̀l

proper noun: (the epic novel defining the onset of New Lemizh) tlOnÒl.

to

particle: (infinitive marker) not translated

preposition: (give/say something to a person etc.) dative object (i);

(to, until a time) egressive object (iR) only if the time is continuous (such as ‘daytime’ or ‘nighttime’);
gmilkÌiR –e. (‘inside’ in the egressive case, plus a reference object in the nominative; see unit 12, Adjectivals and ‘inside’ constructions);
egressive object with a fragmenting partitive;
(to a place) analogous, with the illative (ir);

(as judged by someone, That’s blue to me.) with a verb such as qàzg. ‘think’ or fràdj. ‘perceive’: ‘I think that is blue’, ‘I-dat perceive that-nom [as] blue-acc’ — but for ‘That’s new to me’ see new

today

adjective: djyt-tilcd-. (compare ‘tomorrow’)

together

adverb: compound of a pronoun with RynÌ. in a coordination with the object in question; see unit 8, Distributive numerals

tomato

noun: (vegetable) zmymw-xalÌ.;
(plant) zmymwxalè.

tomorrow

adjective: djyt-tilcd-. (‘next daytime’)
tomorrow night: ytfy‑tilcdrÌ.
the day after tomorrow djyttilcddwÌ.
etc.

tongue

noun: djmù.; (slightly vulgar if used outside the context of licking) smùv.

tonight

adjective: ytfy-tilcd-. (compare ‘tomorrow night’)

too

adverb: (more than enough, to an excessive degree) comparative (see unit 13, ‘enough’ and ‘too’);
(also, as well) see also

tooth

noun: (incisor) snùq.; (molar) vnùt.

tortoise, turtle

noun: fkrÌj.

toss

verb, noun: (throw) làk. (something-acc somewhere-dat etc., also non-sending);
(specifically throw upwards) làk ÌfUr. (ditto)

touch

verb, noun: ràqk. (something-dat)

towards

preposition: allative object (Ur)

tower

noun: prÌg.

toy

noun: ftÌx., ftìx. (the latter typically for dolls and stuffed toys)

train

noun: (railway train) ykhtÌcs. ( Ìkh tÙcsy. ‘ship benefitting from dry land’), (colloquial) tÙcs.;
(underground railway train, tube train) ykhtxÌb. ( Ìkh txÙby. ‘ship benefitting from tunnels’), (colloquial; especially in Shabar, the Lemizh capital) txÙb.

tram, streetcar

noun: ykhRÌzw. ( Ìkh RÙzwy. ‘ship benefitting from streets’), (colloquial) RÙzw.

tree

noun: drÌ.

trick, swindle

verb, noun: gwàh. (someone-dat)

triple, ternary

adjective: (threefold) trÌ.;
(to highlight the composite aspect, i.e. three parts forming a whole as opposed to one thing in three parts) krijtrì. (see unit 8, Composite numerals)

Trojan horse

noun: (metaphorical) xikÌ.

trombone

noun: krùw.

Troy

proper noun: (home country of the Troyans) droàr.

Troyan

proper noun, adjective: (person from Troy, pertaining to Troy) droÌ.

trumpet

noun: saxùf.

trumpet player

noun: saxèf.

try

verb, noun: fnà. ([to do] something-acc)

tuber

noun: kÌxw.

Tuesday

proper noun: corresponds to djUt-frÌg. (‘Martian day’, symbol: Ä; see appendix, Date)

tunnel

noun: txÌb.

Turkish Delight

noun: droUkrÌst. ( droÌ krÌstU. ‘Troyan thing [beneficient] for the throat’)

turn

verb: (rotate) xàxs. (self-transporting; something-acc);
(change orientation) with constructions such as those in Orientation in unit 12, typically with topicalised fact;
(become, change) mà. (something-dat into something-acc; dat: into something-acc)

turn out (prove, manifest) sklàg. (dat: to be something-acc)

turquoise

adjective: (blue-green) riljdkÌ.

noun: (turquoise colour) riljdkìl.

twelfth

noun: (1⁄12) ligzfrÌ. (see unit 7, Fractions)

adjective: frìR|r. (head noun as acc object; see unit 8, Ordinal numerals)

twelve

adjective, noun: frÌ.;
(in counting) frà.

twice

adverb: dwÌa. (often a factive bracket; see unit 8, Multiplicative numerals)
twice as fast etc. filtdwìl. etc. (see unit 11, Comparative)

twin

noun: dwjÌw.

twinkle

verb: xacgàzw. (at something-dat) ( xàcg Ìzwa. ‘shine erratically’)

twist

verb: (deform or break by torsion) tràd. (dat; something-dat into something-acc [e.g. into some shape, into parts, in two])

To distinguish the ‘deforming’ meaning from the ‘breaking’ meaning, use an acc object or – often simpler – a nominal verb expressing a shape, versus a nominal verb such as skràp. ‘split, turn into parts’ or dwà. ‘turn into two [parts]’.

two

adjective, noun: dwÌ.;
(in counting) dwà.

twofold, threefold etc.

adjective: (double, triple etc.) dwÌ., trÌ. etc.;
(to highlight the integritive aspect, i.e. one thing in two [or more] parts as opposed to two [or more] parts forming a whole) krijdwÌ. etc. (see unit 8, Composite numerals)

two hundred fifty-six (256)

adjective, noun: skmÌ.;
(in counting) skmà.

two hundred fifty-sixth

noun: (1⁄256) ligzskmÌ. (see unit 7, Fractions)

adjective: (256th) skmìR|r. (head noun as acc object; see unit 8, Ordinal numerals)

ugly

adjective: priljnÌ., priljkÌ.

ultimate

adjective: (last) jnìR|r. (head noun as acc object; see unit 8, Ordinal numerals)

umbrella

noun: wzùhk.

uncle

noun: (related by blood) frÌs., frysÌx. (of someone-nom)

under

preposition: (below) ilfkÌar.;
(to below) — ilfkÌir.;
(past a point below) — ilfkÌur. (all: something-nom; see unit 12, Adjectivals and Attributes for special constructions)

understand

verb: màpx. (self-receiving: something-acc)

undo, annul, destroy

verb: nà. (something-dat; also with inner cons for the object, see unit 6, ‘unknot’)

unemployed

adjective: nednì. ( nà nèdy. ‘no boss [exists]’)

unicorn

noun: ehwÌ.

unintentional

adjective: nÌo. (usually modifying gerund-like abstract nouns, i.e. those with inner fact)

Universe

proper noun: jnÌ.

university

noun: (institution) tàkf., tàlkf.;
(building, campus) tòrkf.

unless

subordinating conjunction: weak linking of a negated causative clause (see unit 15, Conditional clauses); among other possibilities (see Alternative translations)

unlock

verb: plàk. (something-dat, a lock-acc to something-dat)

until

preposition: egressive object (iR)

subordinating conjunction: egressive clause (see unit 15, Clauses with other conjunctions)

up

adverb, preposition: (to a place above) Ìfir., (from a place below) — ilfkÌer. (up something-nom; see unit 12, Adjectivals and Attributes for special constructions)

upper

adjective: mìl — Ìfar. with the qualified noun in the acc (depictive, absorption possible) or dat (resultative) (see unit 12, Adjectivals);
inversion may be necessary for attributive use (see Attributes)

uranium

noun: eÌfs. (symbol: Ει)

Uranus

proper noun: (planet) niftnÌj. (symbol: Ç)

Ursa Major

proper noun: (constellation) vmlÌv. (the Bear; see appendix, Constellations)

Ursa Minor

proper noun: (constellation) part of fxÌc.; the North Star is part of Rèc. (the Dragon and the King; see appendix, Constellations)

use

transitive verb: là. (something-ins); tool nouns can be absorbed when used for their typical purpose: e.g. use a knife (for cutting), cut with a knife gwrà.;
or with more specific verbs: e.g. use a chair for hitting something-dat, hit with a chair dwnàt drÌnzdu.

intransitive verb: (I used to do this) habitual past tense (see unit 12, Aspect)

noun: translated like the transitive verb; e.g. all the uses of chairs jnyà drÌnzdu.

useful

adjective: lagwùt. (for something: replace the compound’s head, là., with a more specific verb)

vacation

noun: anàkf.

vacuum

noun: milcnìl.

valley

noun: nÌw.

vector

noun: (mathematics) dnà.

venom

noun: pÌbc.

Venus, Aphrodite

proper noun: (goddess, planet) usrÌ. (symbol: Â)

very

adverb: dmÌa. (or with other weighting numerals)

Vesta

proper noun: (minor planet) bvyrgcÌ.

victory

noun: ràst., ràlst.

view

noun: (act of seeing) dmàt.; (range of vision) dmÌrt.; (something seen, something looked at, scenery) dmè(r)t.;
(mental viewpoint) qèrzg., qìrzg.

viewpoint

noun: (literal, optical sense) dmìrt.; (metaphorical, mental sense) qèrzg., qìrzg.

violet

adjective: (red-blue) glÌst.

noun: (violet colour) glìlst.

Virgo

proper noun: (constellation) trèw. (the Witch; see appendix, Constellations)

visible

adjective: dmat-gwèt.

visit

verb, noun: màst. (self-transporting: someone-dat)

vitamin

noun: crU-RÌjg. ( crÌ RàjgU. ‘a bit for life’)

volt

noun: (unit of voltage or magnetic current) 15.54 × disfÌk. (see appendix, Units of measurement)

vomit

verb: ilvnà.

vote

verb: jbàt. (for someone-dat for some office-acc; for something-dat)

noun: translated verbally, e.g. ‘I gave my vote to X’ = ‘I voted for X’, ‘Your vote is invalid’ = ‘You voted invalidly’.

Vulpecula

proper noun: (constellation) qkrÌdj. (the Artichoke; see appendix, Constellations)

wait

verb: wrìlks. (self-receiving, mainly dat)

wait! (request to get a turn in a conversation) wà., (repeated) — wày. (see pragmatics page III, Conversation structure)

waiter, waitress

noun: mèwd.

wake

verb: matnà. (self-receiving);
wake up mìRt.

walk

verb, noun: dnà. (self-transporting: somewhere-dat etc.; agentive caus: someone-acc somewhere-ditto);
(amble, stroll; walk without a specific aim) fràw. (self-transporting)

wall

noun: hlÌg.

waltz

verb, noun: xaxsà. (with someone-dat – the leader [usually the man] is in the nom and the follower [usually the lady] in the dat)

want

verb: làxt. (something-acc [from someone-dat]; [someone-dat] to do something-acc; or with the ‘someone’ as the agent of the acc; see unit 13, Overview of the modals)

war

verb, noun: nàgc. (with/against someone-dat)

warlike

adjective: lyxt-nègc.

warm

verb: gmrà. (dat; something-dat)

adjective: gmrÌ.;
(making warm, warming, as in ‘a warm coat’) gmrè.;
(feeling warm) gmrì.

warmth

noun: (property of being warm) gmrìl.; (warm location) gmrÌ.

wash

verb: hàc., (explicitly with water) hucxàf. (something-dat)

washing machine

noun: hic-bvrùc.

watch

verb: (look at something for a period of time) dmÌRt. (agentive dat: something-nom)

noun: (timepiece) ksfelù.

phrases: watch over wlàt. (dat: someone-nom);
watch television dmetfàw.

water

noun: xÌf.

verb: dyxàf (something-dat)

watt

noun: (unit of power) 355.5 × melÌs. (see appendix, Units of measurement)

we, us

personal pronoun: relative pronoun with inner partitive nominative (see unit 6, Relative pronouns)

weak

adjective: blil-crÌ. (or with other weighting numerals)

weaken

verb: blil-crà. (or with other weighting numerals), blakà. (dat; something-dat)

wear

verb: bvrìlc. (dat: some clothes-acc)

weather

noun: xÌps.

weave

verb: wmàb. (something-dat into something-acc)

weber

noun: (unit of magnetic charge or flux) 11.79 × OÌs. (see appendix, Units of measurement)

wedding

noun: dwàc.

Wednesday

proper noun: corresponds to djUt-Ìxk. (‘Mercurian day’, symbol: Á; see appendix, Date)

week

noun: djÌvf. (see appendix, Units of measurement, for usage)

weep

verb: kàst.

weigh

verb: (determine a weight) gwàt lìlty. (dat: something-acc [object of lìlt.]);
(have a weight) dìl. (dat: some weight-acc); lìlt. (acc: as much as something-qualacc; also resultative with dat and qualdat)

weight

noun: lìlt.

welcome

noun, phrases: (greeting) see greeting

phrase: you’re welcome (answer to ‘thank you’) Olnà. ( fÒly. ‘no reason [to thank]’)

west

noun: prilkexnÌ. (‘the back in Earth’s coordinate system’, as east is the direction in which Earth interacts with the Sun[rise], and – equivalently – the direction in which its surface is moving; symbol: g, i.e. a turned p)

adverb: (we went west) — prilkexnÌUr. (allative object)

Just use prilkÌ. if the context is clear.

whale

noun: gÌd.

what

interrogative pronoun: yd-. plus dative object with inner plot case, plus bracket (see unit 16, wh-questions)

whatever

subordinating conjunction: clause in a plot case with gwÌ. and a partitive bracket (see unit 15, Clauses with other conjunctions)

relative pronoun: gwÌ. forming a partitive bracket (see unit 16, Headless relative clauses)

wheel

noun: kùk.

when

subordinating conjunction: temporal clause (aR) (see unit 15, Clauses with other conjunctions)

relative adverb: bracket or coordination with inner temporal; in restrictive clauses, the bracket/coordination is sometimes partitive (see unit 16, Relative clauses)

interrogative adverb: [yd]. plus dative object with inner temporal (see unit 16, wh-questions)

whenever

subordinating conjunction: temporal clause (aR) with gwÌ. and a partitive bracket (see unit 15, Clauses with other conjunctions)

relative adverb: gwà. forming a partitive bracket with an object having an inner temporal (see unit 16, Headless relative clauses)

where

subordinating conjunction: locative (ar) or illative clause (ir) (see unit 15, Clauses with other conjunctions)

relative adverb: bracket or coordination with inner locative or illative; in restrictive clauses, the bracket/coordination is sometimes partitive (see unit 16, Relative clauses)

interrogative adverb: [yd]. plus dative object with inner locative or illative (see unit 16, wh-questions)

wherefore

subordinating conjunction: factive (a), consecutive clause (il) or the like, often in a bracket, with inner causative (el) or persuasive (Ol) (see unit 16, Attributive and adverbial clauses)

wherever

subordinating conjunction: locative (ar) or illative clause (ir) with gwÌ. and a partitive bracket (see unit 15, Clauses with other conjunctions)

relative adverb: gwÌ. forming a partitive bracket with an object having an inner locative or illative (see unit 16, Headless relative clauses)

whether

interrogative pronoun: la. plus accusative object, often with inner factive (see unit 16, Polar questions)

which

relative pronoun: bracket or coordination with inner plot case; in restrictive clauses, the bracket/coordination is sometimes partitive (see unit 16, Relative clauses)

interrogative pronoun: yd-. plus dative object with inner plot case, plus partitive bracket (see unit 16, wh-questions)

subordinating conjunction: factive (a), consecutive clause (il) or the like, often in a bracket, with inner plot case (see unit 16, Attributive and adverbial clauses)

whichever

relative pronoun: gwÌ. forming a partitive bracket (see unit 16, Headless relative clauses)

while

subordinating conjunction: temporal clause (aR);
to specify that an event occurs while another is in progress: temporal clause with gmilkÌ. (or fragmenting partitive), or episodic clause (oR) if the time is intentional (see unit 15, Clauses with other conjunctions)

whisper

verb: fpràf. (something-acc to someone-dat)

white

adjective: lÌbv.; (pure white) lilbvjnÌ.

noun: (white colour, whiteness, lightness in colour) lìlbv.; (pure whiteness) lilbvjnìl.

whiten

verb: làbv.; (make pure white) lilbvcnà. (dat; something-dat)

who, whom

relative pronoun: bracket or coordination with inner plot case; in restrictive clauses, the bracket/coordination is sometimes partitive (see unit 16, Relative clauses)

interrogative pronoun: [yd]. plus dative object with inner plot case (see unit 16, wh-questions)

whoever, whomever

subordinating conjunction: clause in a plot case with gwÌ. and a partitive bracket (see unit 15, Clauses with other conjunctions)

relative pronoun: gwÌ. forming a partitive bracket (see unit 16, Headless relative clauses)

why

relative adverb: bracket or coordination with inner causative or persuasive; in restrictive clauses, the bracket/coordination is sometimes partitive (see unit 16, Relative clauses)

interrogative adverb: [yd]. plus dative object with inner causative or persuasive (see unit 16, wh-questions)

wild-goose chase

noun: krat-ylàs. (for someone/something-acc) ( kràt ylÌsa. ‘a vain hunt’)

win

verb: ràst. (dat: something-acc)

wind

noun: xnÌt., (poetic, personifying) xnèt.

window

noun: jmÌxt.

phrase: doors and windows jmÌ.

wine

noun: mÌjd.

winter

noun: qÌs.

wire

noun: kRÌj.

wisdom

noun: (acting, speaking, thinking wisely) màv.;
(wise saying, piece of wise advice) wexmÌv.

wise

adjective: (someone wise) mèv.; (a wise deed, saying, thought) mÌv.

wish

verb: làxt. (something-acc [from someone-dat]; [someone-dat] to do something-acc; see unit 13, Overview of the modals)

noun: làxt., làlxt.; (the wished thing, as in ‘My greatest wish is to dance.’) lÌxt.

wit

noun: màsk.

witch

noun: trèw.

witchcraft

noun: tràw.

with

preposition: (accompanied by) comitative object (O);
(by means of) instrumental object (u);
(having, as in ‘a river with a dam) bracket with inverted genitive, i.e. mostly with inner benefactive

without

preposition: (not accompanied by) nÌ.-modified comitative object (O);
(without the means of) nÌ.-modified instrumental object (u);
(not having) bracket with inverted genitive – i.e. mostly with inner benefactive – that is also a nÌ.-modified object (e.g. a river without a dam: argÌ wemynÙy.)

witness

verb: (perceive, observe) fràdj. (dat: something-nom; or with other perceptual verbs);
(formally, e.g. a wedding or the signing of a document) frodjà. (dat: something-nom);

(testify) xudjàs. (something-acc to someone-dat)

noun: (someone observing, e.g. a wedding) frodjì. (of something-nom);
(someone testifying, e.g. at court) xudjès. (of something-acc)

witty

adjective: (someone witty) mèsk.; (a witty deed, saying, thought) mÌsk.

wolf

noun: xrÌw.

wood

noun: (forest) tfÌd.;
(material of trees) drÌt.

wooden

adjective: drÌti. (see unit 5, Material)

woodland

noun: (especially regarding the fauna) proxòrkh.

woodland creature

noun: proxÌkh.

wool

noun: xlÌ.

woolly

adjective: (producing wool) xlè.;
(made of wool) — xlÌi. (see unit 5, Material);
(textured as if made of wool) — xlÌim.

word

noun: wrÌt.

adverbial: in other words fà. plus accusative clause (see pragmatics page III, Utterance modifiers: Pronoun referring to the parole)

work

verb: (do a task or job) kRà.;
(specifically with one’s hands) cmàk.;
(specifically with one’s fingers) skràc.

(be in operation, function) smrà.

noun: kRà.

world

noun: (inhabited/habitable world as opposed to the sky or mythological/religious places) xnàr.;
(Universe) jnÌ.

worm

noun: jrÌ.

write

verb: sràb. (something [e.g. a letter]-fact about something-acc to someone-dat — the fact object also needs an inner fact or is absorbed by ‘write’; see unit 14, Objects related to language and the last exercise there);

(specifically with a pen or quill) cnàzd. (ditto);
(specifically with a pencil) zdrà. (ditto)

wrong

adjective: (made wrong) vìsk., (being wrong, being an error) vÌsk.; (not right) piltnÌ.

year

noun: (solar year) OtÌ. (see appendix, Date and Units of measurement for usage);
(lunar year) OteihkÌ. ( OtÌ ihkèe. ‘a year made by the Moon’; see appendix, Moon calendar)

yellow

adjective: dÌv.

noun: (yellow colour, yellowness) dìlv.

verb: dàv. (dat; something-dat)

yelp

verb, noun: hrà. (at someone-dat)

yes, uh-huh

particle: (answering a question) Ì. (see unit 16, Polar questions);
(agreeing to a statement) fÌ. (see pragmatics page III, Conversation structure)

yesterday

adjective: djyt-tilcd-ril-kÌ. (‘the previous daytime’)
the day before yesterday djyttilcddwilkÌ.
etc.

yet

adverb: (finally, later than expected, as in ‘Has he come yet?’) see finally;
(however, as in ‘He helped me a lot. Yet he didn’t feed my badger.’) see however

you

personal pronoun: relative pronoun with inner dative (see unit 6, Relative pronouns)

young

adjective, noun: (general) see new;
(not having reached puberty; child) cnÌ.

your

possessive adjective: relative pronoun with inner dative as a genitive attribute, i.e. mostly with benefactive (U)
For an example see unit 6, Relative pronouns.

yours

possessive pronoun: relative pronoun with inner dative as a genitive, i.e. mostly with benefactive (U)
For examples see unit 10, Stative verbs, and unit 11, Inner qualitative.

yourself, yourselves

reflexive pronoun: see unit 6, Relative pronouns and Reflexivity vs. reciprocity

Zarathustra

proper noun: (ancient philosopher and poet) zaraqÌht.

zoologist

noun: zvy-qrè.

zoology

noun: zvy-qrà.